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A Poem in Norman -French, 







Jlarrarj U'lTer^'-n 
rpcc: U.C Librar>- of 





l^riuttb at t^t 9Lttibtnitji K^ttts. 




T H E M K M O R Y 




rjlHE poem here published is edited from a MS. [e. i. 40] preserved in the 
-L Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and of which only this one* copy is 
believed to be extant. Besides being unique, it has claim to a special notice as 
being traditionally the composition of no less a personage than Matthew Paris, and 
his own handwriting. The evidence for this is based on statements of Stowe and 
Ussher, given in Sir F. Madden's edition of Paris' " Historia Anglorum ", Vol. m., 
Pref. liii. Stowe's words (Annales, 1631, p. 43) are as follows: — "Matthew 
Paris, a munke of St. Alban, turned out of Latine prose into French verse the 
life and martyrdom of St. Alban and Amphibalus, both of which bookes I have seen** 
Archb. Ussher's testimony is to the following effect (Brit. Eccl. Antiq. v. 190):— 
'' Hoc dramate tantopere delectatus est Matthaeus (Parisiensis) ut illud in metrum 
Gallicum nova metaphrasi transfuderit. Gallicum illud Matthaei cum Latino 
Guilielmi et Radulphi opere conjunctum habetur in codice MS. ecclesiae 
S. Albani ab Henrico VI. donato". 

On the statements of these two writers. Sir F. Madden remarks : — " They 
must both have derived this information from the same source, namely, a manu- 
script still fortunately preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, which 
contains the French Life referred to, together with the Latin original, and other 
legends of the same saints. It does not appear on what precise grounds Stowe 
and Ussher gave the above statement, but it is certain it could not have been 
from mere conjecture ". The learned editor quotes also a passage of Walsing« 
ham, to the effect that M. Paris " Vitas SS. Albani, Thomae, et Edmundi, am-^ 
scripsit et depinxit elegantissime ". 

The joint evidence of these three writers seems sufficient to furnish a fair 
ground of belief in the authorship of M. Paris, till proof to the contrary should be 

The Latin prose life, which M. Paris turned into French verse, is also 
contjuned in our I^IS., and of its origin the following account is given by Archb. 

* Sk T. D. Hirdy in hli " DescriptiTe Citalogne/' Vol. t., p. 1 5, note, makes mentson oTi FktBch Life of St. 
AHmoi and St. Amphibaliit , in MS. Cott* Vittll. D. viii., which MS. is now lost ; this may ponOily hare been 



Ussher, (Works, Vol. v., p. 183). After enumerating the "acta antiqua martyrii 
S. Albani ", he adds, " cum quibus et vetustissimum de iisdem volumetty primaevo 
Verolamiensium idiomate conscriptum, plane consensisse, in historia abbatum 
S. Albani refert Matthaeus Parisiensis ". According to the Gesta of Eadmer, 
while repairs were being carried out in the middle of the old city, the workmen 
having pulled down the foundation of an old palace, this venerable volume was 
found "incujusdam muri concavo depositum quasi armariolo"; it was in good 
preservation, considering its age, the handwriting clear, and the characters dis- 
tinct, but unfortunately, nobody could read the book ; " tandem unum senem jam 
decrepitum invenerunt, sacerdotem Uteris bene eruditum, nomine Unwonam ; qui, 
imbutus diversorum idiomatum Unguis ac Uteris, legit distincte et aperte scripta 
libri. Erat enim litera, qualis scribi solet tempore quo cives Werlamecestrani 
inhabitabant ; et idioma antiquorum Briianunty quo tunc temporis utebantur". 
The first book of this volume contained the history of St. Alban, the other 
books described certain ** invocationes et ritus idolatrarum civium, in quibus com- 
perit quod specialiter Phcebum Deum Solis invocaverunt et coluerunt". The good 
monks consequently rejected the books which contained these " commenta Dia- 
boli," and had the history translated by the old priest Unwona. After which, 
says the chronicler, " exemplar primitivum ac originale, quod mirum est dictu, 
irrestaurabiliter in pulverem subito redactum cecidit annullatum "• Such is the 
traditional account of the original of the life of our protomartyr, and it is no doubt 
true. Nothing is known of the fate of this Latin translation by Unwona, but another 
account was furnished by William, a monk of St. Alban' s, two hundred years 
after, as Ussher says, — *^ ex vulgar i Anglicano'\ and this version, at the request 
of WiUiam himself, was paraphrased in elegiacs by Ralph of Dunstable. The 
tale had evidently become common, as indeed was to be expected, so that in his 
preface WiUiara can mention two sources, (i) the liber Anglico sermone con- 
scriptus, which he foUowed in his translation, and which he supplemented, so far 
at least as the name of Amphibalus is concerned, firom (a) the history, " quam Gau« 
fridus Arturus de Britannico in Latinum se vertisse testatur ". This version of 
Greo&ey of Monmouth was seemingly made firom the same language as that of 
Unwona, viz., the old British, but whether from a copy, or a variation, or a totally 
different account, cannot of course be determined. 

Whatever the origin of this Latin prose narrative of William, there is no 
doubt that Stowe's statement is correct, as to its being the original of the French 
poem. Ln our MS., we have both the poem of Ralph, and the prose of William, 
neither of which, however,* I have deemed it necessary or expedient to print here. 


AS the poem is far too exciirsive and difiuse, and the prose narrative is to be found 
in the "Acta Sanctorum", June 22, (Vol. iv., p. 149, seqq.) 

The MS. copies of this prose life are numerous enough, as may be seen by a 
reference to " Hard/s Catal.", (Vol. i.. pt. i., p. 4, seqq.) and there are further 
several MS. copies of a translation of the French poem into English verse, by 
Lydgate, which translation was printed at St. Albans, 1234, 4to, by John Hert- S 
ford. The colophon (Hardy, p. 23) to the MSS. expressly states, that the Eng- 
lish translation was made " out of Frensh and Latytiy bi Dan John Lidgate, at 
the requeste of Maister John Whetehamstede, Abbot of Se)mt Albons ", in 1439, 
That Lydgate was familiar with Dunstaple's work, is evident from the begin- 
ning lines of his version, but his obligations to the French poem are not deter- 
minable because the prose Latin life furnishes nearly the same details. The 
whole story may be read in English in Enderbie's " Cambria Triumphans " [Ed. 
1661], p. 160 seqq. 

Among the scraps of contemporary reference,* is a marginal note on fol. 22, as 
foUows : — '^ Hoc de libro Johannis Mansel ". This Sir John Mansel was a great 
favourite of Henry III., who made him Chancellor of England, and he is known to 
have died about 1 264. Now M. Paris several times in different parts of his writings 
has occasion to mention this John Mansel, so that it is not impossible that there 
may have been some intercourse between the two men. The note evidently was 
written by the same hand and at the same time as the rest of the page, and indi- 
cates a book borrowed, and from which certain details had been taken ; among 
others, the few lines written below in the margin, and referring to St. Alban, 
*<erat namque dux et magister militiae totius Britahniae". I think also, that it is 

this reference, two other individuals are mentioned in the notes on foL 2, rect, which notes are 
oafaitniately neariy as inconclusive. The personages there referred to are, i*, Isabella, Countess of Arundel, and 
f«, Maie Coontess of Winchester (I presume), who unluckily is not named. Curiously enough, there is somewhat 
of a dificttlty in the matter of both, just at the epoch of Matthew Paris. For with the death of Roger de Quincy 
in 1264, the Earldom of Wuichester became extinct, and was not revived till 1322, In the person of the elder 
Prffntfi , aad thb Countess therefore was probably the last of that family. The second case of the Countess of 
Anndd ii oiore complicated. On the death of Hugh de Albini, fourth Earl of Arundel, without issue, in 1243, 
th« citaUs devolved upon the Earl's sisters as co-heiresses. Through the second of these, Isabella, who 00 the 
of the pfo pa ty came into possession of the Arundel estates (which carried the title), the Earidom was 
to her son, John Fita-Alan, as her husband had died before her brother, in 1239. I do not, however,' 
whether the title of Countes could be taken by the widow in such a case. But thb John Flta-Alan, the 
fifth Earl, left issue John, sixth Earl, who married Isabel de Mortimer, and died in 1270 ; and it is peihaps to this 
lady that the note refers. If the tradition of the origin of the MS. be accepted, this would accord fairly enough 
with the period assigned to its composition. And it can hardly be avoided, as the next Isabella we meet was the 
daagktcr of Hugh le Despenser, who was married to the ninth Eari, Richard Fltx-Alan, which would throw the 
MS. iato the early part of the fowteenth century. 


viii PREFACE. 

not too much to infer that Johannes Mansel was alive at the time when this 
extract was made. This would accord perfectly with the traditional account of 
the composition of the work, for M. Paris was appointed historiographer to St. 
Alban's in 1236, between which period and 1250 he is held to have composed 
this French poem. 

But while we may fairly accept the traditional account of the composition of the 
poem by Paris, the question as to the handwriting of our present MS. is, and 
must continue to be, a matter simply of individual opinion, and determined by 
the value set on tradition in general. As the handwriting of the MS. is unques- 
tionably the so-called Paris handwriting, this smaller question is included under 
the wider problem, who was the writer of the MSS. generally attributed to 
M. Paris. This point has been examined in considerable detail, and with gpreat 
acuteness and technical knowledge, by Sir T. D. Hardy, inhis Catal., Vol. iii., Pref. 
lii. seqq., where he concludes against the assumption of the handwriting's being 
that of M. Paris himself.* I am not, however, convinced by the arguments of the 
learned editor, and in particular I think he has not allowed for the personal equa- 
tion in this question of handwriting. General considerations as to the quantity 
of writing that a scribe could get through in the course of a laborious life, really 
depend so entirely on the circumstances and on the writer, that it is nearly 
useless relying on them for any special case. At the same time, I assent entirely 
to the view that identity of style in writing by no means implies identity of scribe; 
and in the regulated forms of the handwriting accomplished in the scriptoria, in- 
dividuality was probably the last thing encouraged. As the point, however, is 
clearly indeterminable, I doubt the propriety of re-opening the question, and shall 
only add that as there is no counter-evidence, I accept the tradition that M. Paris 
did personally write this our French poem, and draw the illustrations, but as the 

* In CataL Brit. Hist., VoL iii., Pref. IzL, Sir T.D. Hardy uses the following argument, as subversive of the allega« 
tion that M. Paris wrote the fiur copies of his works : viz., in several pUces the fxrpfaX. prays for the rtposeoftht 
soul of M. Paris, After quoting the passages, the last of which is as follows : <* hunc librum dedit frater 
M. Paiisiensis [dec et ecclesiae S. Albani]. Anima Matthaei et animae omnium fidelium defimctorum requiescant 
in pace ", Sir T. D. Hardy adds : ** that a living monk should write * requiescat in pace ' upon his own soul is entirely 
beyond belief, and I would venture to ask whether any parallel case or instance can be produced." 

I think there can. In the Preface to Zeuss* Grammatica Celtica^ p. xviii, occurs the following note : " Ad codids 
calcem charactere ut in omnibus sen titulis sen subscriptionibus miniato legitur : In honore individue trinitoHs 
Marianus ScoUus scripsii hunc librum suis fratribus peregrinis, Anima eius requiescat in pace, propter 
deum deuaU dicite. amen ". Zeuss adds : " Haec vivum Marianum fiituris peregrinis gentis suae dicere jam 
Lambedns patavit ; neater saltern, nee Lambedus, nee Denisius, ultimam glossam a diversa manu additara esse 


rubrics, though in a very similar handwriting, difier somewhat in the language, 
I think they are probably by another hand, — a hand trained, however, in the 
school of Matthew Paris. 

Of the history of our MS., little is known. Sir F. Madden, loc. cit.^ has the 
following note : " I have not seen the MS., but think it probable that the portion 
from fbl. 3 to fol. 50, including the drawings, is from the hand of Paris. This volume 
may be the very one noticed by Walsingham, [yid. supra^"] but it is now muti- 
lated and imperfect. Ussher says that this MS. was presented by Henry VI. to 
St. Alban's, but the memorandum on fol. i, 3, he refers to, seems only to mean 
that the volume was shewn to Henry at a council held at Westminster". This 
suggestion of Sir F. Madden seems based on the notice given in Hardy'§ Catal., 
Vol. i., Pt. i., p. 15, where the MS. note is quoted as follows: — "Rex Henricus 
Sextus essens ad Concilium magnum Westmonasterii tentum .... hunc librum visus 
est et ad hoiv>rem .... gloriosi Martyris Albani." [I must regret that Sir D. 
Hardy's authority in the transcription of this note should have been so untrust- 
worthy, or rather incapable, for the passage is not as here given. How a Latin 
writer could be imagined guilty of such a phrase as " essens ad concilium," I do 
not understand, but the words are quite plainly written, and to a capable reader 
unmistakable, viz : " exiens ad consilium."] Ussher's words are, " In Codice 
Ecclesie S. Albani ab Henrico Anglorum rege danato," To such presentation Sir 
F. Madden objected the statement of the note in the MS., (as given in Hardy, loc. 
dt^ and which he interpreted as above, that " the volume was shcion to Henry " ; 
but this cannot be the meaning of the words "Henricus hunc librum visus est". 
Part of the note is missing, as there was evidently something more to be said, 

*'et ad honorem gloriosi martiris Albani . . . ." As the note stands, 

the words visus est are a difficulty which I have not been able to solve, but as 
the sentence is incomplete, it is unnecessary to do more than to call attention to 
that fiict. I shall only add, that I cannot think that Ussher based his account of 
iht presentation of the MS. to the monastery wholly on this note. 

The MS. [Saec. xiii.] itself is a small quarto* (10 x 7), of 77 foil., in two 
columns, each of thirty-seven lines. It contains several treatises, not all in the 
same hand, but all bearing on St. Alban. A note on fol. 3 describes it in 
these terms : — " Hie est liber ecclesiae Sancti Albani, prothomartiris de arma- 

* It luH been t«7 cartlestly boond ; one or two foU. of the begiimiiig of the Fktnch Vit luiTt been lost, aad 
ML St ttiU miq^lacod. 


riolo* A". It was evidently a MS. on which considerable value was set, as 
may be seen from the note on the fly-leaf, quoted below. 

The following is a brief summary of the contents : — 
foil. 1-2. — Miscellaneous. 

i> 3-1 9» — ^Latin poem in elegiacs, on the life of St. Alban. 

„ 30-28. — Latin prose history of the life. 

„ 29-50. — French poem, "Vie de St. Auban". 

„ 50-52. — Latin treatises on the finding of Alban's body, 

„ 53-62. — Latin treatises referring to the Saint's life. 

„ 62-66. — Latin charters of Offa and Ecgfridus, relative to the lands of St. Alban's. 

„ 66^72. — Latin treatises (continued from fol. 62), 

„ 73-77. — ^Latin prose account of miracles performed at the Saint's tomb. 

The Paris handwriting is found on foil. 3-50, and on foil. 73-77, but foil. 51-72 
are in a different hand and style. The French rubrics run throughout the French 
poem, and afterwards continuously, though with no relation to the text, down to 
fol. 63 rect. They are written by the same hand throughout, perhaps by the 
writer of the poem. Foil. 29-63 contain fifty-three coloured designs, in illustration 
of the text up to fol. 50, after which only the rubrics and illustrations agree. The 
drawings are good, but the colouring is monotonous : the illuminator seems to 
have had nothing at his disposal but green and red, with a small portion of blue 
and slate. From fol. 51, there is a change observable, denoting perhaps some 
interval of time, for the illustrations t are differently coloured, and contain a thin 
sprinkling of gilt, the horses being here and there shaded with blue, but they 
are the work of the same artist, for the outlines of the faces are the same in the 
two parts. The pervading tone of all the illustrations is that of a thin, unplea- 
sant green. On the other hand, in the capital letters, the colouring is exclusively 
either blue or red, there being curiously only one single letter in the whole MS. 
(a Q on fol. 29, z), in which the body is entirely green. 

A two-lined rubric runs along the top of the pages, and throughout the French 
poem, a two-lined rubric in Latin finishes the page, with some omissions. 

fol. I, rect. is blank; 

fol. I, vers, contains the following note, written at the top : — 

erissimus rex Henricus Sextus exiens ad consilium magnum .... 

* Concerning the armariolus or book-case, v. Sir F. Madden's introduction to his edition of M. Paris' 
** Historia Anglomm,*' Vol. I., Pref. pp. xi., xii. 

t The whole series of illastrations, dresses, armour, building implements and materials, chuzch*be]ISy &Cy is 
noteworthy, and would repay careful study by a competent authority. 


Westmonisterrii tentum hunc librum visus est et ad honorem gloriosi 

martyris Albani. 

fol. 29 rect. is patched, and contains fragments of writing not always legible. 
On the left side of the page are some "versus memoriales" : — 

JL err* •••••• 



Cum medio .... lucescit .... 
Prati fena lego, coUecta sub horrea lego. 
Cum Cereris dono Bachi labamina dono. 
Exprimo de malis potum nisi mandere malis. 
Terram cultor aret folium cum maret et aret. 
Est mihi pluris ara porcorum quam Jovis ara. 
Gaudeo secure porcum mactando secure. 
On the right are mere fragfments : — 

I. [dilijg^ntia et labore quoque plenius declaratur. 

2 hunc libellum si placet latine 

3. Mittatis si placet ad dominam comitissam Harundell. Isabellam ut mittat 
▼obis librum de Sancto Thoma* Martyre et [Sancto Aedjwardo quem transtuli et 

protraxi [ ] terit domina comitissa Harund [ ] usque ad pentecostem. 

fol. 2, vers, contains : — 

Part of an outline drawing of a lady with a child in her lap ; on the left are 

some lines, referring doubtless to the picture : — ] impones super eum 

misericordiam tuam, quaeso, Domine intercedendo beato Cendo[ ] cessore 

tuo nobis in [ ] et visum oculorum me[ ] placatus suffragiis 

mihi [ jatori (trici) restaura et ilium illaese . . . . , et stabilem in vita mea 

conserva, post istius vitae decursum ad lumen transferas sempitemum, p. Dicatur 

ter pater noster in honorem [Sanctjorum ; . Laurentii Nigasii 

Gre]lasii et Leodogarii. 

Below are several verses in French, with an almost illegible Latin note to the 
left :•— In Libro comitissae Wint. (?) binae imagines in singulis paginis francesis, 
[probably referring to the illustrations of St. Auban]. To the right come these 
French lines, almost entirely obliterated, each referring to an apostle or saint, with 
some notable ciramistance of the life of each: — 

Jacobus. Sue merci Deus me eschoisi e apostle apela. 

Johannes. Bien me out Deus cher quant k garder sa mere me livra. 

* Ferhapt tUs miy have been one of the Tolumes refenred to in the itatemcnt of Waliingham, quoted 
i«/fv,'p. 2tL 

xii preface;. 

Andreas. £n croiz me misti lier me fist^ Egee li felun. 

Thomas. Ki en Deu croit, pas nel voit, par moi ad benei9un. 

Marcus. Jo fu de Turs jadis pastors e avant chevaler. 

Nicholas. Par ki fu, e Messie ke Deus plut jiuncier. 

Albanus. Li premers fu ki pur Jesu mort sufri en Brettainne. 

Amphibalus. Auban par moi guerpi la foi, k'alme entusche e mahainne. 

Leonardus. De ki m'a en sa memoire. 

Egidius. Par beste mue fu lors tenue ma vie en ma hermitoire. 

[....] Du temple hissi, despit, huni, pur 90 ke enfant n'oi mie. 

Anna. De moi nasqui cele de ki fu nez li haut Messie. 

On fol. 3, rect., begins the Latin poem containing the life of St. Auban, attri- 
buted to Ralph of Dunstable : — 

Albani celebrem coelo terrisque triumphum : 
Ruminat inculto carmine Clio rudis. &c. 

[As a detailed description of the remaining contents of the MS. may be found 
in "Hardy's Catal. of Brit. Hist.", Vol. L, pt. i., pp. 13-18, it is unnecessary to 
repeat it here.] 

A few marginal notes occur in the Latin lines, as follows: — 

fol. 22 f rect. " Hoc de libro Johannis Mansel. [Erat namque dux et magister 
militiae totius Britanniae.] " 

fol. 22, vers. "Nota quod beatus Albanus civis et indigeha fuit Verolami 
natus et genitus, dicit enim quod genus in civitate habuit, ab antiquis tamen 
Romanis derivatum, sicut Walenses a Trojanis". 

fol. 25, vers. "Hoc apud Lichefeld evenit. Inde Lichfeld dicitur quasi 
'campus cadaverum'; 'Lich ' enim Anglice 'cadaver' sive 'corpus mortui' 

In one rubric (fol. 57, rect.], mention is made of IIolmAurt, and in the charters 
fol. 63, we have some local notices, which apparently add nothing to our know 
ledge from other sources. 

It remains that I should briefly indicate the reasons which have urged me to 
the publication of this Old French poem, and the method I have pursued in 
endeavouring to accomplish my task, — in other words, to state the wAy and Aow 
of this edition. 

The Norman invasion of England has left indelible traces on 6Ur speech, 
which seem to deserve a much closer investigation than they have had. The 

PREFACE. xiii 

influences exerted on the vocabulary, pronunciation, inflection, syntax, and 
idiom, have never yet been duly weighed, nor their action fairly considered. 
The position of Norman-French in England after the Conquest was something 
like that of Latin in Gaul : it was the language that was to be studied by all who 
were desirous of promotion or influence in the State. In social life, in religious 
matters, in the pleadings of the law courts, Norman was the recognised medium 
of communication, and to be ignorant of Norman was to be shut out from all 
chance of position or dignity. But the fates of the alien languages have been 
very difl»srent in Gaul and in Britain. While in Gaul, the conquered nation 
rapidly absorbed the language of the new masters to such an extent as even to 
produce orators and poets whose fame became celebrated in the central Rome, — 
in Britain the foreign language was never accepted by the people, and died of 
inanition. The bastard Anglo-Norman of some documents gives a kind of hint 
as to what might have been the particular Romance tongue here spoken, 
had the people adopted it. But it was not to be. The English people held fast 
to the Englisce spraec. The political severance of France and England after 
the wars of Edward III., and in particular the loss of Normandy under King 
John, naturally threw the Normans in England into the arms of the people. The 
change was soon felt, for in 1362 the French language was so much <<imknown," 
that the pleadings in the law courts were directed to be conducted in English. 
It is just at this period that our great English writers begin : 1 300-1 400 includes 
Maundeville, Wyclifi*, Chaucer. French influence had thus been operative for 
about three centuries, taking as the starting point the accession of Edward the 
Confessor (1042), and ending with the cessation of the use of French in the law 
courts (1362). Ten grenerations of vigorous life may be expected to have left pro- 
found traces of their existence even after sixteen generations. The curiosities of 
Jersey law are a remnant (and a travesty) of the old Norman institutions ; through 
Britain are scattered old Norman castles, imposing in the dignity of their ruin ; 
but the most lasting, and indeed imperishable monument of the conquerors, is to 
be found in the language of the people by whom they were absorbed and assimi- 
lated. But while the antiquarian and archaeologer have carefully noted and 
examined the remnants of laws and customs, implements and buildings, &c., the 
linguist has not proceeded with equal care, zeal, or constancy. It is to this defect 
that I desire to call the attention of our scholars : the history of our English lan- 
gnagt is altogether onesided if it does not embrace the period of the Norman-French, 
m-hich bridges over in some small degree the gulf between Saxon and English^ 



and which has a higher claim to our consideration as having been the matrix of 
our early English literary work. It is not, perhaps, necessary to urge the import- 
ance of a sound knowledge of the French language in its early form as a funda- 
mental requisite of a fair inquiry. It is, however, not quite so imnecessary to 
remind the investigator that the knowledge of only Modern French bears about 
the same relation to the problems of linguistic research in this field, as the know- 
ledge of only the construction of modem villa-residences bears to the problems of 
archaeological research : in either case the knowledge is inadequate, and may be 
misleading. It must be studied in its older form. But Old French had (at least) 
three great dialects, disting^uished by more than merely phonetic or orthographic 
diflFerences, viz., the Burgundian dialect, the Picard, and the Norman. Now, if an 
English student would learn Old French, it is evident that he should seek to 
study it primarily in that form under which alone it stood in immediate relation 
with our speech, viz., the Norman dialect. A French student will naturally 
regard all the dialects of his native tongue as of equal importance, and a Grerman 
scholar may study them all indiflFerently, as not being specially concerned in any 
one ; but to the English student, there is only this one dialect of absolute and 
permanent interest — ^his own Norman. We should not forget that it is to an 
English subject we are indebted for the first great models of French in this 
dialect. In his "Brut" and "Rou," the Jerseyman Wace has left two works that 
are as important historically as they might be linguistically, though they seem 
only lately to have come to the firont in our histories, and are even yet not acces- 
sible in their Norman forms, as written in England. My motive, then, in editing 
this small poem, is to aid the English student in the acquisition of this one 
dialect, to furnish the means for obtaining a firm grasp of the actual forms of the 
Norman language employed by the educated men of those times — the poets, cour- 
tiers, historians, of early England. The multiplicity of forms which are met with 
in the whole range of Old French, and of which the handbooks of Burguy and 
Bartsch give a tolerable idea, is a very great obstacle to the attainment of a 
proper knowledge of the language. Such handbooks are indispensable for further 
study; but it seems to me about as reasonable to expect a student to emerge fix>m 
Burguy's admirable repertory, with a clear apprehension of Old French, as it 
would be to make a siniilar demand from a student of Greek who had only a 
grammar that gave all the dialectic forms indiscriminately with equal fiilness and 
detail. There is quite enough variety in the forms found in this Vie to require 
the attention of the early student for some time ; and I know that he will be able 


to proceed in his after studies much more rapidly, or at least satisfactorily, by 
having made himself thoroughly master of all that is to be found here. Till he 
does know, accurately and familiarly, all that is contained in this small poem, I 
would urge that he should confine himself within these limits. The text is given 
as the MS. has it, so that whatever peculiarities are observed in the text, the stu- 
dent may rest assured that they are at least not the product of any speculation of 
the Editor as to admixture of dialect, &c. I have neither attempted to normalise 
text nor metre. The method followed by M. Gautier in his sumptuous edition of 
the Chanson de Roland is described by him in these words : " Nous nous propo* 
sons de reconstituer notre vieux poeme tel qu'il aurait 6t6 6crit par un scribe 
instruit et soigneux, avec les regies gfen6rales de la lang^e de son temps et les 
regies particuliferes de son dialecte special." This is precisely what I have in- 
tended to do, by simply printing my text as accurately as I could, and I have 
gone over the MS. many times. If we follow the tradition, (which I suppose is 
as probable as any tradition ever is,) as to the origin and handwriting of the 
MS., we could hardly have a better example of the " scribe instruit et soigneux " 
than Matthew Paris, and I have been careftil not to do him the injustice of sup- 
posing that he was ignorant, or wrote carelessly, — by correcting his MS. 

The Glossary which I have appended is fuller than usual, as I have sought to 
set forth the facts of the language, as far as this fragment goes, by bringing toge- 
ther, for the purpose of comparison, every word every time it £?^«rj under its proper 
grammatical category. It is needless for me to detail the considerations which 
led to the adoption of this method : I adopted it because I thought it was the 
best, and I have done it as well as I was able. I could have wished more assist- 
ance in arranging and correcting, for I feel painfully how hard it is for any man 
single-handed to keep down within pardonable limits the number of oversights, 
errors, and blunders, and I shall be grateful for any corrections from anybody 
who may use or examine the work. 

But while the immediate aim of the book is to assist to the acquisition of an 
accurate knowledge of the genuine forms of^orman-French, in the notes I have 
sought to g^ve it a somewhat wider interest and reference. The notes are 
intended to familiarize the student with some of the facts of comparative etymo- 
logy in the limited sphere of the Romance languages. I have given them pretty 
nearly in the form which they took in viva voce explanations, and they are only 
meant to be suggestive, in no wise exhaustive. How far I have succeeded in 
writing down a practical index or syllabus to the wider range open to viva voce 


class lectures, I do not know. The illustrative quotations^ given bear a very 
small proportion indeed to the number I had collected; there are, however, per- 
haps sufficient to call attention to the relations of this Norman-French to Old 
French in general on the one hand, and to Old English on the other. How very 
soon a student, familiar with Spenser and Chaucer alone, might fill an interleaved 
copy of Auban with parallel passages, in use of words, idiom, metre, &c., will 
hardly be credited till it is tried. 

The appendices contain an analysis of the final s and z in the inflection of nouns, 
&c., from which it will be evident that there were certain prescriptions incum- 
bent on the scribe, and which are therefore the product of the special rules of the 
period, — and a section on all the vowel combinations that occur throughout the 
poem. The much broader question of Norman scriptio in general, I have been 
compelled to reserve for another work. I have not thought it necessary to give 
any separate grammatical synopsis, and a syntax was of course out of the ques- 
tion : the Glossary will, I hope, be found serviceable both for the syntax and the 
morphology, as furnishing material for the student to construct for himself, 
which I believe is the only way he will ever fully realize, the grammar of the 
Old French language as it was current in England during the Norman rule. 

To the Board of Trinity College my very best thanks are due for their libera- 
lity in defiraying the expense of this edition. 





»^ ki tant est redut^e de diable enfemal ; 

mes ne ert d' or adubb^e, ne d* autre metaU 
de peres preciuses, de ivoire ne roal; 
n'i out acaston^e, ne gem me, ne cristal : 
de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortal, 5 

penduz e cloufichez k loi de desloial ; 
avau Tun des costez raa li sancs curat, 
ceste croiz aiire serrein e matinal, 
cum cist ki ert amis Jesu espicial. — 

il vent k Varlam, un liu emperial, jo 

une cite nobile sanz gueres paringal 
si ne fust entuschee de la lei criminal, 
mes sarrazins la tindrent, (dunt fu grant duel e mal,) 
k'en Apolin creient Sathan e Belial. — 

vent s'en li clers e entre k un maistre portal. 15 

un i:)alois perrin trove, ki ne pert pas casal, 
k solers e estages e celers grantz aval ; 
e le seingnur seant al uis de sun ostal, 
nobile citoien en atur festival 

k robe d'or battte e nusches de aesmal. ao 

Auban ad nun, — de la cit6 un haut mareschal ; 
n'i out plus cuneiiz, ne nus plus communal, 
si ancesur estoient romein original, 
li clers le saltte, e si saluz fu tal :— 

B 2 



UeLIS ki ad tut le mund k guverner 25 

i ^ vus benoie e guard^ki tant pers prude ber ! 

trespassant sui estrange, ki m'en veng d'utre mer, 
; las, ki palefrei n'ai k chevaucher, 

ostel demand pur Deu ki nus deingna crier." 

cist bonement li grante, acoilt, cumande entrer, 30 

une part Tapele, cumence k demander : — 

**ki es tu? e dunst vens? ii penses tu aler?" 

cist respund : — '* de orient veng sanz sujumer. 

vers Guales mun pais est mun purpos teser, 

la nuvele esjoie precher e nuncier 35 

du fiz Deu Jesu Crist ki nus deingna sauver, 
foi. 29b. naistre, en croiz murir, e de mort relever, 

de enfer nus rescure, e puis eu ciel munter, 

ki puis jugera nus tuz au paraler, 

saaz ki ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener." 40 

y quant Tot Auban du fiz Deu parler, 
- mut cumence de 90 esmervoiller : 

**cument," dist il, "oses tu celui numer 

par ki noz deus unt eii damage e desturber ? 

e OSes devant moi en ma maisun precher 45 

' ke Jesus ad tut le mund k guverner? 

e en queii manere peiistes vus passer 

geske 9a, sanz mort, e sanz encumbrer, 

ii noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer, 

ki ceu Jesu heent cum aloue esperver?" 50 


AUBAN, bel hoste!" respond li pelerin, 
** herberge m'as ja en tun paleis marbrin, 
n'oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin ! 
Jesu Crist recleim, e k lui sui enclin, 

ki regne e regnera sanz cumen9ail e fin. 55 

il devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin ; 
escu m* est e guarant plus ke chastel perin. 
lui pri e axir lu soir e lu matin, 
ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin, 


ki pest le famillus, ki sustent Torfanin, 60 

. k' en Beethleem naski, ki fist de Tewe vin 
quant manga as nosces lu bar Architriclin. 
en cest pais m'en veng estrange e barbarin 
pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant sarrazin, 
pur Jesu guerpiras la loi Apolin 65 

k'en enfer gist puant cum bucs u mastin* 
lez Sathan le maufe cunpainz e vesin. 
pur Deu murras martir, 90 vus di e devin, 
n'a pl[ace ne ltu\s ci k'i Teuue du Rin 
la [estoire n^ert] cunt6e en frances e latin." 70 


OUANT [It ber AuSan] ad sun oste entendu 

^ [ki est eti] sun ostel entrez e receiiz, 
ibt 29, Tcrt. a. de ses diz est i mervelles meiiz. 

une part Tacoilt, e of lui est venuz 

<1 une maisun foreine, ki n'i soient veil 75 

de veisins u serganz, 01 ne aperceii. 

" trop,* disc, ** me esmerveil de 90 ke me dis tu, 

ki nuveles me portes d'un deu mescuneii, 

fiz d'une pucele k'em claime Jesu, 

ki, sulum ta favele, Deu e fiz Deu fu ; 80 

ke ne purreit estre, m'est vis, entendu, 

ne par fines raisuns enquis ne seii. 

ne jo ne Tai apris, ne pruve ne leii, 

ke Deu, ki tant est de force e de vertu, 

ki fist les elementz, — terre, unde, air, e fu, — 85 

par ki li mundz est e faitz e sustenu, 

deingnast de femme naistre, e estre en croiz pendu, 

t, un fust cloufichez, du glaive au quor femi, 

penez e eschamiz, e de fel enbeiiz, 

mort, de croiz ostez e posez en sarc[tt] 90 

cum un de nus morteus, petiz e me[»«2:.] 

trop i es enganez, trop i es deceii ; 
faL t% Tcfi. b. fuissez des citoiens ja recuneii, 

ne te serroit or ran9um, n*um mortal escu, 

^ 66 MS. masiim (or maiiiin)% 


ke ne fuissez detrenchez ja de brantz muluz." 95 

respund Amphibal : — " ne soiez irascu \ 

kar par Deu ki m'amene k vostre salu 

sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 

ne vout Deus ke soiez damnez ne perdu 

k'en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu : 100 

tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dru/' 



.L nun le fiz Marie ki tut ad k guier, 
cumence Amphibals sun sermun desploier, 
Auban ben Tescute e en tent i de quor. 

*• quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe siie per, 105 

d'un arbre lur defend! le fruit k manger, 
il le trespasserent sanz pardun demanden 
deus ki est dreitureus nes vout esparnier ; 
de parai's les ruva ambesdeus exuiller. 

despuis lur cuvint lur vie demener no 

en labur, doler, languir e devier, 
en la prisun de emfer aler, puis sujumer 
foi. 30a. e trestut lur lingnage en les laz le adverser. 

ne pout estre guarantz, ne nus aver mester 
ke tuz ne lur cuvint cele part aler 115 

k Sathan, ki cunseil lur plust escuter, 
in lur cuvint grant tens of lui demurer, 
cil, — k ki'l plut k lui, ki nus deinna crier, 
par sa grace nus d'iluec engetter, 

(e diable ki mist hom en encumbrer 120 

>ar humme cuvint descumfire e mater,)— 
ii haut pere du ciel ki fist e terre e mer, 
en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier 
k si grant busoinne fere e achever. 

del angle Gabriel en fist sun messager; 125 

ki la nuvele vint en terre nuncier, 
e une pucele tut issi saluer : — 

• Marie ! Deu te saut, la benoite mulier 

de grace replenie, ki tant faitz k amer ! 

celui enfanterez ki vent le mund sauver, 1 30 

dunt as oi lire e prophetizer. 



Messle, ki deit tut le mund restorer. 

cele ert esbaie, cumence cl esmerveiller ; 

de barun cumpainnie kar ne vout espruver. 

cist la recunforte par raisuns demustrer : — 135 

* seintz esperitz en toi vendra recunser, 
ki toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 
ki du mund ad seingnurie e poer, 
par droit apent naistre, e tei lui enfanter 
sanz pucelage perdre u damager, 140 

e sanz cunoissance d' umme u repruver.' 

atant Tottreit cele sanz ni^r u duter. 


1 UT issi cum vus recunt e devis, 
pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de parai's, 

e fu au jur oitisme eu temple circumcis : 145 

Jesu Tapelerent si parent e amis, 
apres pou de tens puis ke out entre nus mis^ 
foi. 30b. vertuz fist grantz, — sana paraletics, 

feverus, avogles, desvez e kaifs, 

leprus, e cuntrez, e de maufez purpris ; 1 50 

mortz resuscita, guari les ydropics. 
mes puis ke il fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis, 
e de lui crut la renum^ e pris, 
envie en urent adverser enemis. 

par Jiieus e Judas le traitre fu quis, 155 

trahiZy e venduz, guetez, truvez, e pris, 
k tort encupezy leidiz, e en croiz mis, 
e au queur feru du chevaler Lungis. 
murut ; dune trembla terre en tuz Hub e paiiSi 
mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 160 

dune devindrent Jiieus mumes e pensis : 
ben savoient ki urent e mesfait e mespris, 
ki tuz jurs declinerent puis de mal en pis 
sanz rei, vaivez, dulurus* serfs pleintifs. 
mes Jesu releva cume sires po&stifs 1 65 

au terz di, d'enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs, 
eu ciel munta, k destre sun pere est asis. 
d'iluec fu as apostles li seinz esperitz tramisi 


ki estoient esluz par numbre deus faiz sis. 
e d'iluec vendra juger les mortz e vifs, 170 

quant dirra : — * venez, mes leaus amis gentils I 
recevez la joie ke jo ja vus promis, 
ii nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrifs. 
e vus, pecchur dampnez, eu feu ki art tut dis T ** 



UBAN ben Tescute e de quor i entent, 1 75 

e puis li en a respundu simplement : — 

'^ ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement, 

ne ke Jesus en ses establiz aprent ; 

mes si par aventure curage me prent 

ke crestiens deveingne par vostre enseignement, 180 

di moi ke ferai tut au cumencement, 

ke fere deverai, e ke fere i apent ? '' 
foi. 30, vcn. a. adunc respundi li clers tut umblement : — 

" si Deu tant tun quor eslumine e esprent, 

ke tu la trinite voz craire fermement, 185 

le pere e le fiz, seint esperit ensement, — 
• trois persones, un Deu veraiement, — 

de toi li fras sacrifice e present. 

kar ki 90 ne croit, enfernal turment 

sanz fin prendre apres la mort atent." 190 

Auban li ad dit ireement : — 
- ^^ <)H ** 90 ne re9oit ne sen ne entendement, 

' ne purroit estre pruve* par argument, 

ke un fust trois, e trpis un senglement. 

desore guerpis le tun enchantement*, 195 

despuis ke droitz ne raisuns n' i assent.** 

atant s'en part par ire e mautalent, 

dormir s en va, kar la nuit le susprent. 

Amphibal sul i demuere e atent ; 

davant sa croiz la nuit en uraisuns despent. 200 


AUBAN atant s'en est alez chucher ; 
en sun lit s'endort ki ert en un soler. 

♦ 193 ^IS, />ruve/fruvc \his») — 195 MS. eschanfemenf. 


mes Deus nel vout ne guerpir ne ubblier, 
ki li doinne sun segrei demustrer, 

e par avisiun lui esmoillir le quoer. 205 

kar avis lui est sanz fentosme u duter 
cum deus deingna du ciel desendre e avaler, 
eu mund entre morteus e vivre e cunverser, 
apres 90 la vie en la croiz achever, — 

e quancke k crestien croire est mester, 210 

lui ad tut mustre Deus sanz ren celer. 
le matin est levez par tens al enjumer; 
hastivement s'en va k sun hoste parler, 
e sa avisiun k lui apertement cunter. 

*^ beus hostes," dist il, *' mut ai dormi des hier, 215 

mes ne prist sum mis quors ne mis penser, 
kar un sunge sungai, ne oistes unc le per« 
foL 3^ WB. b. si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner, 

tu serras mi maistres, e jo tis escoler : 

jamais ne nus purra vie ne mort sevrer, 220 

k'en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer/' 


La nuit estoit peisible, li tens beus e seri, 
en mun lit fu chuchez e ferm fu endormi ; 
avis m'ert ke li eels se desclot e uvri 

beus e delitables, e purs e esclarci, 225 

ft la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi. 
uns hom d'iluec en terre 9a jus desendi ; 
en terre fu vivant, en terre fu nurri. 
un poples cuntre lui e cruel e hardi 

vint, ki sa doctrine despit e eschivi, 430 

e k tort la cupa, e puis prist e seisi, 
e divers turmentz en lui despendi ; 
iqL jit. lia e repruva, laidit e eschami, 

gesk' au sane espandre de escurgies bati, 

des paumes k la face criieument feri, 235 

en un fust dresc6, autre entravers parmi, 

k clous le afferma, encroa e pendi, 

de espines curuna, k boivre fel tendi ; 

par despit disoient k genoilluns* devant li :— 

* 239 MS. goncUIuMS* 


* hai ! rois de Giiieus, poisant e enrichi, 240 
ore pert ke tu es e despit e guerpi. 

autres de toi sauvas, tant es le plus huni. 

les perillez rescuz ja, ki ore par es peri. 

sauf tun cors demeine cum sauver seiiz autri ; 

de la croiz desent ore devant le pople ci, 245 

e toi tuz aiirrum e crierum merci.' 
e cist ja noise ne fist ne mot ne respundi, 
mes quancke il savoient fere e dire sufri. 
murut, e en murant haut getta un cri : — 

* en tes meins mun* esperit, pere Adonai, ajo 
loi 31b. cumant, kar de moi est ja tut acumpli.' 

trembla trestut li mundz, solail enobscuri, 
un grantz veilz du temple desira e rumpi, 
froisirent peres, e la lune enpali, 

ne rai ne lumere solail ne espandi. 255 

un de eus la curaille d'un glaive li ovri : 
du cors apertement sane e ewe hissi 
au saucher de la lance ; jo de mes [oilz fo] vi. 
dune furent li felun tirant [esmoiZ/i,'] 

li las e li dolent ki avant rure[^// Aai]. 260 

de la croiz fu ostez e puis enseve[//]. 
li sepulcres estoit ben clos e ben garni ; 
mes cist ki mortz estoit, releva au terz di, 
e eu ciel munta. grant turbe le sivi ; 

gloire e clarte les esceint e fluri. 265 

vindrent al encuntre, lez e esjo'i, 
les legiuns des angles ke blancheiir vesti. 
en joie sunt trestuit dresce e esbaudi. 
foi. 31, Ten. a. chanterent, e lur chant rentinc e entendi : — 

* benpit seit le pere ki tuz nus ad guari, 270 
e sun fiz ki li est parilgal .e uni ! ' 

la joie ki i fu e ke jo i 0*1, 

quors nel puet penser, ne jo nel vus pardi. 

plus me mustra Deus e plus me descuvri 

segrei celestien, ke desclore vus ni ; 275 

kar descuverir ne Tos, bien seiez certz e fi. 

mes ceste avisiun, beus ostes e ami, 

k'est k[^ 5]ignifie, me recunt e di. 

feintise u fauset^ ke n'i seit ja, 90 pri." 

* 150 MS. mui. 




UANT Amphibal entent sun quor e sun curage, 280 

'^^ke Deus Tat fait aignel d'un l^un sauvage, 
Deu primes enmercie, cum lettrez e sage, 
ki fist e terre e mer, oisel, peisun marage. 
sa croiz li ad mustre ki le cunforte e suage. 
" Auban," dist il, ** citoien nobiles de parage, 285 

v6ez ci la croiz Jesu, ki humein lignage 
rescust de diable, e d'enfernal servage. 
foL 31, vtn. b. parcruz ert e trente anz out, kar tant estoit dune d*age 

quant en croiz lui mistrent li Giiie de putage. 
tant sufri de peine, e tant sufri de huntage, 290 

cum veiz en ceste croiz figur^e la image. 
ne mist d'or ne d' argent pur nus ranfun ne guage, 
mes de sa char demeine sacrifice e ostage. 
tun sunge puez entendre sanz fentosme u folaga 
n'est par autre sermun, doctrine u language, 295 

mes par avisiun vus a Deu mu6 le curage. 
fai lui cum fere deiz lingance e humage ; 
aliance seit batesme e primer mariage, 
e ne eiez ja vers lui cjuor ligger ne volage ; 300 

kar tu murras pur lui martir par vasselage : 
of lui regneras tuz jurs eu celestien bamage. 


v^ELUI ke veistes par revelaciun 
servi e honur6 de anglin legiun, 
le fiz Deu meimes fu, ki k sauvaciun 

mist nus tuz morteus par sa encamaciun. 305 

le pueple ke veistes tant cruel e felun 
M. jta. Giueu sunt, ki par envie e lur grant mesprisun 

mistrent Jesu h mort e k dampnaciun ; 
ki jadis furent serfs au tirant Pharaun, 
mes Deus les engetta de servage e prisun, 310 

e de la lei lur fist e present e dun 
e en terre les mena de promissiun. 
sun fiz lur envca e livra h bandun, 
mes ne li firent unc pur ses bens, si mal nun, 
tant ke il le mistrent k mort e passiun I 315 

m 2 


relever le veistes en vostre avisiun, 
cum fait li liunceus par la voiz du liun ; 
e eu ciel munta, — of lui si cumpainun 
k'il out ja delivre d'enfemal regiun ; 

e ferm lie Sathan le viel senglant dragun 320 

en enfer, i ert tuz jurs sa mansiun/' 
Auban de quor I'entent cum clerc fait sa les9un. 
quant ad la croiz veiie e le crucifi en sun, 
ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la fa9un : 
foL jab. a genoilluns se met par grant devociun ; 325 

de ses errurs fait veraie cunfessiun, 
k lermes e suspirs fait ad sa uraissun, 
k jointes meins a dit e ^ weimentisun : — 
" de mes pecchez demant, beus sire Deus, pardun. 
ai ! Jesu, funtainne de remissiun, 330 

ki eu ciel vi quant geii dormant en ma maisun, 
ti serfs deveng desore, en ta subjecciun. 
apertement reni Tenchantement Mahun, 
ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun, 
Jovin descunus e sun frere Neptun, 335 

Tetim, e Pallaide, e le subterin Plutun, 
e tute la lei paene, ke par teu traisun 
met hum k grant mine e k perdiciun.'* 


-tYmIS," dist Amphibal, ** ne vus serra cel6 2 
seint esperitz ad tun quor eslum^. 340 

par humme sunt li autre apris e endoctrin^, 
mes vus par Deu meimes en es revisit^, 
fol 12, Yen. a. e par sa revelaciun k lui es acointe. 

ore vus pri e sumoin pur Deu en croiz pen6, 

soiez amis verais e hem de lealte ; 345 

kar eschoisi vus a, e vus lui de bon gre : 

ja ne vus en partez par nule vanite. 

trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beute, 

cum est la flur du champ u cum Terbe du pre ; 

mes, ki sert Deu e fait la siie volunte 350 

e murt en sun servise, k bonure fu ne : 

cist regnera eu ciel sanz fin curun6. 

mes li felun cheitif ki Deu unt ublie, 



li las dolerus, hai I tant sunt malurS. 

ii est Alexandres li princes alos6 ? 35JS 

Cesaires li riches e li redute ? 

e li autre prince tant ricRe e tant fefES, ^ 

ki tant urent tresor e tant nobilit^ ? 

n*unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesur6 1 

mes Talme tuz jurs viit santz mortalit^^ ; 360 

mansiun truvera sanz nule fauset^ 

sulum les faitz du cors k'eu mund ad est6 : 

li guereduns est grantz as bons atum6. 

ne soiez esmeiiz pur nule adversite 

ke hem vus face au cors u au quor mauf<§y 365 

kar k la fin serras martir par Deu pruv6 : 

le regne averez du ciel ki vus est estu^.** 

de I'ewe atant demande, e horn li ad port6y 

e Auban baptize k grant humility 

eu nun de la veraie e haute trinity. 370 

en Tamur Deu Ta par sermun conferm6, 

de la fei Deu la summe apris e demustr6. 

e apres 90 ke il out trestut cest achev6, 

le cunge li ad requis e demand^ ; 

si li dist : — ** amis, ne soiez esnui^, 375 

en* mun pais m'en vois ii oi einz purpose ; 

e vus soiez, beus ostes, k Jesu cumand^. 

de vus croi estre seiir e tres bien acert^, 

despuis ke Deu meimes ad tun c^or sael6. 

en* mun pais m'en vois, (asez ai sujum^,) 380 

sarracins cunvertir, dunt tant i a plent^.** 


AUBAN en suspirant li dit : — ** Pur Deu sufrez, 

uncore de moi pas ne vus en parti rez : 

dolenz en serroi e trop descunfortez. 

si tu sul me guerpis, trop friez criieutez. 385 

une semeine veaus of moi demurez ; 

de la lei k'ai enpris plus m'enseinnerez. 

s'il vus plaist, beu maistre, pur Deu le m'otriez ! ' 

respund Amphibal : — ** ja ne vus ert voiez : 

•360 MS. mortaU. — 376, 380 MS. €. 


partut frai, sacez, tutes tes volentez." 3go 

dumurez est cum Auban li avoit proiez. 

d'une maisun sutive, ft il sunt ja entrez, 

unt fait lur escole, pur les grantz fertez 

des sarracins feluns dunt il sunt guetez. 

iluec unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez 395 

des relevees, e quant fu anoitez. 

lors li ad desclos escriz d'antiquitez, 

d'Adam,— de parais cum fu desheritez ; 

d'Abel, — cum Tocist Caim si frere esnez ; 

cum par le deluge estoit li mundz* purgez, 400 

par Noe e ses fiz cum puis fu restorez ; 

d'Abram e Moyseus les veillardz alosez, — 

cum furent andui de Damnedeu privez ; 

des sacramentz d'iglise, — cum il sunt cunfermez; 

e du grant jugement, ki tant est redutez ; 405 

e plusurs poinz, par unt doit hom estre sauvez, 

est Auban ja apris e bien endoctrinez. 



1-VUS un sarrazin ki avise les a 
k une fenestre par unt les esgarda, 

mes de eus ne fu veii ke les espia. 410 

lur faitz e lur cunseilz oi e avisa, 
vit cum k la croiz Auban s'agenoilla, 
cum il guerpi Mahum, e Jesu reclama. 
k un prince felun hastivement ala, 
foLjia. la cit6 Verolaime ki dune guvema. 415 

d* Auban la nuvele descuvri e cunta. 
**ai ! princes gentilz/' dist il, ** enten 9a ! 
Auban as perdu, dunt grant mal avendra ; 
noz deus ki ad guerpi, e baptizez est ja. 
kar crestiens est, mar nus en dutera : 420 

ben vi e bien roi* cum il se humilia 
k un Jesu fiz Deu ke il aiira. 
un pelerin trespassant, ki tut engane I'a, 
ki s'en vent batant des terres de deli, — 
plus set de enchantement ke nuls dire purra, — 425 

* 400 MS. mudz. 


d'un deu tel estrange par ci sermunant va, 

ki Giueu en Sulie en croiz penerent ja ; 

si cunrei n'en est pris, grant duel en surdera. 

avant ke plus avenge, ki me croit 90 fra 

ke fait li pastureus, despuis ke il verra 430 

une brebiz malade,— d'autres Tesloinnera ; 

kar si nun, par les autres li maus s'espandera. 

ore frez k'i dirai, s'k pleisir vus vendra, 

e avant ke nus horn garde s'en dura, 

la vostre maisnee, ki pas ne se feindra, 435 

le paleis e chanbres Auban trestutes cerchera, 

e lui e sun maistre sacez ke susprendra. 

9a venir les face, kar aidunc orra 

la curt apertement k' Auban vus dirra, 

e quancke vus ai dit, dune pur voir parra. 440 

s' en pemez teu vengance cum il apendra, 

ki en seit chastiez chascuns ki la saverra, 

e k' en dient trestuit : — * mar ja cumencera 

nus autres teu chose !' quant Auban s'en murra." 


i^UANT H tirantz criieus la parole entendi, 445 

d'ire e mautalent tressua e fremi ; 
les grantz vertuz jure Mahommet sun ami, — 
si voirs est ke d' Auban avoit iluec oi 
ke il les deus a sarrazinois guerpi, 

du bu le chief li fra voler de brant furbi ; 450 

3i^- ke ja pur lignage ne serra esparni. 

Auban k'en estoit de trestut 90 guarni 

par aucun de la curt dunt il estoit cheri, 

quant li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri, 

k sun maistre est venuz tut esba'i. 455 

en plurant dist : — ** amis, entenc ke jo vus di. 

descuverz sumes de 90 ke nus avum fait ci, 

k un tirant felun k'^ Deu est enemi, 

de cest pais ki est tut sires ke bailli, 

e plus est pauteners ke n'est lu enchani, 460 

si pris sumes andui e menez devant li, 

hunte vus fra, dunt trop seroie man, 

81 mal eiez ki point n' i avez deservi. 


mes de moi ki cheut, peccheiir enveilli ? 

de vus serroit grant duel si fuissez peri 465 

en vostre jofnesce ki k Deu es dm choisi : 

meint horn purra uncore par vus estre gari. 

alez vus ent, beu maistre, 90 vus requor e pri, 

de ces paens criieus ke ne soiez huni ; 
foi. 33ivcn. a. kar raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre ensauvagi. 470 

jo remain, e prendrai de bon quor esjoi 

quancke Deus m'a purveii e establi. 
"^ e vus ma robe averez ii lut li ors bumi : 

ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi 

pur quei k'il fen veie e vestu e seisi. 475 

e jo ta esclavine, ke 9a porter vus vi, 

plus Teim ke pelei9un d'ermine enblanchi." 
c • • Amphibal Tottrie k'i ses diz obei. 

atant si sunt andui d'iluec meiiz e parti. 

Auban de la cite ofuokes lui issi, 480 

ki bien le cunduseit treis arpentz e demi. 

mut veissez grant duel quant Tun d' autre parti. 

Auban de tendrur gent, plura, e pali, 

e dist : — " pur Deu, beu maistre, k'en Beethleem nasqui, 

kar proiez Deu pur moi ke ne soie flecchiz." 485 

e cist respund : — " ne soiez ja espoiiri ! 

kar of vus est Jesus ki du ciel desendi. 
oi. 33, ▼crs. b. ^ lui vus cumant, e abandun, e li, 

ke ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nuUi, 

ki sa iglise sur pere funda e establi. 490 

ma croiz vus doins ke ne mettez ja Jesum en ubbli.'* 

cist Ten enmercie, ki pas ne la lenqui. 

atant s'en part li clers, e Auban reverti. 


./xL endemein par tens quant part la matinee, 

e du solail parut la clart6 k'est levee, 495 

li fels tirantz cumande trestute sa mesnee, 

ke la maisun Auban seit tute cerchee, 

e lui e sun hoste — (i ki peise u agree,) — 

facent i eus venir k la curt asemblee ; 

num6ement celui ki en ceste cuntr6e 500 

d'un deu nuvel preche« Jesu de Galilei 


k'en Sulie murut en haute croiz drescee. 
e cist s'en vunt curant par la riie pavee, 
portantz bastuns, ma9ues* u hache u espee, 
k hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee, 505 

cum gent ki s'atume k morteu medlee. 
as maissuns Auban vunt* sanz nule demuree ; 
chambres vunt cherchant, — n'est nule trespassee, 
uis brisent e porte si il la trovent saerree, 
Auban vtint querant cum gent desmesuree, 510 

le crestien demandent k'ad lur lei avilee, 
tant k'une chambre sutife i unt truvee, 
e Auban sul i veient ki aS sa croiz levee ; 
nupez k genoilluns suvent Tad aiiree, 

des lermes k' il espant est sa face arus6e, 515 

e la lei Jesu suvent ad reclamee, 
ke sa vertu li seit tramise e envee. 
cist entrent, si unt grant noise cumencee 
de Tesclavine k'il voient k' Auban ad afubl^, 
e de la croiz nuvele k'il ad tant honur6e. 520 

plus est chescuns esmeiiz ke n'est quant est bers^e 
leonesse^ u saerpent quant ele se sent blescee. 
dient en hauste voiz e k cruel gorgee : — 
iL 54A. ** li est cist faus truantz ki k pute destinee 

va par ci prechant de la lei cun truvee ?" 525 

Auban k parole simple e atempree 

dist k'il **s'en ala ben devant V ajum^e. 

celui le gard ki cria la terre e mer salee ! 

pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun 6e, 

partut ft veritez e dreiture est pruvee/' 530 

lors I'unt cist pris e trahit par la riie e chaucee ; 

li uns par les chevoilz sanz mesure e manee, 

li autre par la robe, k'il unt tost desiree : 

du sacher e buter li est ensanglaentee. 

Auban sa croiz retent, ne 1- ad pas ubli^,* 535 

dunt plus se curuce cele gent maluree. 

la cite en est tute tost esmiie e trublee, 

e I'achesun pur quei par tut est renumee. 

k curt sunt ja venuz, il fu gent aiinee 

atendant la parole k queu chief fust menee. 540 

♦ 504 MS. mac€us.s^1 ^IS. ««/.— 535 MS. uihe. 


J 0- .' 




UANT li princes Tad veii en eel estrange atur 
^^^ ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur, 
de ire e mautalent tut miie la culur, 
e puis li ad dit par curuz e irur : — 

** ki es tu ki nus as fait si grant deshonur, 545 

qui guerpi as ke tindrent ti gen til ancesur ? 
ne fuissez citoien de parente majur, 
jas fuissez i mort livrez e ^ dulun 
de vus s' esmervellent li grant e li menur, 
ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maiir, 550 

e deiissez estre as autres essample e mireiir, — 
ore croiz ke va prechant un estrange tafur 
ki s'en va vaivez par terres sanz sujur, 
e ore s'en est binnez en tenegre devant jur 
cum luz u cum gupilz escriez de pastun 555 

entenc cum sa doctrine folage est e errur. 
k'^ fause fust pruvee ben pert, k'il out poiir ; 
venuz dust estre ci devant nus ^ baudur 
cum maistre e avoue e cum certein prechur, 
e estre ^ sun deciple e guarant e sucur. 560 

foi. 34b. mais ben Tad ore pruve ke il est boiseiir : 

* fauset6 se soille', dit hom, • au chef de tun' 
pens de tun lingnage, ki grant conquesteiir 
de Rumme nez, ki furent du mund cumandeiir, 
sarrazins nobiles de grajitz terres seingnur, 565 

ki en noz Deus tuz crurent ki tant sunt de valur : 
^ eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
repent toi de tun maisfait, n'en serras le pejur ; 
engettez ces drapeus, ne vus nuit la puiir, 
e cele croiz ke tu 1^ tens, dunt* as tu hisdur ! 570 

ben s'en puet gabber de vus cist enehantur, 
ki ta robe enporte, — hai, queu changeiir ! 
mes n'est nul tant sage, tant fort, ne tant seiir, 
ki n'est aucune feit susduit par folelir. 

par traisun perist meint quens, meint vavasur, 575 

marcheant en feire, chevaler en estur. 

♦ 570 MS. dun eas (or e as)* 


n'estes pas darreins, k tei n*est fait premur. 
n'est ki ne prent sum, fere purrez retur, 
repentir te purras de cest grant foleiir ; 
oi. 34, ven. ft. en noz deus ad grant franchise e du9ur, 580 

ki piet^ unt tost de repentant pecchur : 
n'averunt vers toi plus ne ire ne rancur. 
reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Deu le sauveur, 
e noz deus pofistifs desoremes aiir ; 

tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur, «)85 

terres e citez grant, fiez, chasteus, e tur ; 
kar li doilz serroit grantz, ne veimes unc greinnur, 
si tu t'en murs, ki en es de la cite la flur." 


JLy E tut 90 n*est Auban esmuz, ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure ; 
sun curage e quor justise par sage atempreiire, 590 

puis respund cum celui ki de blandir n'a cure, 
e dist: — " amis ! si te doinst Deus bonaventure, — 
queus est li creaturs plus haut, u siie creature ? 
quidez ke jo pur deu recleim metal u pere dure, 
ki ne parole ne ot ne sent ne veit par nature, 595 

de uns enginnurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture, 
par engin est cuntrefait en entaille u peinture, 
semblance est e fausset6, purpens e cuntrevure ? 
jL 34. rtn. b, maufez i sunt k'en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure. 

li clercs dunt utrage as dit e mal k desmesure*, 600 

n'est pas desleals, mes sa doctrine veraie est e setire, 

e sa vie espirable e seinte e nette e pure, 

e Deu, ki fist trestut le mund, e jur e nuit aiire. 

de lui retenc par amist^ ceste moie vesture 

e ceste croiz, ft de Jesu est faite la figure. 605 

90 ke m'aprist ne guerpirai tant cum vie me dure, 

ne flecchirai pur nule mort tant cruele e dure. 

Mahom reni, k'en enfer trait ki lui sert e honure; 

en Jesu croi, Jesu recleim ; Jesus me haid e sucure. 

e ki reapeler me veut, sacez k'en vein labure. 610 

* 600 MS. desmurt. 


si feiissez gent de sen, de raisun e mesure, 
e veritez voissez oir, bien fere e dreiture, 
k vus 9a fust li clers venuz sanz fuie e cuverture. 
mais jo cunus vos criieutez cercusmes e porture : 
neT eiissez plus entendu ke asne harpeiire. 615 

jo de tut 90 Ten garni, e dis k dreiture ; 
de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture, 
. 35a. k'enclins avez tuz jurs este k pecchez e ordure : 

k peine ublie 90 k'aprent pulein en sa adanture.*' 


OUANT il Punt entendu, grant cri e bruit fait unt, 620 

(e fu par aventure au jur quant feste funt 
k Febum, deu du solail, ke il aiirrunt, 
en un curre estant, tenant un rubi rund, 
un image d'or burni, li tuit se assemblerunt, 
servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt ;) 625 

e dient k'au temple santz demure irrunt, 
Auban lur enemi Ik venir ferunt ; 

* voille u nun, verra k'il sacrifierunt.' 
cist Tund ja seisi, ki k lur temple vunt*. 
Auban i trainent, ki de lui piet6 n'unt. 630 

li uns trait, li uns bute, li uns ses dras desrunt ; 
ferent e enpeinnent en face e nes e frunt. 
Auban n'est flecchiz, mes simplement respunt : — 
" tuit cist ke ci vei, pur nent travaillerunt. 
gravele semmez, de glace fates pund, — 635 

ainz purra mer secchir, ruisseu cure vers munt, 
ke Jesu treshublie ki cria tut le mund, 
pur tant cum portereit de fin or un dromund, 
ne pur tuz les hummes ki vivent e murunt. 
veisin u parent, ami ne brun ne blund,* 640 

chose ne purrunt ja faire par unt 
diables mais aiire k'en enfer sunt parfund. 
mal aient deu pere u fust u ki de metal sunt : 
pere perist e depece, fust art e metal funt." 

♦ 629 MS. un/. — 640 MS. bund. 




I princes quant 90 veit ki presentz juge i sist, 645 

k' Auban lur creance e lur loi si despiist, 
de quor les ha'i, de paroles laidist, 
ne ren n'i espleite horn par peine k*em i mist, 
cumande ke batu seit lores sanz respiit. 
e ceus i acurent, — n'a cist ke ne obei'st, 650 

de peus e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist, — 
fruissent os, char emfle, e la pel enpalist, 
en plusurs lius du cors li sancs ki s espand, ist. 
Auban ki tut suefre Jesu ura, e dist : — 
** Deu k' Adam furma, e ki tant le cheriit* 655 

I®*- 35^ ke k lui meimes semblable le fist ; 

puis par trai'sun de la saerpent forfist, 

pur lui e sun lignage Deu du ciel tramist 

sun fiuz, d'une* pucele k'en terre char prist ; 

force e estabilite me doinst il, cum cist 660 

ki poisantz est e moi cria e eu cors m'alme mist, — 

en vus met ma esperance e m'amur e delit, 

e k vus sacrifice me doins jo, Jesu Crist !" 


OUANT par tant ne poent li felun esploiter, 

en prisun obscure le cumandent getter, 665 

de chaesnes lie, e tant Ik demurer 
ke sun voler poiisse e flecchir e changer : 
kar plus seut demurance le cors d um pener 
ke ne fait anguisse ki s'en put tost passer, 
mis i fu enchaesnez pur sun cors plus grever 670 

en garde e en destresce k felun gaholer, 
k'aie ne rescusse n' i pust aver mester. 
Auban en la chartre ne fina Deu urer ; 
90 fu sanz lassesce jur e nuit sun mester. 
sa penance i meine pur ses maus espurger. 675 

• 65s MS. enchtriit. — 659 MS. du [v. note]. 


foi. 35, Tcrs. a. ne belt mais des bons vins gisantz en sun celer, 

de riche vaissele ^ servant butuiUer ; 

n'a mais deliciuses viandes t manger ; 

prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler, 

manicles e buies en liu de buus d'or cler ; 680 

k plume ne k cotun ne k pailles d'utre mer, 

de sole coiltes pointes n'a mais lit au chucher ; 

feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner, 

pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 

tut 90 suefre Auban de verai e bon quoer : 685 

mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir leal chevaler. 

Deus ki tut remire nel vout pas ublier, 

les elementz cumande le tort k'em fait venger, 

e en teu manere cum m'orrez recunter, — 

une chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer 690 

du solail ki flamboie ki tant fist chaut e cler : 

flestrisent blez en terre, perisent li verger, 

li bois e li gardin, li praiol eherber; 

ne venta vent si ki les peiist aorer. 

foille veisez blanchir, le chaut tendruns usler, 695 

foi. 35, vers. b. les grantz paluz secchir e la terre crever, 

oises e bestes mues baer e pantoiser, 

gent ki se despoille e nercir e suer. 

as reims murir les flurs fu duel k regarder. 

dure li chautz de nuitz sanz rein amesurer, 700 

nue ne parut ki terre peust umbrer, 

n'i pout matinee ne vespre aver mester, 

n'a pluie ne rus6e au seir n'al enjumer. 

neissent maladies e divers encumbrer, 

fevres ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler ; 705 

emflent ydropis par beivre e chaut aver ; 

de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garder. 

dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant fer, 

despuis ki li feluns tiranz pautoner 

out fait Auban Her de chaesnes de fer, 710 

tenir laidir e batre e en chartre estuer, 

passe en fu ja dimi an plener. 



ATANT sunt assemble trestuit li citoiein, 
li prince de la terre, li bailli e gardein, 

mandez e sumuns de pais lointein 7 1 5 

• • • • 


• • • • 

L 36a. ** ki crucifie fu eu pais de Sulie. 

Auban est sis disciples, en li creit e se fie. 
autreraent ke li raaistres sis horn ne raurra mie ; 
si en droitz k'em Auban en croiz crucifie." 
des sarrazins s'asentent bien k li grant partie, 720 

mes un de eus respundi, ki 90 pas ne ottrie, 
e dist : — *' Auban li engres par orgoil e envie, 
ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie, 
droiz est ke en terre vif horn Tensevelie : 
cele mort apent k home ki le suen deu renie/' 725 

le plus de la curt ki Tot, k lui s'asent e plie. 
dist uns paens ki estoit de grant felunie :— 
" kar entendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e prie. 
plus nuit e greve ke mort, langur e maladie. 
ne voudroie ke Auban uncore* perdist la vie : 730 

li oil crev6 li soient, eit la viie perie, — 
orb est de quor e avoglez, 90 mustre e signifie, — 
ja nul ne voie, mes autres lui, e poiir eit e die, 
* ki par autres est gamiz, cist beu se chastie/ 

L 36b. enchacez seit ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie ; 735 

celui sive ki doctrine tant prise e maistrie.^ 


-Ll prince e la commune ne Tunt pas otri^, 

ne li parent Auban ki iluec sunt assemble, 

ne cist de la cit^, li veillard e esn^, 

kar Auban ert gentilz e bien enparent^. y^Q 

•♦ 715 a fol. is wanting here in MS.— 730 MS. OHc»n. 


sulum la lei de Rumme, horn k^k mort est jug€, 
ki est commun enemi, mes n'est leres pruve, 
e seit de parage e gentilz e bien-ne, 
custumme est e dreiture ke il seit decole : 
k ceste mort est Auban e livrez e damnez. 745 

cele sentence unt jovre e viel conferme ; 
li grant e li petit bien sunt de 90 pae, 
e autres jugementz unt desdit e fause. 
lors Tunt de rechief de chaesnes lie, 

hors de la cite Tunt trait ja e mene. 750 

tant lui suit grant pueple k'cL pou n'est voide 
li temples e citez il urent ainz estez. 
dient en reschisnant ki Tunt trait e but^ : — 
foi. 36, vers. a. ** va t'en, his, enemi nus deus de la cite ! 

ke tu as deservi, luer tei est apreste : 755 

tu murras santz delai, tu muras, malure !" 

tir6 Tunt e sache, batu e laidange ; 

e cist mot ne sune, mes les ad encline, 

Jesu ure, pur nus ki en croiz fu pene. 

la presse ert grant du peuple ki \k fu aiin^ 760 

pur ver le gugement au queu chief fust mene ; 

curent e poinnent cL cheval e cL pe. 

li uns les autres passent, enviz va bon gre : 

estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferr6. 

k une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gue, 765 

ne batel ne nief cL passer unt truve ; 

un pund i unt truve, il sunt li uns pass6, 

nus ne remaint, mes de passer s'est chescun eforce. 

li pountz estoit estroitz, de pople i out plente, 

k grant estrif i passent, e nul k volente ; 770 

mes li jovre volentrifs de force e poeste, 77 1* 

I'ewe passent k nou, ki parfund fu e le. 772* 

mes plusurs i perisent, dunt fu grant duel men6 ; 771 

li uns du pund en Tewe ki en sunt trebuche, 77a 

e autres ki au noer se mistrent, sunt nee. 

Auban ki 90 regarde marriz est e greve, 

k genoilluns s'est mis, e gent de piete ; 775 

le quor e le visage vers le ciel ad dresce, 

e dist : — •* beu sire Deus, ki as le mund furm6, 

ki en avisiun vi estre en croiz pos6, 

pur tiie franchise e debonnerete, 


fai Tewe descrestre par quei sunt travaill^ 780 

cist ki ver desirent 90 ke m'est aturn6 !*' 

Deu ki tut guverne regnant en majeste, 

ki de tut prent cure quancke il ad crie, 

hautement soudfe ki de lui est priv6, 

la requeste Auban ducement ad grants 785 


J. 36, ym. b. l^ES oraisuns e lermes de vertu sunt tant, 

k* Auban k Deu presente k devociun grant, 
ke I'ewe ki ert parfunde e raedde k flot briant 
retraite, e sun chanel va si apetizant 

ke n'i fust nus k flote, ne batel ne chalant ; 790 

e li avant passer ne pout horn nouant, 
k seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant, 
li mort ki noiez furent se drescent en seant, 
de mort resuscitez, vifs levent e juant, 
legers, enters e seins, cum geii ussent dormant : 795 

mut en sunt esbaiz li paien mescreant. 
uns chevalers gentilz, ki ala trainant 
Auban k martire au puier le pendant, 
ki Aracle avoit nun, e cist out le cumant 
de decoler Auban receii du tirant, 800 

quant veit le miracle Jesu tesmoniant, 
e les resuscitez ki venent Deu louant, 
au sabelun li nuls unc hom ala avant, 
chiet as piez Aubani si engette sun brant, 
e dist en haute voiz, les sarrazins ouant : — 805 

" cist est Deus poestifs, dunt Auban va prechant ; 
n'est autre si il nun, cist est li tut poissant I 
despendu e perdu ai trestut mun viant, 
ke ceu Deu n*ai servi ; mes ore nepurquant, 
mes ke k tart, deveng sis hom e sis sergant. 810 

hai ! Jesu debonaire, k' Auban va tant prisant, 
de trestutz mes pecchez, sire, pardun demant : 
k vus m*alme e mun cors abandun e cumant 
ta vertu prove Tewe k toi obeissant, 

e 90 ke hem desdit, pur vers recumbatant, 815 

tesmoine le element ke k toi est attendant 



hem, k ki Deus dune raisun k sun semblant, 

e tei tuz jurs apele, * k'alez vus demurant ?* 

kar guerpissez Mahom, gnerpissez Tervagant, 

e reclamez Jesu le verai Deu vivant.'' 820 

atant regarde Auban k piteus serablant, 

foi. 37a. e dist : — "proiez pur moi Jesu eu ciel regnant I " 

es-le-vus seisi, e pris de meintenant. 
k'avant urent ire ore la vunt il dublant, 
fremissent cum liuns ki vunt* proie sivant ; 825 

ii uns paens haut s'escrie une mace portant:— 
*' tu mentz apertement, vassal failH puant ! 
mar unc le deis, mar T alas cuntruvant; 
mes jo sai I'achesun, jo en ere voir disant : 
li solailz ke aurum, ki chautz est e raant, 830 

la huntage de lui veit k'alum vengant, — 
le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant. 
ki autrement le dit fableiir est mentant, 
e ^ 90 pruver sui prest ploier le gant." 
atant le fert du poin e du bastun pesant, 835 

les denz lui fait voler des genzives devant, 
du nies e de la buche li sancs ist e espant ; 
derochent e debatent du cors le remenant, 
brisent braz e gambes par lui li trespassant, 

foi. 37b. li nierf H sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant, 840 

la char noire e emfl6e e tut le vis senglant ; 
ne remeint sein ne entier eu cors ne tant ne quant, 
k peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batant ; 
des pez le defulent chevaler e sergant, 
pur mort le guerpissent eu sabelun gisant, 845 

charoinne le tenent sanz alme enfreidissant, 
k luus u chiens livr6* e as oisseus volant. 


C^IST ki Auban meinent sunt ja eu mund venu 

ki fu k sun martire divisez e purvu. 

de robes sunt trestuit e garniz e vestu, 850 

u de haubercs dublers e de buclers escuz, 

♦ 825 MS. ««/.— 847 MS. Ifvnr. 


e portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 

mes sul Auban i est le cors e les pez nu, 

entre espines ki va e les cailloz menu, 

urties e charduns k'aspres sunt e agu. 855 

1^ trovent grant pueple ki les ad atendu, 

ki grant chalur ceu jur e grant sei i unt eii, 
(oL ^, ven. a. au jur ki dunc fu lung ki ne urent beii. 

crient e br^ent e k terre unt geii ; 

e li solailz les greve ki plus ert chautz ke feii. 860 

funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 

uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreii, 

fremissent e crient dolent e irascu, 

maudient Auban e escrient cum lu : — 

" par vostre enchantement trestuit sumes* perdu." 865 

Auban les regarde, pit6 en ad eii, 

des maus ses enemis dolentz est e meu, 

e en plurant ad dit : — ** beus duz sire Jesu ! 

ki regne en poest6, est, serra, e fu, — 

ki de Tewe dunas k Moyseus tun dm, 870 

quant eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfundu : 

ore requor ta franchise ; demustre ta vertu, 

ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu I 

ta creature est tut n'eit tei Deu rekeneii." 

atant es-vus du munt k*est crevez e fendu, 875 

oL 37, ▼wi. b. d'une bele funtainne est li roisseus hissu, 

plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu, 

ki avau le pendant s*espant e est curu. 

li mescreant en beivent, as meins Tunt receii ; 

recunfortez en sunt de Tewe e sustenu, 880 

mes ne recunussent ki lur tramist salu : 

au deu du solail en unt graces rendu. 


XlrNTRE eus est ja levez noise e bruit e criz ; 

atant s*escrie un paens de Damnedeu maudiz : — 

" par enchantement d' Auban, e les charmes e diz 885 

est la nostre creance e poples maubailliz ; 

* 865 MS. sumus. 

E 2 


k'alez vus demurant, fous, cuardz, failliz ?" 

atant sache Tespee e avant est sailliz ; 

Auban saisist e prent cum fait lu la berbiz. 

k un arbre ki let fu, k reims bas e petiz, 890 

les cheveus Auban He par les focuns crespiz ; 

e cist ne gent ne grundille ne de ren n*est flechiz : 

le seint esperit reclaime e le pere e le fiz. 
foi. 38a. li paens Tad feru du brant ki ert furbiz ; 

au coup li fait voler le chef senglant du piz. 895 

du seint sane glorius ki du cors est flaschiz 

la croiz k'Auban porta e li tertre est fluriz. 

la croiz prist e mus9a uns crestiens gentilz, 

ki k celee crut eu seint nun Jesu Cristz. 

des angles est portez eu ciel li esperitz, 900 

purs e esmirables cum cristals politz, 

raant cum solailz ki flamboie k midiz ; 

curun6 est de curune d'or esmere requitz, 

de jaspes, esmeraudes e safirs eschoisiz. 

des legiuns des angles en est li chantz* oiz. 905 

Auban est ja seur, joius e esbaudiz. 

ne dute mais morteus feluns tirantz hardiz, 

k bon port arivez, de gueredun saisiz. 

k honur I'acoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz, 

le regne k recever ke il ad beu meriz. 910 

mes ki le decola, li las cheitifs peritz, 
foi. 38b. n'est mie de sun fait lunges esjoi'tz : 

au coup duner li sunt li oil du chief sailliz, 

e aval sunt chaetz, tut est enobscuritz ; 

le jur Auban cumence e li suens est finiz. 915 

effr6ez sunt paens de 90 e esbaiz, 

le poer Jesu prisent volentris u enviz ; 

li un en sunt joius e li autre mariz, 

dient entre eus suef : — * n'est droitz k'il seit despiz, 
li Deus Auban pur ki mortz est e eschamiz/ 920 

* 905 MS. cha/z. 




J ! martir gentilz ! ki diable vencu as, 
gloire du mund guerpis, ta char ne esparnias, 
tun cors k martire pur la lei Deu livras, 
eu ciel ore regnes e tuz jurs regneras, 

ki pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias, 925 

quant I'ewe lur seech is e puis la lur dunas, 
piet^ te preinne de nus tuz, pecchurs las, 
de ceus ki toi honurent n'eit ja part Sathanas ! 
ki primers Engletere par martire aiimas, 
L 18, Ten. a. pur nus proiez celui k'est verai Messias, 930 

ki en croiz mort sufri, trahi ja par Judas, 
k'il nus ki sa faiture sumes ne perde pas, 
mais nus saut ; si en dient ' amen,' e haut e bas ! 



Ci cumence la passiun Seint Aracle 

J chevalers Aracle, senglant e debris^, 935 

quant ot des miracles ke Jesus out uvr6 
pur le martir Auban ki est ja decole, 
le vis k queuke peine ad vers le ciel dresce, 
si en ad umblement Damnedeu merci6. 

k genoilz e k cutes ad le tertre munt^, 940 

suvaus le cors Auban kar voer ad desire. 
li princes k'ert venuz, k sun destrer munt6, 
pur les merveilles ver ke Deus i out ovr6, 
quant cist veit Aracle ki tant fu maumen^, 
par felunie I'at eschami e gabb^. 945 

•* hay P* dist il, *• Aracle, chevaler alos^l 
mar reclamas Jesu le deu crucifie, 
38, ws. b. e Auban ki chief est ja du bu coup^ ! 

va quere tun seinnur, tun maistre e avou6 ! 

sun chief purras truver k un arbre li6, 950 

par les cheveus i pent e as reims est nu^ ; 

sur l*erbe ki verdoie, le cors ensenglant^. 

di li k'il garisse tun cors k*est depesc^. 


tes nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevre : 

cist ne vus deit faillir, k seingnur Tas clame. 955 

e sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas emble 

de egles u vulturs, ne de lus devor6 ; 

fai— cum faire doitz — ke il seit enterre, 

e en sarcu marbrin ke soit li cors posez/' 

e cist li ad respundu k grant humility : 960 

" de eschars ne gas oir n'ai soing ne volunte. 

ne detissez esjoi'r si feiisez sene, 

ke par vus est Auban k martire livre. 

kar bien le croi de fi e bien sui acerte, 
foi. 47»a. ke eu regne du ciel est martir curune. 965 

garir me puet si lui ben vent k volent6 : 

plus a fait ui vertu puis k'il fu ajume." 

atant of sa mesn^e est li princes pass^, 

mais li francs chevaler Aracle est demur^. 

le chief Auban del arbre ii pendi ad oste, 970 

au cors ki k tere gut Tad mis e ajuste. 

es-vus grant merveille ke Deus i ad mustre : 

au seint cors tucher le martir honure, 

se sent de ses dolurs Aracles tut* san6 ; 

garies sunt ses plaies e sis cors restore : 975 

ne fu unc plus delivres jur puis k'il fu ne. 

lors ad la sepulture au martir aturne. 

li parent Auban e si ami prive 

e crestiens plusurs cuvert e cele 

le gentil chevaler Aracle unt aide ; 980 

le chief unt au cors mis, de dras envolupe, 
foL 47b. pose I'unt en marbrin sarcu e estu6. 

si parent pur sa mort grant duel unt demene ; 

partent s'en atant, e d'iluec sunt ale. 

paen s'aperceivent e en sunt trop ire, 985 

quant unt veii Aracle, ke Deus out regard^, 

k'il urent cum freit mord guerpi e lesse 

eu tertre gisant, as chevaus defule, — 

or Tunt veii tut seint du cors renuvele, 

delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenne, 990 

despuis k*il out le cors lu martir tuche, 

par unt le los Jesu clers est e eshauce. 

* 965 Several foil, have been displaced in binding.— 974 MS. /un. 


suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envenim^ ; 
dient par envie li las, li malur6 : — 

" trop i a sun barat par cest pais semm6, 995 

ki par ci passa, cist pelerin* lettr^. 
de nigromancie mut fu endoctrin6 ; 
li crestien en sunt apris e entusc6, — 
L 47, ▼wi. a. les ewes funt secchir, flestrir Terbe du pr6, 

les mortz funt vifs parer e les vifs devie, 1000 

coup desturnent de mace e de brant acere, 

e veir funt tut parer chose k'est fauset^ ; 

e cist de ki batre tuit fuimes alasse, 

charoinne le tenimes k lus e chens dun€, 

ore est seins e ligger cum uns osturs m\i6 ; 1005 

tant se est par caractes e par sortz enchant^. 

mes fei ke nus devum Mahum le redute, 

tut ne li vaudra un esperun roille." 

lors Tund de rechief mut plus k'avant pen6, 

batu* de ma9ues e a pez defule, 10 10 

de pere deroch6, e leidit e nafr^, 

qant il unt acuitipli quanke lur vint k gr6, 

li uns li ad du brant le chief du bu sevre. 

Palme s'en part, le cors a terre est trebuch^ : 

si parent e ami I'unt en terre musc^. 1015 

li esperitz santz fin regne eu eel esteill^, 

du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desir6. 

entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e curun^ 

of* ses eslitz I'acoilt li Deus de majesty, 

e en la mesn6e Auban est atitl^, 1020 

le regne d recever ki ja n'ert termini. 

e li las dolentz ki Pa martiriz^, 

en la prisun est tuz jurs au maufS, 

sanz ran9un u rescusse retenu e damn^, 

atant s'en sunt partiz, vunt s*en en lur cit6, 1025 

bien quident ki tut eient lur voler achev6 

par tant ke destruite i seit crestient6 ; 

mes ne sevent mie cum Deus Tad devis6 : 

fort est k cunbatre k flot k'est surund^, 

herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cel6. 1030 

♦996 MS. peicnm. — loio MS. bu/u.^ioiS MS. le. — 1019 MS. m. 


des citoiens en* ad bien mil u plus numbr^, 
des plus honurables, riches e feffe, 
foi. 47, vers. b. ki tuit se Sunt de quor k Deu abaundun6 ; 

ki ne flecchirunt, bien Tunt dit e jure, 

ja tant ne en serrunt requis u turment^ ; — 1035 

par les grantz miracles, dunt il sunt acert6, 
ke Deus deigna mustrer as ses martirs privez, 
Auban e Aracle ki s'est acumpainne. 


Aracle vlt en gloire remenant e estable ; 
ne dute mais tirantz, prince, ne cunestable. 1040 

sis nuns est en estoire e escrit remembrable, 
mes de lui ki Tocist n'est ja chan9un ne fable, 
ai ! martir bonurez, kar soiez sucurable 
k ceus ki sunt cL vus enclins e amiable ; 
ki seisiz estes ja du guerdun desirable, 1045 

e regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable, — 
proiez pur nus pecchurs le roi esperitable, 
k' il del encumbrer nus gard de diable ! 
mes cist ki tant poisant e tant est merciable, 
fpi. 461. nus grante la joie ki par est delitable, 1050 

au partir de cest secle ke si est trespassable I 

Ci finist la passiun Seint Aracle. 



Ci cumence la passiun Seint Amphibal. 

I martires de Auban fait est e acumpH ; 
li poples ki \k fu, d'iluec s'en est parti, 
li solailz ja decline e li jurs envespri, 

par la nuit ki survint li airs enobscuri ; 1055 

paens se reposent cuchez e endormi. 
Jesus ki n'a mie mis Auban en ubli, 
de lui en teu manere la gloire descuvri : 
purs estoit li airs e sanz niie seri ; 

* 103 1 MS. an 


de un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi, 1060 

un rais ki flamboie, ki du eel descendi, 

sur la tumbe Auban se arestut fichi. 

muntent e desendent chantant e esjoi 
L 46b. li beus angeres du eel ki deselot* e uveri ; 

aguetes e pasturs paens en unt garni, 1065 

ki mut s'en esmervellent e mut sunt esbai. 

voient apertement li jovre e enehani 

le sepulere Auban, ke tut fu esclarei ; 

ben unt paens les angles veii e esehoisi : 

plus furent beus ke rose u ke n'est lis espani ; 1070 

e teus estoit lur ehantz entenduz e oi'z : — 

" Auban, ki pur Jesu en terre mort sufri, 

martirs est glorius eurunez e fluri.*' 

uns sarrazins des autres plus sages e hardi 

parole primereins as autres entur li, 1075 

e lur dist : — ** eitoiens, vesin, parent, ami ! 

entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 

grant tens avum les deus sarrazinois sivi ; 

si firent noz parentz ki mort sunt e purri, 
L 46, mt. a. ki tuit vunt une part si Deus n'en eit merei, 1080 

en la prisun d'enfer ki sunt enseveli : 

si garde ne empemum si serrum nus ausi. 

penanee demenum, ke ne seium peri, 

chescun endroit de soi, 90 vus requor e pri, 

tant cum en eest mund vivantz sumes* ei. 1085 

querum ceu erestien ki Auban eonverti, 

qui quist eum esgarez, ci ostel e abri ; 

ore pert ben k'il ne fu ne truan ne failli. 

sa bunt^ tesmoinne, — ben sumes* eertz de fi, — 

Auban si deeiples ki saufs est e gari. 

le sen au maistre prove li deeiples k ki 1090 

en la grant seeeheresee li airs obei, 

la terre, ki fruit ne herbe demi an ne rendi, 

Tewe, k'il nus sustrait, ki puis du munt sailli, 

feu, ki ^ sa tumbe lut e resplendi, — 1095 

1. 46. w». b^ li quatre element tuit Tunt beu servi, 

e du eel li angere joi'us e esbaudi. 

de sun gueredun est hautement seisi 

* 1064 MS. dekhi. — 1085. 1089 MS.xtfiPitfx. 



ke il par martire en terre beu men. 

les deus ke servi ai, desore mais defi, i loo 

k*^ humein lignage sunt traitres enemi. 
Jovin apertement e danz Phebun reni, 
Neptun le marin, e Plutun I'ennerci ; 
Jesu desore mais recleim, en lui me fi/* 
e cist communement respunent k un cri : — 1 105 

** e nus dium autel, solum freres uni. 
ne larrum pur poiir ja de brant furbi 
ke soium de s'amur desturnez ne flecchi." 
entrejurez sunt e lur foi unt plevi 

ke il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nuUi. mo 

atant unt droit vers Wdes lur chemin acoilli. 
foi. 39a. la croiz of eus portent ii fu le crucifi, — 

li sancs Auban i pert aers e endurci. 
mil sunt mes ke li uns remist enmaladi, 
ki par aventure de feblesce enpali ; 1 1 15 

morteu maladie le quor lui envai, 
eu chemin demura, en sujur atendi, 
iluec geske Amphibal repeira, langui. 


1 ANT vunt li citoien par pais querant, 
ke Amphibal unt truv6 en Wales prechant, 1 1 20 

grantz vertuz fesant e paens baptizant. 
cist ki la croiz porte Tad sslu6 avant, 
" amis," dist il, *' Jesus te gard li tut poisant ! 
pur lui, pri, soiez ore vers nus atendant. 
tuit fuimes citoiens e riches e menant 1 125 

de Verolame, ii herbergez ches Auban fustes, quant 
passastes par Brettainne d' orient venant. 
foi. 39b. de 90 ke est puis avenu, vus ere voirs disant. 

Auban feistes guerpir la lei Tervagant, 
e le baptizas si tu Tes recordant ; 1 130 

encusez fustes andui k un cruel tirant. 
Auban, ki en fu garniz par un sun bien voiUant, 
d'iluec vus cunveia ben devant Tenjumant; 
sa robe vus duna bruidee d'or lusant, 

vostre croiz retenir de vus avoit le grant. 1 135 

Auban en I'endemein pris fu de meintanant ; 


ben recunust le ovre, ne ren ne fu celant, 

enprisunez fu puis sis mois en un tenant : 

dimi an n*en la terre ne pluveit tant ne quant, 

dunt damage encurumes unc k nul jur tant. 1 140 

perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant, 

flestri e anentti quancke estoit verdoiant. 

veimes ke par Auban fu cist maus tant durant ; 
oL 39. Tcn. a. de chartre fu menez, tuz de la curt veant, 

nupez* e megres e pales cum penant ; 1 1 45 

creiimes ke de sa emprise fust ja ben repentant, 

mes raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant : 

veintre ne flecchir nel pout hem vivant 

asez li ofrimes, — jiieus, argent, besantz, 

mes il ne prisa tut un esperun vaillant 1 1 50 

k mort estoit jugez e amenez avant, 

dehors la cit6 vers solail levant. 

au passer de un pund li li flotz fu bruant, 

sunt chaSth e peritz chevalers e sergantz ; 

quant Auban ad 90 veu, s'a dit en suspirant :— 1 155 

' Deus, ki hom furmer deignas k tun semblant, 
eel mal kar restorez !* es-le-vus relevant 

e le flot tut secchi, dunt cist vunt Deu loant 

Aracle, un chevaler hardi e empemant, 

k* Auban 116 mena, loing engetta sun brant ; 1 1 60 

k Jesu s'est dun6 des dune en avant. 

ne prisa mais noz deus k valur d'un gant : 

batuz e debrisez e defule e senglant 

cum mort le lessames au pe du munt gisant 

veimes apres co grant gent de sei laburant : 1 165 

par la pn^re Aul^ est surse du pendant 

funtainne freide e clere k grant missel curant 

li uns le disoient, (mes faus cuntruvanti) 

ke 90 fu la vertu du solail raant, 

ke teu solaz nus feseit ki I'cdames vengant 1170 

de ses enemis lui cuntredisant. 

suz un arbruseu, ki eu munt fu cresant, 

fu Auban decolez k genoilz Deu urant. 

mes cist ki le feri ne s'en ala vantant : 

^ 1 145 MS. Aupa. 
F 2 


li oil li sunt chaet andui du chef errant, 1 1 75 

tantdi seisi sa croiz ii si sancs est parant. 
foi. 39, Tcrs. b. kar plusurs entendimes e ne estoium dutant 

ke Jesus est e eel e terre guvemant, 
e Auban of lui cum si leal servant. 

la nuit proceinne apres, un rais du eel lusant 1 180 

sur la tumbe Auban resplendi descendant ; 
angeres i aparurent k clere voiz chantant : — 
" martirs est glorius Auban eu eel regnant," 
nus tut 90 yeimes ke m'oez recuntant. 

veez ci la croit Auban, ke il au muriant 1 185 

teinst en sun sane demeine de sun cors esculant. 
pur 90 nus assemblames tuit en un acordant ; 
mil sumes par numbre e vus sul demandant, 
mes ke un suls i faut malade sugurnant, 
pur Tamur Jesu de ki vas sermunant, 1 190 

pur ki avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant 
cum funt cist autre tuit, batesme demant. 
clers es e apris Tas en tes livres lisant : 
k sauvacium di nus k'est apendant ; 

pretz sumes tuit k fere k quor baud e joiant. 1 195 

de fere santz feintise partut le tuen cumant 
ne larrum pur losenge, ne pur mort mana9ant, 
ne pur trespassables richesces promettant. 
gariz est k'en cest mund pur Deu sun sane espant : 
ki resortist pur mort n'est pas verai amant." 1 200 


wUANT teinte eu sane Auban la croiz les veit tenir, 

bien set de li I'estoire unt cunt6 sanz mentir ; 
Amphibal lors gette de parfund un suspir ; 
de gendre e de lermer ne se puet retenir, 
e dist : — " croiz gloriuse ! croiz ki tant desir ? 1205 

croiz plus desirable k'esmeraude u safir! 
croiz tant gloriuse ! quant jo te remir, 
bien me deit d' Auban le gen til suvenir, 
ki par lui trespassant me deingnat acuillir^ 
foL 40a. e ^ si grant honur en sun palois tenir ; 1 2 10 

tant deboneirement e amer e cherir, 


de sa robe ebruusd^e honurer e vestir 
pur moi de mes enemis morteus garantir ; 
m' ensegnement nun pas sulement oir, 
mes k mes cumanz tant leument obei'r, 1215 

k'il ne les vout unc enfreindre ne guerpir, 
ne pur lunge prisun fauser ne flecchir, 
ne pur sun cors livrer* k torment e murir. 
ore vus requor e pri, ai ! glofius martir, 
grantez mei, par ta aie, par martire venir 1220 

au grant gueredun dunt Deu te plut seisin 
proiez lui, ki te vout sun segrei descuverir 
e* par avisiun tei k lui cunvertir, 
k'il m*ottreit par sa grace ceste vie finir, 
par peine e repruver e pur lui mort sufrir ; 1225 

u. 40b. e par esample de vus gloire du eel merir, 

k'4 vostre cumpainnie, dunt tant ai eii desir, 

me doinst Deus ateindre sanz fin u resortir. 

e vus, citoiens gentilz, k keus plest eschoisir 

Jesu le fiz Marie, e Mahummet lenquir, 1230 

plest vus dune amer sanz fauser u trahir, 

e cum Deu recunustre e leaument servir ?'' 

e cist respunent tuit : — *' oil ! sanz repentir ! 

ne larrum pur les testes duner au brand ferir, 

pur losengerie, pur duns ne pur blandir." 1235 

quant les ot Amphibal 90 de quor geir, 

un sermun lur ad fait, ki mut lur plut oir, 

de la trinit6 ke crere sanz faillir 

cuvent k crestien, si il ne veut perir. 

e cist respunent : — ** sire, tut k vostre pleisir.**. 1240 

lors les ad baptiz6 pur la loi acumplir. 


taL>o^iFm. 1. 1 OST est k Verolame veniie la nuvele, 

dunt li princes espris de ire art e restencele ; 

ki ses hummes e amis e ses privez apele. 

**seignurs," dist il, *' cist maus mut surt e renuvele, 1245 

dunt I'onur des deus suvereins ja besille e chancele, 

par un clergastre avolez ki par terres sautele, 

* 12 18 MS. Jiver. — 1223 MS* a. 


nupez e depanez, vestuz de viu gunele, 
mes plus set d'enchantement, d'art, e de favele, 
ke ne set de tanailles fevre ki martele. 1250 

de Marie va prechant, une simple ancele 
ki enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele, 
e apres renfantement remist mere e pucele. 
si fiz est Deus e hem, 90 dit, 90 est la lei faiele. 
e cist Deus k'en parais fist hom masle e femmele. 1255 

puis* devint hem e mort sufri en croiz dure e cruele : 
la prophecie d' anciens 90 conferme e saele, 
mes trufle est e contruvure, fable k rote u viele, 
ne fait plus k creire k'au vent k*en Tair ventele ; 
foi. 40, vers. b. kar cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 1260 

dunt fei ke dei Palladei e Diene la bele, 
ki prechera desore mais de cele lei nuvele, 
acurer frai u enfrundrer de teste u de cervele. 
e ceu tafur, si quis delist estre de ci Vk Burdele, 
prendre le frai e fors sacher du ventre la bugle. 1265 

kar tant cum vif, e ^striu puis bailler pur munter sele, 
Jesu ne aiirai pur ki ne doins une cenele. 
k vus cunsel sur 90 demant ma gent k*estes loiele." 



ARRAZINS respunent: — "ne vus devum celer, 
le deshonur noz deus le larrum de venger. 1270 

mil citoien nus faillent, ki au clerc d'utre mer 
se sunt alie, 90 dient messager, 
noz veisins e amis e parentz k'eiimes cher. 
mut serra la perte grant sanz restorer, 

si nus ne les poum k maisun reamener. 1275 

mais nus i irrum, s'il vus plaist cumander, 
par promesse u manace lur quers reapeler, 
foi. 41a. u par largement tresor abaunduner ; 

e si trestut 90 ne puet aver mester, 

tuz tuerum k glaive sanz nul espamier." 1280 

e respund li princes : — ** mut me plest cist voler.** 
lors ad mande sa gent, centeines e miller, 
e cumande k'en Wales tuit aillent sanz targer 
ceste grant busoinne sanz delai achever ; 

* 1256 US. pus. 


e dst s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener, 1 285 

k penuncel leve, ii unt fait aparer 

le solail e la lune ki lur plut aiirer. 

or portent e argent en cofres k sumer, 

pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter. 

ne finent k jumees tut serr6 chevaucher ; 1 290 

si unt le clerc truve par querre e demander, 

prechant e baptizant, ke 90 fu sun mester. 

cist ki les autres guie parole premer, 

si ad dit par grant ire : — *' vassal pautener I 

k*alez vus simple gent par barat enganer, 1 295 

^ 4»^- ki ne se sevent de tes sortz garder. 

mes si veuz estre quites de mort e repruver, 

desdi ke tu dit as par tes gas cuntruver, 

ke peiisum of les noz k'i sunt, repairer 

sanz plus aver par vus travail e desturben 1 300 

del avoir vus en frum mut largement duner. 

si 90 nun, par la mort tuz lur cuvent passer ; 

n'a cist ki decolez ne seit du brand d*acer. 

dun6e est la sentence, sacez, sanz returner/' 

li un des crestiens plus ferms e plus enter 1305 

respunt pur Amphibal sanz verity celer, 

e dist: — "mut cunussez petit cest prude ber, 

^ ki tu cumences tant viument k tencer, 

k* ami est le Deu verai ki nus plut tuz cri^r ; 

90 purrez vus, espoir, devant vespre espruver 13 10 

par aucun langurus garir e restorer. 

vus ne savez mie sa vertu ne poer 

ne ses grantz vertuz e mesure e saver : 
iL 4i» wt. a. ' cist se fert ki ne veit,' dit hem cu repruvcr. 

ne place k Jesu ki tut ad k guier 1315 

de sun enseignement ke nus puissez sevrcr * 

par duns ne par turment ne par mort mcnaccr. 

plus devum pur Jesu murir desirer 

k'en cest mund princes curunez regncr : 

90 est nostre sentence k'esta sanz ja fau^n 1 1 20 

mais si estre volez of nus parcener 

de la joie du ciel dunt quor ne puct (icn^-fi 

guerpir vus cuvent Mahum, c rcccvcr 

batesme of nus, pur voz maus cspurgcr/' 

• 13I6 MS. uur. 


quant 90 ouent sarrazins, n'i out ke curucer ; 1325 

lors sachent les espees sanz plus demurer, 

de parent u veisin sanz merci aver, 

fiz, frere, nevu, d'ocire e detrencher, 

ki oient une voiz pur eus recunforter :— 
foi. 41. vers. b. " venez, li mien ami, ki ai k soudeer, 1330 

saisiz ja en serrez cum loial chevaler.** 

90 ouent sarrazins, li glut adverser ; 

tant sunt il plus criieus e plus fier 

ke tut dient ke * 90 est par sortz au sarmuner ; 

tant aprist nigromant kant il ert escoler, 1335 

Teir fait k sun talent rebundir e sunen* 

li autre volenters muerent certz de luer ; 

premers voisist estre ki est li darrener. 

d'une part, veissez les uns decoler, 

d'autre, esbueler, ocire, e desmenbrer, 1340 

abatre e detrencher, as chevaus defuler : 

n'est hom ki n'en peiist grant piet6 aver. 

tant cum li pere au fiz la plaie va bender, 

li frere li curt sure ki le vent esmanker. 

de ceste* cumpainnie, ki tant fist k loer, 1345 

foi. 42a. ne failli rundement* ke n'i eiist mil enter 

ke un sul ki remist malade en un senter. 

tut 90 veit Amphibal ki plure e gent de quoer ; 

ne puet sanz martire les martirs regarder,— 

cist sunt martir de cors, cist de quor duluser, — 1350 

mes k Deu les presente, ki les deigne apeler, 

e cist s'en vunt eu ciel sanz fin diemurer : 

li angere les cunveient ki haut chantent e cler 
* gloire e loenges,* pur joie demenen — 

quant paens unt ocis tuz sanz nul passer, 1355 

plus criieus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler, 

senglantz cum liun k*i proie est devurer, 

Amphibal unt seisi sanz sei amesurer ; 

tut unt rette k lui cest mortel encumbrer. 

les braz li unt lie pur lui plus grever ; 1360 

jurent Jovin lur deu li plus haut k*est sanz per, 
foi. 42b. ne se desjunerunt — nis de un disner — 

einz ke k Verolame aient fait mener 

le clercj par* unt lur deus mut purrunt paer ; 

♦ 134s MS. cesL — 1346 MS. rundemement, — 1364 MS. part. 


cum sacrifice eu temple par devant lur auter. 1365 

* k la plus cruele mort k'em purra deviser 
ocire le ferum, pur autres chastier.* 



EUS, ki ne met pas les suens en ubbliance, 
einz les honure tuz jurs, cherist e avance 
ki lui eiment e en lui unt amur e esperance. 1370 

les cors ki ne estoient de nule cunussance, 
decolez, esbuelez de esp^e u de lance, 
beus devenent e enters sanz nule demurance ; 
les menbres lur sunt restorez, pez e braz sanz faillance. 
li sancs, k'avant les cors out teint, de leit ad ja semblance; 1375 
les cors plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne mance, 
ke cunustre les pout hom sanz faille u dutance : 
i»i. 42, vers. a. qucus jovrcs, queus veuz, queus gentil de nesance, 

queus petiz, queus maens, queus grantz de cresance, — 

unc plus beus ne estoient jur puis lur enfance. 1380 

li enemi Jesu eh unt e envie e pesance, 

e si ami ki 90 unt veii, ne sunt pas en balance : 

ki en Jesu creit ki cist la dreite creance. 


U N autre ad Deus pur ses martirs fait miracle e vertu : 
par sun cumant est du desert un grant lu venu, 1385 

e un aigles of lui ki k terre est desendu ; 
les cors unt as gentilz martirs garde e defendu, 
k'll n'unt nis un des cheveuz entame ne perdu : 
Tegle oiseus enchace e les bestes li lu. 

teu merveiUe en terre ne fu unc mais veii, 1390 

ki li lu du bois, ne saul ne peii, 
e li aigles raveinner, ki sunt ja devenu 
gardeins de morticine par la force Jesu. 
ji. 41. vcn.. h. quant cist de la terre la mer\'eille unt veii, 

les cors unt honure, redute c crcmu, 1395 

ke il avant urent en despit eii ; 

k Deu en unt graces e mcrcis rendu 

de teu miracle k'en lur terre lur est aparu. 



sepulture atument e k chescun sarcu, 

en sueires les unt e mis e encusu ; 1400 

e en escrit unt mis le numbre e retenu, 
k'en lunge remembrance seit escrit e leii : 
. nuef centz e nunante nuef la summe ad cuntenu. 



UT en sunt curucez li sarrazin cruel, 

plus ke leonesse ki pert sun l^uncel ; 1405 

de cest travail si grant ke unc n'avoient tel 

tut rettent Amphibal le clerc orientel. 

pris Tunt e seisi cum li lu fait aignel ; 

les meins li unt lie k criieut^ e duel. 
foi. 43a. jur6 unt Mahomet e lur grantz deus de eel : 1410 

de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel, 

ne dormirunt chucez en lit suz lincel, 

ne mangerunt k table, n*en tente, n'en ostel, 

s'averunt k Verolame lur cit6 naturel, 

vif u mort, mene lur enemi mortel ; 1415 

k Phebun le durrunt, si en frunt feste anugl, 

sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

li paen sunt grant pueple cum sumuns k cenbel 

d'envair ost arei u cite u chastel. 

n'a cist ki n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel, 1420 

cha9ur, u fort runcin, u grant destrer* ignel, — 

mes sul i est k pe li precheiir Amphibel, 

sanz chauceiire e nuz tut fors d'un mantel. 

devant eus funt cure le gentil juvencel, 

escrient e Tahuent plus viument k'un chael ; 1425 

foJ. 43b. aler le sumunent de lance e de cutel. 

li cTiemins ferrez aspre e deshuel 

Talasse e Tensenglante des plantes la pel, — 

li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de missel ; 

doillant li sunt li nerf e tut veins li cervel. 1430 

mes quancke il pur Deu suefre plus li est duz ke mel, 

despuis ke k Auban aproce le seint martir nuvel, 

of ki estre desire, k'il ne va querant el. 

♦ 14s I MS. dester. 




tl languerus ki par chemin suspris de maladie 
remist, ki ses cumpainnuns sivre ne pout mie, 1435 

quant veit Amphibal venir, k haute voiz s'escrie : — 
** ALinphibal ! ami Jesu ki ciel e terre guie, 

{nt6 te preinne de moi ki peris sanz aie !" 
a rute des sarrazins de crier le chastie, 

pur tant ne laist cist ke ses criz ne eshauce e multiplie ; 1440 
" de Verolame sui," 90 dit, ** la cit6 enrichie, 

^3, rm. a. ki me sui del tut dun6 k Jesu fiz Marie. 

despuis k'Auban decole fu k la espie furbie, 

pur ki fere deingna Deus vertuz en ceste vie, 

e apres la mort du cors, pur Talme esclarcie. 1445 

assemblame pur 90 gent en une cumpainnie, 

vis nus fu, n'est autre Deu for cist k'en Sulie 

en croiz murut pur delivrer* nus d*enfemal baillie ; 

pur ki Auban haut martirs* est, quei k*envius die. 

mil fumes d'iluec esmeuz en une cunestablie, 1450 

of la croiz k'eu sane Auban fu teinte e flurie, 

pur aver de vus batesme, ki la gent seintifie. 

suspris de langur remis en ceste voie haie ; 

le cors m*est feble e anienti, la char pal e flestrie. 

bien croi, si tu requers pur moi, ta priere ert oie.*' 1455 

Amphibal piet6 en ad, vers lui s' enhumilie, 

e Jesu mut humblement pur lui requert e prie, 

atant es-vus s'angoisse tute s'en est partie ; 

seins est e tut delivres, dunt cist mut Tenmercie, 

13. TCTi. h. e le grant poer Jesu lot e glorifie ; 1460 

dunt n'a nul des sarrazins ki ne (voille u nun) die : — 
** mut est li Deus as crestiens de grant seignurie, 
ki lie k'i pleisir li vent e ki li plest, deslie." 


1 RES sunt de Verolame, ja veient les mureus, 

ede lur temples e paleis, tureles e kemeus ; 1465 

4une pleinne se arest^ent ki vertz fu e ji'eus. 

* 1448 MS. dilrver, — 1449 MS. ma /in, 

G 2 


iluec se reposent les sarrazins criieus, 
deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
mes repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus ; 
si cors est las, mais sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus, 1470 
de la busoingne Jesu faire cum sis hem leus. 
e dist: — '' gentilz chevalers, par quei estes vus teus, 
ke vus diables enfernaus reclamez pur Deus, 
ki k sun semblant fist nus tuz morteus ? 
tant mar fustes nez en cest mund corporeus ! — 1475 

trop par estes criieus, durs, desnatureus. 
mais duz e debonaires est Deus e dreitureus ; 
foi. 44a. il tuz vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 

les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus ; 

de teus en unt grant joie li angre espiriteus.'* 1480 

atant se sunt dune k Deu li plusur de eus, 

pur Jesu decolez, ki ore regnent es eels. 

adunc se sunt muntez li uns des juvenceus, 

ki destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus, 

e sunt k Verolaime venuz k lur osteus, 1485 

dire ke est venuz li traitre orienteus 

ki tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns desleus. 


WUANT cist unt la nuvele d* Amphibal oi 

par ki unt perdu Auban lur bon ami 
e lur parent k lui atrait e asoti, 1490 

mut sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi, 
kar hautement 90 dient, *venge serunt de li/ 
mais un de eus I'aventure cunta e descuvri ; 
ke cist pur ki furent tuit sumuns e bani, 
tant furent en errur entrez e endurci, 1495 

e k Jesu dune ki mort en croiz sufri, 
pur tut Tor de Damas ne fusent resorti : 
'* nus en fumes irez e dolent e mari, 
e les detrenchames tuz au brand furbi." 
quant cist Fund entendu, mut funt grant noise e cri, 1500 
en lermes e grant duel lur joie converti. 
dist chescun lermant : — ** las ! pur quei nasqui ? 
fiz, frere, nevu, ai ! tant mar vus vi. 


frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfani. 

eu desert gisez cum charoinne guerpi ; 1 505 

n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli. 

oisel te devurent e lu ensauvagi. 

tant mar reclamas le deu k'en croiz pendi ! 

cist nigromanciens ki ja passa par ci 

par ses enchauntements* ces grantz maus nus basti. 15 10 

chers deus celestiens, ki tant avum servi, 

pemez ent vengance de ceu tafur failli !" 
bi. 44b. pleurent e weimentent li jovre e enveilli, 

lur cheveus decirent, lur dras unt derami ; 

maudient Amphibal le precheiir, par ki 15 15 

tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubailli. 

mais quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi, 

dient : — ** esmesurez vus, kar n'est pas si 

cum vus le quidez, beus duz amis cheri. 

kar ne sunt pas, sacez, ne perdu, ne peri ; 1520 

k honur sunt e gloire eu ciel acoilli. 

puis ke les eiimes truvez e eschoisi, 

e une part par eus tuz severez e parti, 

mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi : 

n'eiissum un de eus flecchi pur un val d'or empli ; 1525 

dune les oceismes sanz piete e merci, 

mais chescun de eus de murir avant se purofri : 

pesa al darreinner k'il tant fu espami. 

veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri, 

tant k'as plaies bender li freres main tendi. 1530 

li sancs cum un roiseus es plainnes se espaundi. 

atant de Jesu la gloire resplendi ; 

une voiz oismes, chescun ben T entendi : — 
* venez, mi chevaler, ki bien m'avez servi, 
desore of moi serrez en parais fluri. 1535 

>ur turmentz corporeus ki ja sunt acumpli, 
le regne averez du ciel ki jamais n'ert fini/ 

nus en estoium e liez e esjoi, 

ke Deus n*avoit mie mis les noz en* ubli. 

gurent par ces champs defulez e guerpi ; 1540 

n'i peiist hem cunustre prive ne estrangi, — 

Jesus les restora, bien soiez certz de fi, 

* 1510 MS. etuhauniemeni, — 1539 MS. t. 



cum si il geiisent tuz vifs, enters, seins e gari ; 
li sancs k'avant les teint, plus ke laitz emblanchi. 
nus les cuntasmes tuz k cert cunte establi, 1545 

e feimes enbrever a arrement nerci : 
mil cors i truvasmes* mais ke un sul i failli. 
foi. 44, vers. a. as cors garder vunt un grant lu enchani, 

de chens ne d'autres bestes ke nul ne fust blesmi, — 

e uns aigles, ki d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. 1550 

cist k'avant les urent mut despit e hai, 

k honur les unt ja en sarcuz acoilli. 

si en devum tuit estre de joie repleni, 

ke Deus en ad des noz a sun uoes tant seisi." 


JKeSPUNENT li paen, dient veraiment : — 1 555 

** mut est cist Jesus de grant enseignement, 

ki ceus ki en lui croient de huntage defent. 

li clercs ki de lui preche, ki vint del orient, 

ne fait pas k despire cum meint quide e entent. 

si il fust boiseiir, ne feist, men escient, 1560 

des cors detrenchez teu mescinement ; 

par tant le poum bien saver apertement : 

verai est sanz dutance li suen prechement." 

quant ot 90 li princes ki i estoit present, 

tut est enflambez de ire e mautalent ; 1 565 

tant par est irascuz, k pou de ire ne fent. 

si a dit, cum losengers ki sun errur defent : — 

" cist faus enginneiir tant saet d'enchantement, 

cum nuls dire purra, — nel croi plus ke vent. 

ki bien de lui dira, u k ces mais entent, 1570 

faus pauteners ki nus mentent uvertement, 

fei ke dei Phebum ki en tut le mund resplent, 

il en perdera le cief par jugement. 

plus est fous ke beste ki les ot e i assent ; 

mes par Jovin ki guie terre e firmament, 1575 

trop dure cist baratz, trop dure cist turmentz, 

trop nus ad fait damage, trop nus ad toleit gent ; 

uncore fra il plus, si il vive lungement. 

* 1547 MS. truvas. 


cxst ders de poteare, dawsMgjt ess k il xie pent, 
mais phis De S22igera ja2D22S de la deot. 15SC 

ke DC C32ipere cest one cL esf miw ri- 
jo en presdidi sanz deiiai s hazn Tesigemest, 
L 44. «Tw bL cum de itel feian uari r e pc ig >d: e apeat.**" 

en la cite, e paitst & s:^! poer sesteat. 15S5 

ke ' tnz cam aaneat hir rie e tpnement, 

bien annez le srrest li ^ 3 akr teat.' 

i ceste smnnnse nials oe rpgnarnt x>e atesL 

tant i a gent, li c^ymHs nes c:zs2pffent ; 

mnt neporqiiast se peaent dealer hastrrement : 1590 

blasmez iii li damesxmer e ki daSer ri leat. 

li ans de eas s'ea \rant par un adiescesiieat, 

ki pur tost xenh- poisnenl igneksDcnt. 

Amphifaal ont trove, ki i sermim eatent 

entnr lui crestieas nizveas plizs de cent, 1 595 

k*i JesQ se sunt dime nmreJemeat. 

mes quant dst le Tokat, grant iie ks espreat : 

lores Font seisi e pris e despoEQe viumeat, 

e le unt turmente cum diable les aprent. 


U X peel en terre afichent li paien criminal, 1600 

e la baele en sachent dn v-entre Amphibal, 

cum liun Id desire char de cors bestiaL 

au peel Funt atache i grant turment cural ; 

les meins li unt lie, dune resne i cheval, 

nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal, 1 605 

entur le pel Fenchacent cum k cbemin jumaL 

de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal 

ferent, batent e poinnent cist pautener vassal 

ke tut est escule Fentrail corporal. 

des verges Funt batu ke li sancs raa av-al, 1610 

cum fait de la funtainne li roLsseus cursal : 

teinte en a la peitrine* le dos e flaunc costaL 

li martirs ki pense du rei esperital, 

ki pur ses serfs sauver. devint horn morta' 

Her sc lessa rum iarran desloial '615 


k un piler, e batre sun seint cors real ; 
k curune de espines pur chapel capital, 
foi. 45a. en croiz le pendirent li Giu desloiaL 

** ai !" dist Amphibal, " n'est pas cist turment tal 

cum Deus pur moi sufri, n*est de loing paringal." 1620 

lors se rejoist cum se il n'ust unc mal ; 

dunt paien se curucent, li fil Belial : 

ne virent la merveille en cest mund temporal. 



L en sunt plus aegre de li turmenter, 
de batre e de rebatre e de cuteus naverer. 1625 

nel volent parocire, mais lungement pener ; 
tele est lur ire e lur voler pur ses turmentz dubler, 
pur murir e remurir e lunges duluser. 
e cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier, 

k'il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 1630 

aidunc plusurs de eus, ke Deus plust sauver, 
k Jesu se rendirent de bon e verai quoer. 
dient k haute voiz, n'unt cure de celer: — 
** nus reclamun Jesu ki fist e terre e mer, 
e refusum Mahum sanz jamais returner. 1635 

foi. 45b. Amphibal ! ami Deu ki tut ad k guier, 

nus veum ja la gloire ke Deus vus veut duner ; 

kar requerez Jesum, k'en seum parcener !" 

quant ot 90 li princes, n'i out ke curucer, 

cumande sanz delai trestuz ceus decoler. 1640 

li paien les detrenchent tuz au brant d'acer, 

veant Amphibal, ki cumence k precher, 

e ceus en la creance Jesu cunfermer ; 

** alez," dist il, ** martirs ! alez, leus chevaler ! 

al haut rei de gloire, sun regne recever." 1645 

** hai !" dist un sarrazin, **tres cruel pautener, 

tant mar nus as oui fait cest mortel encumbrer ; 

tu as i mort livre tant meint prude ber, 

ki ne se sevent de tes la9uns garder ; 

n'estes las ne saul de Jesu langetter, 1650 

deceivre simple gent e par diz enganer. 

tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener : 


mil en avum ja mort ui sanz espamiSr, 

k'au deu crucifix par vostre sermuner 

tuit sunt abandune, peri sanz recuverer. 1655 

morz es e maubailli, ne purrez eschaper ; 

tuit sunt ti enemi ki tu* veiz ci ester. 

ore fai ke te dirai, se ferez grant saver : 

desdi ke tu dit as pur la gent enginner, 

reni Jesu ki Giu oserent encroer, 1 660 

e recleim noz grantz deus ki tant sunt de po6r ; 

tu les as curuc6 par tun grant nunsaver, — 

tu en purras granz ben e honur cunsirer, 

terres e tresor de argent e de or cler ; 

pardun purrez aver, si tu les voilz proier ; 1665 

de tes morteus plaies te purrunt mesciner, 

e ceus ki par tei ci sunt morz, resusciter/' 

respund Amphibal quant Tad oi parler : — 

** entenc/' dist il, "vers moi, paen adverser 1 

en pecches mut, e menz, quant te oi tes deus priser, 1670 

kar ne vaut lur poisance un butim d'eglenter. 

sul Deu puet les morz 3Pvie reapeler, 

emun cors, si li plest, garir e reestorer. 

diable, ki servez e vus plaist aiirer, 

mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer ; 1675 

Ik est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver, 

ii est grant tenebrur, nuit sanz enjumer, 

feu ki pas ne esteint, verm k'em ne puet tu6r. 

1^ cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer, 

en cest mund ki obeissent k lur mauvois voler : 1680 

parjure e mescreant, desdeingnant Deu amer, 

avoutre e homicide, li felun guerroier, 

of lur deus lur apent en enfer sujumer. 

Ul te cuvendra of les dampnez aler, 

si tu ne guerpis tes deus sanz demurer, 1685 

e Jesu reclamer ki prest est tuz sauver. 

tant cum il lui plest espace otroier, 

retraire te cuvent e par tens cumencer ; 

kar la franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcunter: 

les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover, 1690 

les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer. 

• 1657 MS. /#. 



VI It ^ ' 


par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger : 

90 est la porte par unt cuvent eu eel entrer, 

90 fait horn renaistre e tut renuveler. 

e vus lou par tens de vus purvoier, 1695 

ke ne soiez del tut peri par trop targer/' 



O oient sarrazin ki estoient envirun, 
i> fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun ; 
lors tuit i acurent k un voler commun, 
de peres Tagraventent, de zuche e de pemin, 1700 

le cors brisent e batent, de mace e de bastun, 
ke tut est debrise du frund gesc'au talun. 
e cist, cum il estoit en mortel passiun, 
vers lu ciel regarde e fait sa oraisun. 

al destre sun pere veit ester Jesun, 1 705 

des angles entur li une grant legiun. 
regarde e veit entr6 Auban sun cumpainnun : 
** ai ! *' dist il, " martir, ai ! gentil barun, 
foi. 48b regardez moi* ki sui en tel mortel prisun. 

jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun ; 17 10 

requerez Deu k'il mei par sa redempciun 

part doinst of vus Ik mund en cele regiun, 

ft est vie sanz mort, pais sanz cuntenciun ; 

e m'enveit de angeres consolaciun, 

ke ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun, 17 15 

ne part ne eient de moi fiz de perdiciun, 

ke se peinent de mettre mei k confusiun 

par abanduner al enfemal Mahun." 

atant es-vus deus angeres ki de lur mansiun 

desendent, k'erent plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun, 1720 

u quant se espanist lis en sa saisun. 

ces i enveit Deus k sun loial champiun, 

lui recunforter en tribulaciun. 

une voiz ki reahaite mut sa entunciun 

ot : — ** ui receverez pur tun travail guerdun : 1725 

of Auban tim deisciple seisi serras du dun 

♦ 1709 MS. mo. 


ki garde n'a de fu, de verm, ne de larrun." 
|8, ren. tL de la voiz sc effrecnt li sarrazin glutun ; 

lors le delapident trestuit k bandun, 

navrent e defulent k chevaus de randun. 1730 

Talme atant s'en ist de sa chamel maisun, 
angeres eu ciel la portent k grant processiun. 


xVTANT surt une noise e un estrif mut grant, 
e s'entrecunbatent li paien mescreant. 

kar cist ki quis Tavoient e truve prechant, 1735 

e reamen^ de Wales, jure eiirent avant 
par lur deus — Phebum, Mahum e Tervagant, 
k'il tuit amerroient le clerc mort u vivant 
k Verolaime lur cit6, e li, lur gent veant, 
pen6 Tociroient: tel fu lur cuvenanL 1740 

mes li prince feluns, ki les vint encuntrant, 
ne vout tant atendre, tant par fu ardant. 
e si le purvit dune Deus li tut poisant 
ke tuit fussent parjur6 li traitre senglant, 
ne lur voler feisent cist pautener tirant 1745 

48, wi. b. lores cumence li bruit, e un estur pesant ; 

de maces e cuteus e de lance e de brant 
ferent nafrent e traient atant 
un crestien le cors au martir vaillant 

sustrait, ke sarrazin ne erent apercevant, 1750 

si fu la presse grant e mortel nepurquant ; 
puis mist le cors en terre, en sarcu avenant, 
e ses cumpainnuns martirs k' erent obeisant 
k la lei crestiene dunt li clers fu prechant 
les cors ad enterr^ suz bleste verdoiant, 1755 

ke ne les devurassent bestes n'oisel volant : 
Deus li rende Tonur, ki fist solail raant I 
les martirs sunt en gloire el regne permenant, 
e li paen felun el fu d'enfer puant, 

s'il ne estoient el sieclepuis verai repentant. 1760 

** martir glorius ! jo vus quoer e demant 
ke nus — ceus k en cest mund vus sunt honurant, 
servant e ami e vostre bien voillant, 

H 2 


foL 49a. soiez cuntre diable lur escu e guarant — 

ke sauf soium ! si en dient ' amen V veil e enfant" 1765 



RANT fu la bataille, meint en i out blescd, 
meint mort e defule, maubailli e nafr6 ; 
Deus prent de eus vengance k*il tant unt guerroi^. 
un des grantz merveilles ki unc fust recunt^ 
fist Deus pur Amphibal sun martir alos6 : 1770 

n'i out ki Tust mesdit u mesfait de gr6, 
ke il ne fust du cors cuntrait, defigur6 
de visage u de braz u de main u de p6, 
desv6* u avogl6 u mort u mahainn6 ; 

ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alos6, 1775 

ore est un cuntraitz u purpris de mauf€ ; 
lur menbres sunt destuers, desjointz e esluiss69 
les buches traversent, li oil sunt reverse, 
les langes lur ardent, li doi sunt repli& 
de la cite li princes tost s'en est arag6. 1780 

apris unt, n*a mester k nul de mere n6, 
foi. 48b. en terre guerroier le rei de majesty ; 

ne se pout nul vanter ki iluec eust est€, 

ke sanz grant vengement le eiist deshonur^, 

e ses martirs gentilz k'il unt k mort livr6. 1785 

tost s*espaunt la nuvele par trestut le regn6 ; 

ne puet mais le poer Jesu estre cele. 

cist k'en oient parler, al oil Tunt esgard6 ; 

trestuit k une voiz en unt Deu merci^, 

k Jesu se rendent tuit cist de la cit6, 1079 

lur temples e auters k lui abaundun^, 

lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depec€ ; 

mut en sunt repentant, k'il les unt tant am6. 

pleinent lur ancesurs ki sunt ja devi6, 

qui tant les unt servi ; hai ! tant sunt malurS, 1795 

kar ore sunt en enfer k tut dis damn6. 

la croiz Jesu aiirent k grant humilite, 

e lui tuit aiirent k*en croiz murut pen6, 

* 1774 MS. deei'e. 



e nus reinst par sa mort d'enfemal poestd. 
^9^ Ten. a. bien unt ja recunu sa haute dei't^, 1 800 

e ke de virgne prist en terre humanity, 
cist est sires* de terre e du eel estoill^ ; 
bien geisent ke il a dreitureument uvr6. 
baptizer se funt tuit el nun de trinity, 

guerpissent lur emirs e maus e vanite, 1805 

pement confessiun de folie e pecch^, 

penance demeinent, e sunt i Rumme al6, ,. 12 ■> 

de la lei crestiene pur estre endoctrine, 
mustrer al apostoille tute la verite, 
cum Deus par sa vertu les a revisit6. i8io 


a parole cist sarrazins cunvers kiestatt 
presenz a tutes cestes aventures e tut 
mist en escrit ; ke puis fu translate 
en latin f e apres fo/u translate de 
latin en rutnantz. 

49, Ten. a. J O, ki ^ ceu tens estoie mescreant sarrazin, 

de ceste estoire vi le cumenfail e fin, 
despuis ke Auban re^ut en sun palois perrin 
sun oste Amphibal, trespassant pelerin, 
gesk'i tant k'il furent mis en sarcu marbrin, 1815 

of les pa^ns estoie de la loi Apolin, 
Pallaide, e Diene, e Phebun, e Jovin, 
ki sunt dampn^ diable en enfer susterin, 
(mes le honur Jesu crest, e cist vunt en declin ;) 
la geste ai, cum la vi, escrit en parchemin. 1820 

uncore vendra le jur, ben le di e devin, 
la estoire ert translatee en franceis e latin, 
ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin, 
mais fei ke doi porter lui ki fist d*ewe vin, 
ne i deise fauset6 pur tut Tor Costentin. 1825 

d. Jesu me sui rendu cum mi veisin ; 
desore penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin, 

* 1802 MS. eft tirt «#/ iirtt. 


nupez sanz chauceiire de cordewon caprin, 

pur esclavine eschaung mun peli9un d ermin. 

ne dormirai au vespre i jo lief au matin, 1830 

si Ik k'en nief me mette au procein port marin ; 

passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin, 

vers Rumme la cit6 tendrai droit le chenGun, 

as Romeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin, 

kancke ai veil e 01 jo peccheres orphanin, 1835 

en Feille ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin ; 

pur Auban ki Tad teinte premers de sane rosin, 

ki pur Deu decole fu du brand acerin, 

musterai i mun livre escrit en veeslin ; 

tesmoin averai of moi mein veillart e meschin. 1840 

jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin 

mes pecchur cupable, dolent, poure e frarin. 

batesme i requorai de quor verai e fin ; 

^ Jesu me abaundun, serf loial, enterrin, 

e la estoire de Auban ci finis e termin. 1845 

Ci finist It rumantz de Pestoire 
de Seint Auban U premer martir 
de Engletere^ e de Seint Amphibal 
e de ses cumpainnuns. 



bL 89 reot., no rnbric nor illastntion. 
bL 89 TVS., two illustrations, representing Amphi- 
tns and his disciple Aaban» both seated. 
Amphibal cum clerc lettrez, 
cunte i Auban cum Deu fu nez, 
en croix fu mis, puis [MS. pus] releva, 
i la fin nus tuz jugera. 
Auban Tot, mes pas nel creit, 
90 k*il cunte, ke voir seit ; 
de lui s*en part par mautalent. 
la nuit obscure le susprent. 
latuUns absqu€ nota auia mens erat hutc bene lotOt 
Albemum iota vocat nunc cognatio nota, 
Albanus quaerit quae gentis gratia dirae 
christicolam tulerit gentUia regna subire. 
bL 80 raot., no illustration. 

indiaU Amphibalus quod item prohibere paratum 
posset nemo ma/us Christo sibi dante ducatum, 
foL 80 TVS., Auban in bed ; — his dream, 
d Teit Auban en dormant 
auancke Amphibal li dit avant. 
b cors dort, mes Talme veille, 
k*eu del veit la grant menreille. 
noete revelatur Albano visio grandis, 
fuomodo damnatur salvans pro salvificandis, 
IbL 81 net., Auban in an adjacent room watching 
• behavioor of Amphibalus, who is kneeling before 
I CroM. 

d rdt Auban par la fenestre 
de Amphibal trestut sun estre. 
mustrer li veut en bone fei 
de sun sunge tut le segrei. 
Amphibal la croiz aure 
i genoilluns, suspire e plure ; 
ne tretublie, ne aort ne summe, 
ke fl ne face sa custume. [i^^neratur;] 

iaus tibi Christe datur; vigili prece crux 
omnia miratur Albanus quae spec[uiatur'], 
bL 81 Ten., A. kneeling before the cross which 
9I. carries : — Apl. baptizing A., who is seen half 
kcd in a tub. 

li recunte Auban sun sunge ; 

par la croiz vdt, n'est pas menfuenge. 

Amphibal ne li cele mie 

TaTissun ke signifie. 

Auban est ja oaptiz^ 

en nun de u trinity. 


Amphibal tut lui aprent 
kancke i sauvaciun apent. [turn, 

praedicat Amphibalus cruce Christum virgine na- 
est qui vera solus mundi, mundasse reatum, 
b. ex aegro sospes fit verbis hospitis hospes 
dum credens sacri mundatur fonte Usvacri. 
fbl. 82 rect., the Sarrazin watchmg the baptism ; — 
informing the pagan prince of the perversion of A. 
a. uns Sarrazins ki s'apaerceit, 

tuz lur diz ot, e lur faitz vdt, 
ne larra k'il ne descuovre 
i un prince trestut cest ovre. 
k* Auoan ad la lei pa^ne 
guerpi pur la crestiene, 
de cest Sarrazin culvert 
est encusez e descuvert. 

a. dum baptizatur tiro sacer^ insidiatur 
haec qui rimatur quae drvulgare paratur, 

b. non hoc protelat opus , at properanter h{anelat ; Jf 
custodi celat lentm nihil ; acta r^velati] 

fol. 82 Ten., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 83 rect., Apl. going off after exchanging dresses 
and leaving the cross with A. 

a. i sun palois einz jur retume 
Auban plurant dolent e mume. 
Amphibal cum pelerin 

vers Wales tent droit le chemin. 

b. Amphibal ki en est gamiz, 
de la dt6 s*en est partiz. 
Auban le cunvdt ai plure ; 

la croiz retent, rent sa vesture, 
b. consilio cedit dum clericus urbe recedit 

villosam vestem Unquens pro foeitre testem, 
fol. 88 Ten., pagans discovering Auban kneeling! 
a. [first couplet is totally obliterated.] 

Auban truevent Sarrasin 

nuz pez e i la croiz endin. 

pris runt ; n*a cist de la rute 

ki nel traie, u fere u bute. 

a. missi perveniunt ad cii'is tecta ministri, 

sed non inveniunt nisi tantum signa magistri, 

b. ostia confringunt Albania brachia stringuni, 
vinclis impingunt^ pugnis os sanguine tingunt, 

fol. 84 reot, parans dragging Auban. 
b. Auban, u nuveus crestiens, 

de ces pauteners paiens 
est trait nuz pez par la chaucte 

• The French rubrics run along the top of the page ; the Latin (hexameter couplets with cxsural and final 
fmet.) are at the bottom ; Ta and b denote the right and left columns]. 

t Tbe letten are quite obliterated ; but there can be little doubt of the reading given, as M. Paris a]wa)*t 
itcfl kanelare, for anhelare; cf. Hist. Angl. vol. i. p. 124, p. 165, &c. 



an temple, il gent fu aun6e. 
b* nttdatusque pedes trahitur Titanis ad aedes, 
ut non auctori sed soils cedat honori. 
fol. 84 vers., efforts of the pagans to persuade A. in 
presence of the prince to worship the image. 

a. Auban, par commun ctmseil, 
au temple le deu du solail 
est trait, ke il lur deu aiire ; 
mes Auban de 90 n*a cure. 

b. ne puet li prince Auban flecchir 
par manacer e par blandir, 

t'il Tesu H clere voiz 

ne cleime, ki murut en [MS. in] croiz. 

a. non prece sive minis latratihus ille caninis 
prcufecH cedit nee Phoeho fractus ohedit, 

fol. 85 rect., scourging of A. 

b. pur Deu sucvre ci Auban 
nuntage, anguisse e hahan, 
ki de ces pauteners glutuns 
est batuz de peus e bastuns. 

b. martiris est caesa caro virgae verbere durae, 
Stat tamen illesafidei constantia purae, 
fol. 86 vers., imprisonment of A; — people dying for 
want of water. 

a. mis est Auban en prisun ja ; 
sis mois e plus i demura. 
tant cum il fu en la prisun, 
ne plut en ceste regiun. 

b. la gent murt par la destrcsce 
ki vent de la secchcresce. 
ilestrist foille e hcrbe en terre : 
ne sevent qucu cunseil creire. 

fol. 86 root., pagans tumbling over the bridge into 
the river while following A.* 

la presse est grant de ceste turbe : 

Tun de passer Tautre desturbe. 

du puna ch6ent, neient en Tunde ; 

kar mut par fu raedde e parfunde. 
b. 90 veit Auban, de pit6 plure, 

e pur ses cnemis Deu urc. 

Tesus sa uraisun bien ot : 

u mort levent, secchit li flot. 

a. pars populi sontis angusto tramite pontis 
turbis compressa perit alto gurgite mersa, 

b. sic praeit immo perit ^ tnoritur ridens morientetn : 
Albanum reperit sibi plebs prece subvenientem. 

fol. 86 Tera., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 87 root., Aracle flinging himself at A.'s feet ; 
Arade mauled by the crowd. 

a. Guant veit li chevalers Aracle 
ae Deu les vertuz e miracle, 

sa esp6e engette, e chiet H terre, 
as piez Auban pardun requere. 

b. pris est Aracle e defulez, 
debatuz e delapidez ; 

senglantz remaint, ateintz [MS. atentz] e mat ; 


i peine eu cors li quers li bat. 
flumina sucari^ defunctas imnficari^ 
dum contemplatur^ speculator jtistijicatur, 
fol. 87 vers., a spring oi water issuing forth at tt 
prayer of A. 

a. " Deus ! " dit Auban, " de ki cost« 
vi sane issir d' ewe medl6, 
cumandez ke une funtaine 

surde de ceste muntainne. 

b. funtainne surt de ewe vive : 

de Tewe beivrc chescuns estrive ; 

mes li purvers fiz de diable 

n'en sunt pas 4 Deu rcddevable. 
fol. 88 rect., beheading of A., and £ate of his a 
(a.b.) ci decole un gluz de pulin 

Auban du brant acenn. 

nuit cumencc au Sarrazin ; 

au martir, clart6 sanz fin. 

I'un tent vers ciel, Tautre en declin ; 

au vespre est Tun, Tautre au matin. 

un crestien ki est veisin, 

la croiz prent, teinte eu sane rosin. 
fol. 88 yen., the prince mocking Arade, who 
taking down A.'s head. 

a. li princes k'Aracle tmva, 
mut Teschami, e dit li a : — 

*' reclaim tun maistre Auban uncore, 
di li k*il tun cors restore !" 

b. Aracle gent e suspire, 

e dist : — " n'avez de gas matire : 

ki H autres ad ui valu 

me puet, s*il veut, rendre sain." 
fol. 89 rect., pagans carrying A.'s cross, going 
seek Apl. 
(a.b.) assemble sunt mil dt6ein ; 

dient ; — " querum ecu crestieiiy 

k* Auban converti ; atant 

vers Wales le vunt querant. 

{>ur enseingnes unt port6e 
a croiz Auban ensenglant6e. 
li uns de eus, suspris de maladie, 
par chemin ne les siut mie. 
fol. 89 vers., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 40 rect., Apl. baptizing the pagans. 
(a.b.) li citoien de Verolame 

Amphibal querent par sa fame. 
en Wales le trovent prechAnt 
e in, Sarrazins baptizant. 
d'Auban li content la estoire ; 
enseingnes mustrent i [MS. #] memoiit : 
la croiz il li sancs parut ; 
e cist la croiz bien recnnut. 
fol. 40 yers., space for the missing flliistnilioin.t 
(a.b.) li princes quant s*apcrceit, 
sa gent en Wales enveit ; 

* The first of the rabble rout, who is pushing forward A., is represented with these words coming oat of 1 
mouth ; — " Ga I ga ! ure castrissefoa /" which is the vernacular Saxon for the French of the poem, L 754. 

t A rectangu£ir piece of vdlum must have originally been fastened on to the MS., and the ulustration ther 
depicted, for the contour has overlapped in some places, now that the upper layer has been remored. Hie ss 



e Amphibal en grefe lieas, 

ovokes tuz ses crestiens, 

a remener u tuz ocire 

curoande, i duel e i martire. 

e cist s*en >'unt, d'armcs garni, 

e muntez cum ost bani. 
iL 41 rect., the armed messengers finding Apl. bap- 
ng the new Christians. 
». ) Amphibal unt cist truv6, 

e lur ^-eisins ja baptiz6. 

une part les unt severe, 

e mut les unt amonest6 : 

* k*il n'oient mais Tenchanteur 

ki les ad mis en tel errur*. 

mes ne poent esploitcr 

par promettre u manacer. 
bL 41 TOn., massacre of the Christians. 

ne espamient cist d*ocire, 

i duel, i glaive, e i martire, 

ceus ki i Jesu sunt cnclins, 

amis, parentz, e vesins. 

cist de ceste cumpainnie 

ne cheut pas s*em les ocie. 

ne par fu pas ocise e morte, 

ke Jesu ne les recunforte. 
ol. 42 rect, the eagle* and the wolf guarding the 
d bodies. 
».) k*avant fvartni tut detrenchez, 

tut senglantz e dcfulez, 

cunu$.«ance est de eus veraie : 

nc pert en eus ne coup ne plaie. 

un lu, un aegle i sunt venuz, 

ki les cors unt defenduz ; 

li lus, de bcstes, — I'egle, d*oiseus. 

cist miracle estoit nuvcus. 
aL 42 Tm., illustration removed. 
>.) quant li poplcs du pais 

la mer%-eille unt veu des ocis, 

as bestes miics unt apris 

scrvir le rei dc parais. 

sarcuz unt i plent6 quis, 

les cors i unt ^ honur mis ; 

kar ne sunt dutantz ne es<^uis, 

k*il ne regnent eu eel tutdis. 
IdL 43 net., illustration removed. 
>. ) li paen Amphibal rcmeinent, 

ki mut Tangoisent e peinent ; 

kar devant eus curt nuz pez, 

e cirt sunt as desters muntez. 

n'a cist ki alcr ncl summoinne, 

de glaive u de cutcl |K)inne. 

h Ian gums venir le vcit : 

cum il requert, saunt6 rcceit. 
hyjMS doctnnai fontem causamque ruinae 

afflixere sine gentes pietate ferifuu, 
fol. 48 yen., lamentation of the citizens at the de- 
struction of their converted relatives, 
(a.b.) H trois lines de la cit6 
se sunt li paen repos6. 
li martirs ne dort, ne sumueile, 
le serraun Deu k'il n*esparpeOe. 
^ la cit6 sunt uns venuz 
dire ke en est avenuz. 
li citoien de Taventure 
certz, funt duel ^ desmesure. 
a. cives tristantur^ pUmgunt^ ululant, lacrimantur, 
quod morti dantur sua piptora^ nee tumulantur, 
fol. 44 net., no rubric nor illustration, 
fol. 44 Ten., id. 

fol. 45 not., martyrdom of Apl. 
(a.b.) peine ad cuntruv6 nuvele ; 
ici du ventre la bucle 
au martir, 4 une estache 
en terre fichie, atache. 
le pel li funt enviruner, 
e la entraille si esculer. 
ne lessa par ten turment sufrir, 
par sermun paens convertir. 
a. exta trahit palus, quern verbere caesus acerho 
circuit Amphibalus^ populo cogente superbo. 
fol. 45 Ten., illustration and French rubric removed, 
a. martin's expirat lapidum caro grandine fracta, 
sed mens respirat caeli solatia facta, 
fol. 46 not., decapitation of Aracle. 
a. navr6 unt e dcfuM, 

batu e delapid^ 
Aracle, Ic chevaler franc, 
ki baptizez est en sun sane ; 
^ chef de tur uns le decole : 
Talme s>n part , k'eu ciel vole, 
les martirs vivent en gloire ; 
ne murra jamais de eus memoire. 
fol. 46 Ten., celestial appearances at the tomb of A. 
(a.b.) la nuit apres parut en Teir 

uns rais du ciel plus cler ke escleir. 
e la clart6 ki tant resplent 
sur la tumbe Auban desent : 
pastors, guetes, paens esveillent 
id de 90 mut s*esmerveillent. 
fol. 47 not, burial of A. 

a. le cors Auban en sepulture 
met Aracle i entente e cure, 
au cors lu martir tucher, 
sc sent leger, sein e enter. 

b. li ami Auban e parent, 

\ e franc crestien ensement, 

! ki ne se descuerent mie, 

au chevaler sunt en ale. 

he case with full. 42 vers., 43 rcct., 45 vers., 48 >'ers., 49 vers., 50 vers., and 51 vers. The MS. had also been 
tten. for m some places the fines are cut in two by the missing imiK>st. Elsewhere the drawings are on the 
irle veUuro, on one side, or on both sides. 

* Boci capitally drawn. As bearing on the authorship by Matthew Paris, the eiecution of the inimals may 
DOCcd as particularly good. 

I 2 




fol. 47 yen., torture of Arade. 
b. dient paen par envie, 

* ke tut est par nigromancie 
ke le cors Aracle est si san€*. 
lores I'unt de rechief turmenti. [MS^tufynett^] 
fol. 48 rect., fight of the Christians and Uie pagans, 
and removal of the body of Aracle. 
(a.b.) des crestiens crest ja le numbre, 
ki ne puet tapir en umbre, 
si k'entre les crestiens 
e les adversers paens 
est ja surse e cumenc^e 
apres ten^un, morteu medl6e. 
le cors au martir deful6 
endementers lur est embl6. 
a. dissona credentes turbat discordia mentes : 

furpius ahsentat corpus qnodpugna cruentat, 
fol. 48 yen., illustration removed, 
(a.b.) le cors k'il cointement sustrait, 
11 crestiens enterrer fait, 
ent crestiene multiplie 
*al enterrer [MS. entererer] sunt en aic. 
le martir of sa cumpainnie 
ne laist ke n'ensevelie. — 
ne vint H Verolame ^ Thure : 
la gent paene en est paijure. 
a. trunca sepulturae sunt piano corpora rure 
tradita^ pressurae non a modo suhdita durae, 
fol. 49 root., devils twisting awry the heads of the 
mounted pagans, 
(a.b.) li homicide e li paijure, 

ke Amphibal pener mistrent cure 
e i Jesu mesdire e nuire, — 
deus les cimtrait e defigure : 
n'est ki de mahain ne labure, 
frenesie, u avogleiire. 
li prince s'arage H dreiture ; 
n*a deu ki Tait u succure. 

a. gens deformatur quae sanguine commaculatur : 
sensu prwatur parSj et pars exanimcUur* 

fol. 49 yen., illustration removed, 
(a.b.) Guant sunt venu H Verolame, 
de Jesu crest Ponur e fame, 
n'i a celui de la rute, 
ki espruv6 nel eit sanz dute, 
ke ' n'a mester H nul mortel 
guerroier le rei du del', 
lur idles unt abatu, 
e aiir6 la croiz Jesu. 

b. Christus adoratur^ virtusque cruets veneratur ; 

fensque recordatur quod dls deus hie dominatur, 
x«ot., baptism of the converts, 
(a.b.) fd e predicaciun, ^ 

batesme e confessiun, 

oreisuns e discipline, 

de lur pecchez lur sunt mescine. 

i Jesu se sunt dun6 

e tuit unt lur ernir dampni. 

despuis ad est6 Verolame 

sanz mesprisiun e blame, 
a. crimina tarn dura toUit confesHopura ; 
votapreces ihura mm displus exmbitura, 
[End of the Auban rabrics, SccJ] 

From this, the illustrations and rabrics hive i 
reference whatever to the contents beneath, whidi at 
moreover, written by a different hand, 
fol. 50 yen., illustration removed, 
fol. 61 rect., departure of the bishops for England. 
(Sinodus. Grermanus Audssiodorensis Episcopo 
Lupus Trecasinus Episcopus.) 
(a.D.) vers seinte iglise en Engleteie 

est surse ja nuvde guere : 

mand6 sunt pur eel afere 

Lous de Trois, Germein de Aucere. 

au sen6 est purveu i vdre, 

k'il se mettent laundroit en reue, 

la gent asenser de maleize 

de Deu amer e k droit creize. 
fol. 51 yen., illustration removed, 
fol. 52 rect., Germanus recdving Genoyen's tow 
chastity, as she kneds before him. 
(a.b.) k Paris sunt atant venuz, 

ii sunt k honur receuz. 

-une pucele unt truvfie, 

Genoueve de Paris [num6e*]. 

ele ot de ces seinz parler, 

k'en purpos sunt de mer passer : 

k seint Germein est venue 

chastet6 devant lui [vfle*]. 
fol. 52 yen., Germanus taking leave of Genovtv 
gives her a medal to wear, 
(a.b.) [la mein li prent*] ducement, 

sun purpois prise ke de enprent. 

un dener au col li pent, 

de metal ki cler resplent : 

[* gardez ben ke*] ne enpreinnes, 

ne vu facez ke tu enfreinnes ; 

ke tuz jurs en cest purpos meinnes : 

de moi portez [cestes enseinnesj. 
fol. 58 net., embarcation of the bisliops. 
(a.b.) quant Seint Grermain de li s'en part, 

mut prie Deus ke 11 la gait. 

port enquert, tent ode part ; 

k'il seit pass6, li semble tart. 

tost apres, i terme bref, 

se mettent li eveske en nef ; 

of bon vent curent i plein tref, 

tant k'i port venent sanz grefl 
fol. 58 yen., debarcation of the bishops. 
(a.b.) arivent, en Brettainne venent, 

i Londres vunt, il cuncil tenent, 

d iu cuntre eus mand6e 

de eveskes grant assembl6e. 

U fu lur assen commun, 

ke la giant desputeisun 

serioit tcnue i Verolame : 

pat Ic pais s'espant la fame. 

* A piece of the vellum is torn out here ; the text I have supplied conjecturaUy. 



fttL 64 reot, bishops kneeling before the tomb of A. 
.b.) i Verolame sunt yenus 

li etreske Germains e Lour. 

d'Anban enquerent I'estoire, 

dunt tant oient vertnz e gloire. 

dist Grennains : — ** martir Aubans ! 

cnnfondes Pelagians ! 

tnte ma cause ^ vus cumant ; 

honur vas frai tnt mun vivant." 
ftL 64 TUB., disputation of the bishops and the 
.b.) cnmand6e est pais e silence, 

ke n*i gnmdille nus, ne tence. 

li ereskes Germains cumence 

auctoritez de sa sentence. 

condnse est e esbaie 

Pelagiane cumpainnie ; 

ke euuAngfle e prophecie 

passe lur philosophie. 

n*nnt auctur ki garantie 

lur cuntruvure e lur folic. 
ftL 66 reot, the bishops riding off home, Germanus 
trrying a little box : '* capsula continens pulverem 
Uiiic san^ne Albani rubicundum." 
.b.) li eveske, ki seinte iglise 

unt en bon estat ja mise, 

ke nuls ne croie estrange aprise, 

quei ke nuls lur chante u lise. 

en lur pals s*en vunt, e gloire 

rmdent i Deu, de lur victoire ; 

e au martir, dunt unt memoire, 

precherunt partut la estoire. 
(End of the mission of St. Germanus to Britain.) 

ftL 66 TUB., " Meidorum rex, Offa," setting out on 

• expedition. 

.b.) par guerre e par destrucdun 

estrif e persecuciun, 

par les trespas e les pecchez, 

dunt li mundx fu entuschez, 

fu I'oour de seinte iglise 

mut en abliance mise ; 

si k'en grant e meint an 

en ubli lu mis seint Auban. 

U reb Ofies de Engleterre, 

agues en pais, liun en guene, 

en Brettamne regna tut suls : 

^ ne fist derant li nuls. 

Torgoil ses enemb abat, 

e tent le regne en bon estat, 

com dst ke ert de bone vie, 

e flur de chevalerie. 
ftL 86, irictocy of Offa. On the left, * exerdtus regis 
IEk ;* on the right, * Boemrcdus tirannus, Retenses, 
'cst-SaxoDcs, Est-Saxones, Est-Angli et Northham- 
imbn [sic]' : in right-hand margin, 'confederatio Oflfae 
im Karolo Magno.* 

(a.b.) Jesu victoire cunsent 

au roi Offe e i sa gent. 

descunfit s*en vunt li bastard, 

dunt li rois fait grant assart ; 

e remeint en Teritage 

reis, of sun naturel Damage ; 

e meintent dreiture e franchise 

k ses baruns e seinte iglise. 
fol. 66 Yen., angel appearing to Ofia in a dream, 
(a.b.) li rois dunt jo vus cunt e di, 

cum Deus le vout, sue merci, 

une nuit chuchez dormi. 

le firmament vit esclarci : 

un rais du cid ki resplendi, 

plus ke [MS. ki] li solailz de midi, 

uns angres Id descendi, 

lui mustra, puis s*en parti, 
fol. 57 rect., flame ascending from the ground, 
(a.b.) il li martirs fu decolez 

fu ja li lius apelez 

* Holmhurt de hus,' pur 90 ke fu 

tant espessement encru. 

iloc descendi la luur, 

ki fait la nuit resembler jur. 

li reis Offe apertement 

veit dunt vent e il descent, 
fol. 57 vers., Offa journeying to see the spot, 
(a.b.) U reis, quant se esveule, leve 

matin , quant Taube se escreve, 

meintenant cele [part] tent 

il la luiir du eel aescent. 

tant ke le liu of le tresor 

truevent, ki passe ar^nt e or. 

ben semblent ceus ki d'orient 

vindrent ja fere lur present, 
fol. 58 rect., a repetition 01 the flame on fol. 57. 

a. li rais du ciel lur est cunduit, 
ki clcr resplent e jur e nuit. 

b. cit€, k*est en munt asise 

ne puet tapir en umbre mise. 
fol. 58 Ten., colloquy of the king and the bishop : 
*'Rex Offa; Humbertus archiepiscopus, Ceolwlpnus 
episcopus, Vuwona episcopus." 
(a.b.) li reis sa gent venir cumande, 

arceveskes e cuntes mande. 

cist vindrent quant sunt sumnns, 

clers e chevalers e baruns. 

li rois Tachaisun de sa voie 

lur cunte, e cist en unt grant joie. 

li rois sanz demurer va 

faire ke Deus cumanda. 
fd. 59 reot, the king urging on his people to the 
discovery of the tomb of Auban : ossa martins.* 
(a.b.) [ ]oient de besches e picois 

asaartcnt boisuns e bois ; 

enportent zuches e racines, 

ostent blc^tes, ostcnt espines ; 

* To the right are two personages watching the disinterment, one a monk, the other a bishop. The monk is 
Ming his hands to heaven with the exclamation ' te Deum laudamus.' I regret to say that the bishop has his 
ifcr to his note, as he ejaculates * rtdolet*. 



en hotes portent cailloz [e tere.] 

ne fincDt de cerchcr e quere ; 

auerent aval, querent amund. 

li reis i est, ki les sumunt. 

tant k*csl truvcz li tresors 

e les [MS. le] reliques du seint cors. 

en[ Ipez ker[ ] paille* 

[ ]e ciijur [ Jlle. 

fol. 59 7er8.| the king superintending the erection of 
a church, 
(a.b.) li reis fundcr fait une iglise, 

k*en mcimes ceu liu est asise, 

ii li seint martir Auban 

pur Deu sufri mort e hahan. 

ma^uns [MS. (m)ancuns] mande c enginnurs, 

ki fund les fundementz des murs, 

vousures e pavementz, 

pilers, basses e tablementz. 
fol. 60 rect., building of the church, 
(a.b.) mut met li reis peine e cure, 

chescuns k'en sa ovre labure ; 

charpenter, ma9un, vcrrer, 

chescun sulum sun mester. 

li uns asset, li autre taille, 

cist coupe, cist bap, cist maille ; 

cist de hache, cist de martel, 

cist de maillet e de cisel. 
fol. 60 Yen., King Ofia conferring the abbacy on 
(a.b.) li gentils rois de bone vie, 

Offes, parfait sa abbe'ie. 

ben veit ke [MS. ki] Deus i cunscnt, 

ki avance sun cumencement. 

par cunseil de ses privez, 

prelatz sages e ben lettrez, — 

de moinnes congregaciun, 

e abbe Willegond par nun, 

met en sa bone mesun, 

e gent de grant religiun. 
fol. 61 root., monks worshipping at the shrine of St. 
Auban : * hie est vere martir ;* — ** feretnim sancti 
Albani Anglonim protomartiris delatum in sanctam 
(a.b.) dehors Verlame la cit6, 

estoit de grant antiquity 

une cglisette fund6e, 

* Sancta Syon' Id fu numte. 
paens cunvers la firent , Tan 
ke decol6 fu seint Auban. 
en sun honur la firent fere, 

ki premer martir ert de Engletere. 

la chasse au martir fu U mise, 

geske faitte [sic] eient la grant iglise. 
fol. 61 vers., procession of bishops and King Ofia 
[same as mentioned on fol. 48 vers.1 
(a.b.) tierz jur devant la seint Johan 

fait hom la feste seint Auban : 

arccweske e suffragan, 

clcrs e baruns sumuns par ban. 

as quartes nones k*en Aust venent, 

de sa truvure feste tenent. 

sun title est propre e demeaine 

* le premer martir de Brettaine.' 

fol. 62 rect.. King Offa mounting his hone after 
disembarking ; servant following with the casket coo- 
taining the reliques. 
(a.b.) n*est pas la entente tardive 

du rei k*en sa terre arive. 

cuntre li barun e cuntc 

venent ; cheval mande, e munte. 

des muntz [MS. muts] e mer k'il ad pass£ 

travaillcz est e alass6, 

mes nepurquant pur qo n'est pas 

du martir Auban servir las. 
fol. 62 vers., page holding the King's horse. 
(a.b.) a seint Auban pur la venue, 

du roi est feste teniie, 

ki de sun purchaz fait present 

al haut auter, veant sa gent. 

ci finist d'Offcs la estoire : 

ben est droitz k*il seit en memoire, 

tant gentil [MS. j?^////] roi, ten crestien, 

Talme de li saut Deus. Amen ! 
fol. 68 rect.. King Offd presenting his gift at the altar, 
(a.b.) deus centisme an vittante sist 

puis [MS./Mx] ke Deus char de virgne prist, 

sufri passiun Auban. 

aprcs cent scisante terz an 

Vint Germein mescreance abatre. 

apres treis centz quarante quatre 

de terre Offe Auban leva, 

ki trente neuf ans regna. 

♦ The whole side of the MS. has been cut away and patched. 

As I havd conformed the orthography in the Lat. rubrics, I give here a list of the alterations. Instances d 
consonantal insertion: n, congnacio 29 v.,—/, dam^natur, 30 v., — h, lavacAri, 31 v.; substitution: c for A coo- 
gnano 29 v.,— graria 29 v., — constanria 35 r., — solana 45 v.; / for rf, se/, 34 r.;— of vocal substitution: e for or, 
qu^ 29 v., 31 r., ^2 r., 49 r.,— qUmt, dir^ 29 v., — pr«iicat, ^gro 31 v.,~hrc, 32 r., — «ies 34 r., — prrfecti 34 ▼.,— 
c«a, virg^, dur^, ill^a, pur^ 35 r., — prflt 36 r.,— ^octrin^, ruiiur, ferine 43 r., — c^us 45 r., — c^ 45 v., — sepultmv, 
pressure?, dur^-, 48 v.;— ^ for oe, fifdere, 33 r.,— Ph^bo 34 v. ;— i for <f, spiculator (v. DC. vol. vi. 322, b);— 
digraph : ii for £, diis 49 v., 50 r. 


o\, has been lost in the MS. The poem as it 
It present openf with a description of the cross 
\mphibal carried with him when he entered 
' of Verulam and met Alban. 
t the (necessar}*) caesura in the middle of the 
Efdut^e), the mute final e does not count, nor is it 
ry that it should be followed, as in M.F., by a 
^ginning with a vowel. The principle of scansion 
iple* accent in each division of the line. 
M^mewhat difhcult, in individual lines, to dcter- 
recisely on which of two or three smaller words 
t is to be placed, or how far the principle of 
s to be admitted, but the general principle of 
^ats in each half b unmistakeable. This is the 
inant metre, but w. 589-619 deviate altogether. 
>c sufficient for practice to ana}>*se a few of the 
es. Ki tint | est r6 dut6 e || de dii ble 6n fer- 
le rest of the Ime is simple enough, save the word 
but in O.F. words endmg in a mute e, preceded 
a cum liq., the final vowel is frequently pro- 
i hffore the liquid, which allows de dia.bel 
kl. ;^f. our pronunciation of the fmal e in 
like ^fv. 2 mes ne' 6rt | d'or 4,dubl)^,e || ne 
€ I metil, — the e in first ne is elided ; in autre, 
liable bears a beat, as in M.H.G. poetry*. 3 de 
xic|ids|cs I de* ivoir,e n6 | roal, — the final es 
inaes is not counted ; — the second half of the 
lot so easy ; hut it Ls to be noted that ne can take 
nt when it is followed by an unaccented syl- 
has in next line ne g6m'me nd | crist41.| 5 de 
% I furmdz B uns c6rs | d'iim j mortal, — note the 
t)'Uable um bearing the beat of the measure. 
r'cr6iz I au - re |, — in c^te, the first unaccented 
of the measure is absent just as in um of I.5. 
hit j i ! Varlim. | 1 1 and 1 2 are better re^rdcd 
ming with a trochaic instead of the usual iambic 
For the use of dt with passive verbs v. Gloss. d€ 
A cf. with the ase of pari^x^ a, o). 

— redutee], cf. B. da Gucsc. 10 qui tant fust re- 
doubtez ; C). E. redoubt, redoute ; so Spenser F. Q. 
ix. I. speaks of Redoubted knights and honoorable 
dames. Chauc. redoute. 

— diablel note the omission of the def. art. in this 
word, cf. 207. 1048. 

2 mes] occurs tour times as often as ' mais ' for the 
advcrs. conj. ; but with the meaning * ever,' (in virtually 
negative sentences, s jamais) mais is the form excln- 
sively used. In the only case in which nus (instead of 
mais) is met, it is written as one word, (583) desoremes, 
whereas the same compound adv. in the other places 
of its occuirence (iioo. 1104. 1262) is always written 
separately, desore mais. 

— adubbee] deriv. from A. S. dubban,t to strike, 
(dubban to nddere, to dub a knight) ; the original 
meaning is still preserved in the Walloon * dauber,' to 
give a l3ow, * adobd,' one who has been severely struck. 
From this signification has been developed the series, 
to touch, arrange, fit, repair, adorn, &c. The chess 
expression *j*adoube,' is about the only remnant of its 
modem usage ; the compound radouber is still used in 
the limited sense of repairing, refitting a vessel, and in 
a somewhat rare application to recovery of health, e.g. 
*il s*est bien radouM.' In O.F. and M.L. it was of mudi 
more general application. DC., I. 87 a, quotes (anno 
1 35 1) * octroyons que . . . les ysues de ladite ville soient 
adoub^s et mises en tel estfit*' jec Again, * mares- 
callus diebus singulis de mane ct sero ttdooari et estriari 
faciat equos corserios, palafredos et roncinos ' (cf. Aub. 
1420. 1 42 1). It was even applied to some paul of the 
process of tanning leather: *<|iii cordoanum (Aub. 
1828) aportavit sive adohavit^\aitt\, quod mittat adminns 
tertiam partem de faoxil (fern)' &c. Its more general 
usage, however, as in the Germanic languages, was to 
express the solemn creation of a knight, * miles ado* 
batus.' [Thus Count Raoul dmht his young rdjUire 
Auberi the Bvrgnndlan : 

wry good tllnstration of the function of * beats v. syllables' in English poetry is to be found in R. 
ia*t * Ballad of Judas Iscariot ' : — 

And of e\*ery flake of falling snow 
Btfire I it t6uchtd \ the ground. 
There came a dove, and a moosand doves 
Mdde I swiet \ sJund.] 

e O. None dnbba, which Dies quotes, is %forfign word. 



Raoul Vadouhe qui fu molt ses amis, 
primes 11 cauche uns esperons massivs, 
caint 11 Tesp^ dont 11 brans est forbis, 
el col le fiert com home bien apris. 
" tien, Aubcri," dlst Raoul 11 gentis, 
" que Damne dleus, qui en la crois fu mis, 
" tc doinst pooir contre tes enemis.** 
There is a very full description of the details of a 
knight's armour in Rom. de Troie, i8oi seqq.] 

From this technical application, it came to mean the 
adorning him with the necessary armour, as we have 
' deinde ab eodem duce dcccnter est armis adomatus*, 
and thence generally • to adorn.* In this way it could 
stand in place of the commoner M)atre,' cf. Aub. 20 
robe batue d'or, or oftener it or. This ornamentation 
with gold is, however, very variously expressed. Thus 
in Chans, de Rol. we have i or batue, k or gemm6e, 
H or pleiet, d*or emparez, eume [helm] i or floris, 
broine i or endoss6e, haubert k or safrez, gonfanons i 
or listez, clme k or vergiez ; cf. Aub. 1134 robe 
bruid6e d*or lusant. 

8 wall DC, *rohanlum,' crystallum, 'cristal de 
roche.* DC. quotes a passage from the Laws of 
Normandy about Mrreckage: "dux sibi retinet . . . 
ebur, rohaniumy lapidcs pretiosos, — Pivoire et le rochal 
et les pierres precieuses. in versione gallica." [The 
M S . however has rohal/um and rohal.'] It was evidently 
part of a stock enumeration. 

4 aoastonee] An h in acast [achast] has been added 
in the MS. by a later hand. cf. Fl. et Blanch. 660 
jaspes, topaces et acates. I suppose this to be the 
agate-onyx, though I have never seen this compound 
elsewhere in O. F. The sardonyx, camahotus, O. F. 
camayeu, was used for this purpose, as we see in DC. 
sub voc. cantatas : " tabuleta auri : qua est unus lapis 
de camaheu in forma crucifixi. ' * Cristal is equated with 
silex : ' lapis pretiosus, de quo ignis est producendus.* 

5 fust] The L. fustis takes a very wide range of 
meaning in M.L. : "fustis enim appellatio virgam et 
baculum, hastam, securim, malleum, clavam et vagina- 
tum gladium comprehendit." It was used also to 
express the trunk of a (high) tree, of which, as DC. 
says, * manet etiamnum vocis vestigium : silvas enim, 
in quibus sunt procerae arbores, bois de haute fustaie 
dicimus.' Agam, we meet ^fusteniy sive sceptrum, ex 
auro et gemmis.' Besides fustis, there was a form 
fusta^ for all kinds of wooden utensils, or for building 
purposes, planks, beams, &c., and another form/iAr/vxn, 
meanlne wood in general, piece de bois : cf. " quatuor 
cruces de cupro et allam de /usto*\ DC. sub voce. 
So in Aub. 88. iififust is used for a cross. 

— nml A reference to the Gloss, will show the 
variety of orthography indulged in, viz., em, hem, hom, 
um, hum, home, umme, humme(s]. But it will also 
show that this variety was by no means arbitrary; cf. the 
following analysis : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. cm hem hom um — — 

Ace. — — hom hum — hummes 

Gen. — — — um umme — 

Prp. — — home — humme hummes 

From Gloss, it will be seen that em occnn six tsDOi 
always with k\ and always nom. ; hem oocut tes 
times, always nom. The gen. (with de) has the uUKm 
only, and lias no h; whereas the ace. and prep, hue 
always h. 

6 olonfloheB] [clavds fizare] < fixed by nails,' tki 
generally, *pier(^,' cf. Ph. Monsk. 10763 teqq. 

ni par mains et par pi6s IcaSlb^ 

batus de verges et a6plaii6s, 

de cief en cidf, de gnmt corgiSs, 

et si fu couronn6 d"espines 

dures et aspres et poignans, 

dont contre val coum li sans. ... 

et in fu Dien cnic6fife, 

et de la lance deficits. 
— a M de] cf. B. du Guesd. 61 tant estoit deboill 
i loy de mescheant ; ibid. 3556 i lot de bon oofrier; 
ibid. 5576 i loi de recreant. 

7 aYanJ fad vallem] spelt avau when nsed v a 
prepos. with a case (7. 878), but written aval v aa 
adv. (17. 914. 1610). cf. the old word avale (act lad 
pass.) ; Spenser F. Q. 11. 9, 10, from their sweaty cooisai 
did ovale; ibid. vi. 8, 25, could so meekly make prosd 
hearts avale. The opp. is amont [ad montem] ; so it 
O. F. vent d*amont=east wind, vent d'aval, west wind; 
Sp. and Pg. have vendav&l, strong wind SWS. 

oostes] [costatusj DC. sub voc. quotes (ann. 1348) 
'vulneravit ducem m costatuJ* 

raa] cf. Spens. F. Q. i. 6, 4^, large floods of bkwd 
adowne their sides did raile; ibid. ii. i, 40 (shet the 
clean waves with purple gore did ray; fromnigr, M.F. 
rayer, deriv. of rai = radius, (whence our ray and M.F. 
ravon;) cf. glayeul = glai-eul, where glai«g^adnis. 
The beams of the sun flash out as rvf% or spokes, 
whence (1169) solail raant ; then follows the dkid- 
ing of coming out in a jet (1429), 11 sancs en cnrt 
raant ; here the central starting point and ^ 
raying-out is denoted. Contrast with L 896, what 
the earth is reddened with the blood, which da con 
est flaschiZf a word that calls attention to the snrface 
on which the llauid is thrown. In ihi% last word, the 
root flache would seem to convey the notion wlndi a 
wafer gives — of a Jlat body forming a spot, and hence 
would be a peculiarly inadeouate word to aaxttm the 
idea of lightning, with whicn (as flash of ^ghtniml 
one might be tempted to connect it. ThisyfojA, how- 
ever, is probably from fliche, an arrow. CwMMdy 
fldche itself, which is usually connected with M.H.G. 
vliz, flitsch, * a bow,* has an O.F. form, with a gnttnali 
y\z,,fliqtie^ which does not suit this derivation oom the 
M.H.G. vliz, but points rather to A. Sax. fliooc^ 
* flitch,' O.E. flick. [However incongraoos the noCioBi 
seem, there is the same connexion in the O.F. AsA, 
meaning 'piece of meat,* and of which the derir. Mtor 
(de la bouche du roi), 'steward of the roast,' hai 
an antiquarian existence, while 'armes d'Acrf' 
mean long, pointed weapons.] And Spenser briagi 
together the two words notably ; F. Q. iii. 2, 5, 
and ever and anone the ros^ red 
flasht through her face, as it had been 9i flake 
of lightning through bright heven fnlmined. 



] occors ten times in nom. sg. with final s, 
ch is absoit only in the indef. form, 257 sane e ewe 

MRein e m.] adjj. used adverbially, evening and 
rung he pra^-s; serein is indeed used as a noun, 
mar Haveloc, (quoted byRa^Ti. sub seren V. 206) del 
in tresk' al serain^ but I nave never seen matinal 
ctly used as a noun meaning 'morning*; it is 
id as s. m. s breakfast, cf. DC. ' ad matuti- 
um pane ordeo et caseo,* bread and cheese for his 

OUn dst ki] of. 591. 660, cum cflui ki n*a cure. 
tb this definite form contrast our use of the indef. 
0., as one who, &c. In Chaucer, however, we often 
e the pcrs. pron.; e. gr. Cant. T. 966, how Creon was 
rbeseus y-served I as A^ that hath his deth right 
I deserved ; ibid. 051, as ^ that w>'s was and obc- 
. Amlg oqiioiAl] so Chauc. Cant. T. Melib. n. 155, 

scbul ye depe to youre counscil a fcwc of youre 
^des that ben especial, 

9 TftriAm] this spelling furnishes a proof of the 
lODciatioo dedudble from a metrical analysis of the 
d in its other forms. This is the only place of its 
so spelt, acainst nine other instances in 

> (a) 


spelt, against nine < 
ch is found Verolame or Verolaimc. Of these six 
)cciir immediately before the caesura, and three (b) 
be beginning of the line, following h or de, 

I2J2 tost est i Verolame II 
1303 einz ke i Verolame || 
1414 s^awmnt \ Verolame |j 
1464 pres sunt de Verolame || 
415 la ci\€ VerolaimeH 
1485 sunt i Verolaimejl 
1739 i Verolaime lur cit6|| 
1126 de Verolame, ii herbergezj 
1441 de Verolame sui, 90 dit|l 

1 (a), it b theoretically a ditrochee, but as the fmal 
t thie caesura is not counted, it may be pronounced 
olaro, in fact our * Verulam ;* but in (b) it is mctri- 
f a trochee^ and was pronounced *Ver*lam,* or as in 
line Varlam, I have given this analysis in detail, 
iBte it establishes clearly the manner in which the 
t ti the %'erse was allowed to absorb the adjacent 
ible. There is no other conceivable way of scnn- 
p the lines in (b), which are however on this principle 
cctly regular, viz. : 

II 0>) 

'laim* liir 
*lam' ii her 
*lam* sui 

e nor 

90 ditjl 

medial o being prv)« 

\ V6r 



her tlie final 

- !tm] errn in M.F. this word keeps its irregulari, lieu. 
' analogy ofjocu*, jeu ; focus, feu; novus, niuf ; 
'\a%^ fetipie ; m which the»hort accenteil filKrccnts 
nsle <w. should give also leu. Jeu, teu, and leu, all 
ir m Aub. ju-ant, feu, fu, and liu : now the pionur- 
ioo of feu as/ii is determined bv the linie, (85) li : • c 
bo leii nmes with venu, &c. And in the same rime- 
d vc meet also /« [vloup, lupus]. I do not see 

any way to avoid the conclusion that these must all hare 
been pronounced alike, 7'^nu, lu^fu, with our long Q ; 
but V. infra on 335. In Aub. the long sound of « is in 
two instances marked by 2 u (uu) in luus (847), and 
buus (689). 

11 pailngal] pcraequalis, ^-ith a nasal inserted be- 
fore the guttural, Pr. engual, aequalis ; cf.O.F. jongleur 
= joculator; nightingale for O.E. nihtegale; cingler, 
O.K. singler, fromO.H.G. scgelen to sail ; ancolie» aqui- 
legia ; so even when an original guttural became pala- 
talized, e. gr. popinjay, O.F. papegai ; messenger, F. 
mcssager ; occasio, O. F. achesun, which in Spenser 
(F. Q. ii. I, 30) is encheason. This spelling occurs 
frequently ; cf. Blanche of Oxf. 292, a ingalmerU Dix 
dcpartie la face al blanc e al vermeil ; Ed. Conf. 
4674, n'ad parimral ; Ph. Mousk. 6177, que tu 
dounasses sans dclai tous les denicrs de mon ceval i 
povre gent tout par in gal ; cf. a curious passage in Vie 
de St. Thom. p. 55 (b), 1. 10 : 

devant la pape esturent li messagier real, 
alquant diseient bien, pluisur diseient mal, 
li alquant en Latin, tel bien, tel anomal, 
tel qui fist personel del verbe impersonal 
singuler e plurel aveit tut par igal. 

Without the nasal in Spens. Shep. Cal. Aug. 81 
" whilom thou ^2t& peregal to the best." 

— ^eres] the s final is the s appended to so many 
adv\'. m O.t ., e. gr. gieis, meimes, endementiers, ain* 
cores, ilueques, lues, ores, onkes, sempres, vels, veaus, 
sivaus, (suvaus 941), &c. The M. F. naguere is of 
course * ne a guere,* cf. pie^a (even in Montaigne) for a 
pi^e [a = il y a]. The origin of gueres is doubtful ; 
the initial g or w found in all the dialects and the sister 
languages, supposes a German source, and the O. Pr. 
form gaigre almost establishes the certainty of the 
derivation from O. H. G. weigaro^ which indeed 
means fastus, fastidium, but is used in *ne weigaro' 
[still extant provincially in Germany, e. gr. io wslger, 
yes faith ; noi wager, no faith,] to equate Lat. *non 
multum.* It is generally used in negative sentences. 

12 entuschee] Gr. ruCirny (poison for) arrows, 
wlience I-at. toxicum, cf. 0\*id, Pont. IV. 7, 1 1, 

aspicis et mitti sub adunco toxica ferro, 
et telum causas mortis habere duas. 

O. F. tosiche, Pr. tuej-sec ; DC. ciuotes *• illuec su [read 
fu'\ mort par un tosiche que li uonna par felonnie (un 
pautonnier)** ; hence Pr. entu\'segar, O.F. entoscher, to 
IH>ison ; cf. O. Pg. entoxicar /or Mod. Pg. envenenar. 
From the metaphorical usage, as in DC, **cum Ariana 
hacresis venenata de radice flore toxica pullularet," came 
the derived ethical sense of * contaminate,** pollute,' &c. 
— si ne fOBt] the apodosis is easily supolied, out of 
the notion of * gueres,* which conditions tiie absolute 
negation ' sanz paringal,* — ••(which was) nearly (and 
m-ould have l>een altogether) without any ecjual. if it 
had not,*' &c. 

13 Sarradns] M. F. is more char>- of thin lil^crty 
than the sifter languages, but the on)i>Mon of the del. 
art. is not uncommon in O. F., (cf. 12(19. 'J^S* i***'7« 
1 750}. The anachronism is of course patent ; medieval 




writers however use the term very generally for pagans, 
aubelievers. So the Turks call Christians by the 
name Franks, Feringhi, another remnant of the Cru- 
sades; and the epithets mescreant (v. 1811) 2ind g-iaour 
*se valent bien I'un Tautre.* Saracen simply means 
oriental^ from Arab, sharaka, to rise (of the sun). 

— fa] for verb in sg. with two nouns expressive of 
two closely related ideas, cf. 257 sane c ewe hissi ; 265 
gloire e clart6 les esceint ; 348 trespassable est li mundz 
e tute sa beut6 ; 883 est levez noise e bruit c criz ; 886 
est la nostre creance e poples maubailliz ; cf. Hor. Od. i. 
3, 9 illi robur et aes triplex circa pectus erat, (and see 
Bentley's list, Od. i. 24, 8). 

14 en A. S. 6 B.] a curious mixture, for Apolin is 
doubtless Apollo. Reiffenbcrg in his ed. of Ph. 
Mouskes ii., p. 806, says : — " M. Michel pensc que ce 
mot designe non pas Apollon, mais Apollonius dc 
Thyanes. . . . Noms pr6sumons, quant ^ nous, qu' 
Apollin est PApolion [Apollyon] de I'Ecriture." But 
neither speculation is at all necessary, nor probable. 
In 181 7 wc have Apollo^ Pallas and Diana, and 
Phoebus and Jove, all of whom the Saracen wor- 
shipped ; V. note on 1737. 

— oreient] this verb has always (in Aub.) oi in the 
root in 1st sg. prcs.; in the 3 perss. it alternates be- 
tween oi and ei ; the confusion comes to its height in 
the infin., where the four cases of its occurrence are 
craire^ croire^ crere^ and creire. 

15 maistre] a very common expression in O. F., 
chief, principal; hence adapted into Eng. master-key ^ 
&c. ; cf. B. du Guescl. 876, cnnuit voldrai soupj^r en ce 
maistre donjon ; ibid. 1367, ke le maistre os del col 
li fist brisier; Am. et Amil. 856, en sa maistre maison; 
Jourdain 1507, en la plus maistre sale; ibid. 1856, au 
maistre tret s*en va ; Ger. de V. 357, H maistre tr6 ; 
Alix., p. 40, 31, parmi Ic mestre porte; cf. St. Louis, 
Join. p. 12, un vent qui n'est mie dcs quatre mestres 
venz ; Chauc. Cant. T. 2904, by the maister street. 

16 perrinl M.L. petrinus; DC. *muropetrino circum- 
septum' ; cf. B. du Guescl. 19407, est montez en la sale 

— oasal] the context evidently requires this to be 
taken as meaning a common kind of house, a farm-house. 
DC. has sevenu forms and uses of the word casal^ 
locus vacuus ubi casae aedificari possunt ; en ung 
vergier ou cassal; under casale DC. quotes * villas 
optimas quae Siculi casalia vocant; casalia, quae in 
Gallico villae dicuntur;' under casaliSy *fundos seu 
casales.' It seems also to have been taken <pro 
praedio nistico, casa scilicet cum certa agri portionc, 
idem proinde atque ma?tsus.* But it was also used for 
a hut ; so the hermit * supra montem humile casale sibi 

— ne pert pas] this expletive pas, essential in M. F., 
is comparatively rare in the old language. In simple 
negation, it only occurs about once in six ; the other ' 
expletives point and mie are still more rare, point 
indeed occurring only once. A reference to Glossary 
on pas will show a curious usage, for pas never precedes 
ne, save when it is itself preceded immediately by ki. 

435 la vostre maisn6e ki pas ne se feindra. 

492 cist Ten enxnercie ki pas ne la lenqui. 

600 une chalur ki pas ne se seet atempier. 

(721 mes un de eus respundi ki 90 pas ne ottrie.) 
1678 feu ki pas ne esteint. 

It is clear from a comparison of these lines that the li 
in every case is a relative pron. referring to an antece- 
dent in the same line, so 721 is not to be regarded n 
containing a noun-sentence accusative to respundi, Le., 
as if ottrie were the ist sg. pres. (as I have given ii 
Glossary), but the clause is attributive to the un pre- 
ceding, and is to be rendered ** one of them (iHio aoci 
not grant that,) answered and said." 

17 solers] DC. 'solarium' (solare, 8alaris)cdoiiras 
contignatio, vcl cubiculum majus et snperius ; cf. Maxie 
de F. ii. p. 202, montez in sus, en <*el solier : in sohriis 
vel cubiculis: dormiens in solario [Aub. aoi]: man- 
sioncm co-opertam cum solario : domum de nno sdario, 
et medio, et tegulis co-opertam; not simply of a house, 
in dictd nave erat ouoddam solarium cum camino, ii 
quo comedebant muites : nor of one story, si doons 
habcat tria membra sive solaria, vel plura, unnm snper 
aliud. In Diefenbach, glossed hoch-, snmer-ms, 
esz-laub, &c., and still used in German, der S5Uer, 
garret, but our O. £. word sollar, solere, which had the 
same meaning of upper room, loft, is now techni- 
cal and pro\nncial. It is evidently intended here u 
characterizing a better sort of house, as may be in- 
ferred also from the contrast in 679, jprisun ad obscue 
pur sale e pur solcr ; so Chauc. Cant. T. 3988, iht S9ltr^ 
nallc. It appears to have been a room built so as to 
catch the sun (cf. Mod. Gk. 6 i|Xi#rrnct a belvedoej, 
Lat. solarium, a platform, terrace; Plaut. Mil. Glor. n. 
3, 69, nequc solarium, ncoue hortum. Sec, the term 
being aftenx'ards generally applied to the upper 
rooms of a house. The word cenacnlum according to 
Varro (L.L. v. 33, 45) was similarly extended: 'obi 
cubabant cubiculum, ubi cenabant cenaculnm, vodta- 
bant ; posteac^uam in superiore parte cenitaie coepe* 
runt, superions partis uni\'ersa cenacula dicta,' and so 
DC. can gloss stagium (v. next word^ bycenacuhun. 

— estc^^] we have preserved tnis w(ml in ov 
stage^ in various senses; the O. F. meaning oi Jlotr 
or story^ which is now obsolete, is found in our eai&r 
writers. The ending -age corresponds to a deriv. 
-aticus, as usual, e being prefixed to words beginning 
with s impure. Italian nas not found it necessary to 

{)refix this helping-vowel, because every word in that 
anguage may end in a vowel, which vowel mtut ap- 
pear before words beginning with s impure. It is in- 
teresting to note that the few words, viz., nan, m, 
per, con, which infringe the rule, by not eziding in a 
vowel, also compel the prefixing of a helping vowel 1 to 
words with initial s impure ; thus la Scozia^ but m 
Iscozia ; lo spavento, but con ispavento, &c. 

— oelera] *cellarium, cella,' our 'cellar': cf. Schder 
in Lemcke's Jahrb. viii. i, p. 84, where hypogamm is 
glossed * celcr,* and p. 87. promtuaria, gl, • celers.' 

18 seingnur] this word (like deigner) is found with 
three modes of representing the liquid n, vie., mi, gn, 
and ngn, seinnur, seignur, seingnur. The phenomenon 
is old enough, for Schuchardt (Vok. des Vulg. i. 113) 
quotes such forms as congnatus, singnifer, ingnes. Sec, 

— His] 'ostium/ the 1 after the / being attracted 



into the preceding syllable, the o is brought down to 
ai, owing to the presence of this t, cf. ostrea - ostria » 
ois-tra 3 (h)a!tre. In other cases the 1 is owing to a 
•aftened gottural, e. gr. nocte - noit = nuit ; octo - oit -^ 
(li)oit ; we have cntisme in Aub. 145, and the spelling 
vnf, wni even is not unusual, cf. the last of the Aub. 
nibrict, fol. 63, deus centisme an vittante sist = 286th 
]Fcar. It is from this uit that we derive our old term 
mi-as, the octave of a feast day, the utas of St. Hilar)', 
meaning eight dajrs aAer that term. From uis = door, 
tlill Ibund in hois dos, we have huis-sier, Engl, usher. 
«— Mftat] cf. Fl. et Blancef. p. 55 : 

U le troevent oii siet, sous Tarbre, 
snr on perron qui fu de marbre : 
too con ot richement vestu, 
preudon lor pert, auant Tout veu. 
19 fttor ftttlTal] all the aetails are rhetorical, to con- 
the houseless, ill-clad pilgrim with the noble richly 
~ pagan, so soon to become a convert and a martyr. 
4'or bfttaiel v. note on 2 ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2164, 
In sadil was of brend gold newe bete ; so 2502, gold- 
becen helmes, iic, 

— UOaoheB.] M.L. 'nusca,* sometimes ' musca,* which 
DC. almost thought to be the right reading, but the 
tems with initial n are no doubt right. The £dd. of 
DC. cnhoiuly mix up with this nusca, the words 
Bodelliis and nucleatus! In Lemcke*s Jahrb. viii. i, 
!>• Qf, monilia gl. nuches sive fremeus ( = fermails); 
mtuvnule fjL nuches de or ; DC. sub murenula auotcs 
Papias : *' catenae latae et spissae, de auro mire tactae, 
atue capite defluentes ad cervicem omandum.*' DC. 
defiaai after St. Jerome: 'mulierum omamcnta aurea, 
oiuboi mrtallo in virgulas lentescente, auadam onlinis 
■eimoai catena coUura cingebatur.* Will. Tyr. '* mure- 
, inaiiies," &c., "ubi vctus interpres Gallicus 
rA«f, fermaux vertit." The word is common 
cf. Chans, de Rol. 637, 4 vostrc femmc 
ai doQt nusches ; Brut. 10(590, rices nosques, 
antaz, tL rices noches, rices fremaus. From this 
we have cxa O. £. ousche, ouche, owch, thus 
ic. Cant. T. 6325, an oucfu of gcJd ; but 8258, and 
tct Ur fol of mmckes gret and smale. 

Speu. F. Q. I. 2, 13 : 
And hke a Periian mitre on her hed 
Shee wore, with crowns and owches garnished. 

Ibid« L 10, 31 : 

And on her head the wore a tyre of gold 
Adonid with gemmes and omxhes wondrous fayre. 
Dr. Iform gives, in his gloss, to Spens. ; owch, * a 
•odkcC of gold to hold precious stones, a jewel ' ; M. 
Gaaiier givct * agrafes, bnonx.' The Latin word refers 
to the neck, and the early £. and F. use, to the head. 
It teetna, however, to have been emplo^'ed general! v 
It. For the form nouche « owche, cf. O.F^ 
[itin extant among us provincially as nappem] 
a word explained by Dr. Morris' (p. 72) as it 
the « had hcea prefixed^ which i^ incorrect, as the word 
eomet from M. L. ftoppa. So from a form nidaccus 
(akfnft), a nettling, came F. niais (callow, then booby^, 
vlttch entered into O. E. as nuu, nyas^ afterwards 
an #!«/,* a jonng callow hawk, Shaksp., little 

eyases cry out ; adder also was in A. Sax. tutddr$; 
cf. also on 273 auger for mi/'-^ar « nave-borer, &c. ; n 
is, however, at times prefixed, cf. nombril (umbeUcus), 
no doubt for Tombril with dissimilated /of article, as in 
Catalan Uonibrigol. (For a curious instance of a con- 
fusion of an initial liquid, cf. Mussafia, Sitz.-Ber. der 
Wien. Akad., p. 226.) 

— aesmalj for the digraph a/«re, v. appendix; 
enamel, common in decorations: DC.cantharam auream 
cum prctiosis gemmis ac smalto ; crucem cum gemmis 
et smaltis ; caiicem aureum gemmis et margaritis ac 
smaltis optime adomatum ; botonos ex auro sive ex 
argento vcl smalto. From this we get O. £. amel^ and 
our 'cn-amel,* now meaning a composition of white 
glass and certain metallic oxides. It is not easy to say 
what is the precise meaning in Auban. Rayn. quotes, 
Lex. Rom. III. 163 : 

ar intret en las cambras qu'eran penchas am flors 
e d'azur e d'esmaut e de mantas colors, 
where it seems to mean some definite colour. 

There are two possible originals of the word : fkaltha^ 
a sort of cement, described by Pliny, • e calce fit re- 
centi, mox tunditur cum adipe suillo et ficu * ; and he 
thence uses the verb * malthare,* to cement, to varnish. 
From this could easily come *ex-maltare,' as in Pg. 
esmaltar, id., but also fig. to adorn. Besides the 
common meaning, in Ital. smalto also signifies 'rem 
lapidcam* : so DC. quotes 'lapidibus, quos smaltas 
vocant.' This derivation gives the vowel a occurring in 
all the languages : It. smalto, Sp. esmalte, Pr. esmaut 
(=esmalt), O. F. esmaL On the other hand, Italian 
has a verb smalt-ire^ * to digest,' which suits better the 
second derivation, viz., from O.H.G. smelzan, for 
smaltjan, ^smalti-), where also the attraction of the 
stem vowel i into the root, would account for email. 
Hence Dicz prefers this latter explanation. It is to be 
noted, however, that his objection on the ground of the 
difficulty of accounting for the i on the maltha hvpo« 
thesis, is obviated by the consideration that the C/. F. 
is very of^en without the i, esmal, 
R. de Troie 1 539 : 

li quatre pecol [foot of bed] par igal 

furent bicn oxi€ i esmal. 
Alix. p. 12, 13: 

el cief li met un frain i or et A esmal. 
1-1. et Blancef. p. 22 : 

car faisons faire un tomblel gent ; 

fait soit de marbre et de cristal, 

d*or et d'argent et i esmal. 
Ibid. p. 41 : 

Ics pieres valent un tresor, 

qui 4 blanc esmail sont assises. 
Ibid. 1. 651 : 

(the tomb) de rices listes ert list€t 

de ciers esmaus avironn^es. 
and for the old anut^ cf. Spens. F. Q. ii. 3, 37 : 

golden bandes which were entayld 

mith curious antickes and full fayre aumaytd, 

21 marwohal] as in O. F. this word seems to have 

been used « * seneschal, * it is not to be wondered therefore 

that Ma. Paris has ventured on the derivation (p. 601, 

40, Wat«,) * otpote bellicosui et stienons, dictus 

K 2 



Marcscallus, quasi Martis Scncscallus* ! Its real orijjin 
Ls O.H.G. tnarahy horse, and scalh^ a servant, so that it 
meant groom, Sec. But it grew to be a title of great 
importance and dignity, defined secundus a Comitc 
Stabuli [constable], wliose prerogative was *primae 
cxercitus fronte praeesse ' ; cf. Lat. Magister Equitum, 
and the term * constable* itself, before its degradation. 
There was, besides, a title Marescallus aulae, or ' in- 
trinsecus,* whose functions are thus descril>ed : mcnsis 
praeparatis, mappis stratis, omnes secundum facultates 
suas evocarc, et aecenter et curiose collocare, et indignos 
ejicere, non permitlcre canes aulam ingredi, et toti 
familiae regis, ipso monente, hospitia liberarc. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 754 : 

A scmely man oure ooste was withallc 
for to have been a marchal in an hallc. 
Spens. F. Q. ii. 9, 28 : 

and through the hall there walked to and fro 
a jolly yeoman, marshall of the same. 
Ace. to another authority (Red Book of Excheq.) it 
was this Marcschal's duty tumuUus sedare in domo 
regis, liberationes officiorum facere, ostia aulae regis 
custodire, &c. The reference of this title (further than 
as a mere honorary epithet) to Auban, is of course a 
mere anachronism. 

22 ouneuz] * well-kno\ni,' * there was no one better 
known, nor more familiar to the public' 

Vie de St. Thorn. 39, 10 : 

en I'autre chambre avant sist li reis od sa druz, 

ii ses conseilz tencit od les mielz coneuz. 
Alix. 108, 26 : 

nous sommes tout cslit e conneut baron. 
Bartsch Chrest. 394, 13 : 

povres estoie en ma tcrrc 

mais au moins cognus y estoie. 

23 anoesur] afler an(te)cessor had been so modified 
as to become trisyllabic, it was further shortened to 
ances'r, but between s and r it was a rule that t should 
be inserted, hence our ancestor, F. ancetre : cf. esscre, 
cs're, estre, etre; similarly, lazarus became lazre, lazdre, 
and then ladre. 

24 li ders] in nom. sg. this- form is invariably used, 
when preceded by the def. li or rw/, (so also in pred. 
1 193.) but the indefinite nom. (322) is clerc^ the form 
for all inflected cases. Clercs is used twice (600, 1558) 
instead of clers^ in both cases followed immediately by 
a relative clause, which seems to have thro^iTi some 
stress on the word and suggested (however remotely) 
the fuller form. 

26 beiloie] in the np. this word is regularly rimed 
witli I, cf. bencis with dis, B. du Guescl. 8898 ; Kell. 
Romv. 215, 28 (act.) a henFis "^'lih. garnis. So also in 
the indie, pres. ; e. gr. B. du Guescl. 8790: 

descendirent A pi6 trestuit d une fie ; 

jl Tdvesaue s'en vont, qui tons les bend'ie. 
Perhaps so in this subj.-opt. form. 

— vhb] this mixture of the sg. and pi. of the 2nd 
jicrs. pron. is vcrj- common throughout the poem, cf. 
45-7 : 68: 92-3 : 94-5, &c. ; cf. Abbot, Shaksp. gr. } 235. 

— tant] I have given tant as adverbial to ' prude,* 
but it also emphasizes the verb *pers,' being used h-nh 
Koivou ; sometimes it is not easy to decide \^nth which 

word of a clause it is to be immediately connected, 
or what is its precise grammatical function in the 
clause (v. 288). 

— prude] obi. form of prfuZf cf. 1 7 74 chevaler preu. 
So Spenser uses prow^ F. Q. iii. 3, 24 : 

ne is thy fate, ne is thy fortune ill, 

to love the prowest knight that ever was. 

For the relation of these two forms pretu and /mif, 

cf. Lat. prot but prod -est. 

— ber] (v. note on 301,) theoretically, this form of the 
word should be nom., obi. barun, but although ' banin' 
occurs in the poem, still d^r is also used far the 
obi. case. In 62 it is gen. [where corrige Gloss.], in 1 107, 
1648 ace. (in both cases preceded by prude, as here;. 

28 las] may be explained in either of two ways, riz., 
as an interj. alas ! or as an adj. -weary : — ' I alas ! who 
have no horse,* or *I come weary, as I have none.* 
Either would be perfectly correct. For the ose of this 
expression as an interj. cf. Moliire, L'Ctoordi, IL 5, 
where las ! occurs thrice closely together in the ankak 
conversation of Anselme. 

— palefrei] M.L. paraveredtis (irao^ and wiedm, 
whence O.H.G. pherit. Mod. G. pferdj, oar palfirer: 
DC. veredi^ equi publico cursui destmati ; derived 
by the ancients from veho and rheda, as in the veises, 
'est veredus equus, vectans rhcdam quasi cumn,' 
< rhedoe vectores nos dicimus esse virfidos.* From 
this comes *• veredarii,' couniers, qui non descendunt 
de equo, antequam liberant responsa sua: habent in 
capite pinnas ut inde intelligatur festinatio itincris: 
datur semper iis equus paratus, nee mandncant, nisi 
super equo, antequam perfecemnt. Brunetto Latim 
in his Tresor, chap. 155, gives: — <i^j/nirr erant, ponrk 
combat : palefroi^ pour chevancher H raise de mo 
cors: roucis, pour sommes porter; cf. 142 1 paleireibon 
e bel, chacur, u fort runcin u grant destrer igneL 

29 ostelj DC. sub V. hospitare, < hospites in tilb 
collocare v cf. * si nox eum occnpaverit, hospitxnni in 
Abbatia et servitium sibi demandat ab homimbos TiOae 
a se hospitatoc ministrari.* The direct origin of the 
Fr. word is, of course, hospitale, i.e. properi^, aedes in 
monasteriis ubi hospites et advenae reapiebaotiir. 
These Xenodochla were not exclusively for the poor; 
cf. hospitum denique loca duo constitnimus, unoin ad 
pauperes recipiendos, alteram ad nobiles viros ondiqne 

Spens. F. Q. ii. 9, 10 : 

a goodly castle, 
wliich choosing for that evening's hospiiaU 
they thither marcht. 

31 une part] ' aside,' calls him *on one side,' so abo 
in 74, 1080, 1523 ; cf. the corresponding e ipi eMMi 
*cclc part.' 115. 

Bartsch, Rom. u. Past. p. 279, 5 : 
pensis com fins amourous 
rautrier chevauchoie ; 
Robin 01 qui touz sous [=seul] 
demenoit grant joie. 
cele ptirt vins, sel[=si le] saluai, 
ct du revel li demandai, 
dont il vient, 

32 penses] Lat. pensarc has given birth to thice 




words of ftrj different sienification, in this penser^ to 
tldnk; fanser, to staunch wounds (for the latter of 
vUch, however, is quoted from Calpumius the expres- 
non ' pensare sitim,* to qtunch thirst ;) and peser^ to 
weigh. Our nvoirdu^tr^ gives the O.F. /ow (- pes, 
Le. pensum), which M. F. has transformed into poids, 
duoagh an assumed connexion with pondus. 

— ^lUArj for this we have in O. F. also a form aner^ 
which agrees with It. Sp. Pg. andare. It seems, 
therefore, that the root is to be sought in a form 
mmditart for aditare (ad-ire), by nasalisation : cf. Pg. 
Andito, Lat. aditus. 

— dmist TVns?] this form *dunst* (which occurs 
oolj once), is ap]>arently written thus witn an x, to dis- 
tingiiish this form of the oblique pronoun in its inter- 
rogative local sense (from whence r) ; cf. B. du Guescl. 
11794. 14171. 14906 &c., dont viens-tu? Ger. de V. 
leio, dcmt estez vos et de kel parents ? 

88 l^jimflr] it is from this old form that we derive 
cor soioam. m. F. has s^oumer, just as it has selon 
instead of tuium (v. 80 Aub.), thereby obscuring the 
origin, sob-diumare. It. soggiomare. 

M t880r] from tendere pp. tensus vras formed the 
teiu^ a toise, the space included between the out- 
jhed arms (cf. 6pyvia from ho*y*tt) : whence the 
r. vb. teiser, teser, to stretch, usea hke the primit. 
to go, tendere (cursum) ; cf. peser, Lat. pen- 
in its more direct meaning, cf Joinv. St. Louis 
$7, an [bows] si fors comme il les pooit teser. 

87 BilftetJ from a normalised nascere, pascere, 
as from oescere, cognoscere, we get naltre, paftre, 
cioitie, connaitre. 

re-escore, cf. It. ri-scuotere, Lat. re* 

L. rescutere, our * rescue* ; the old 

M. L. rescussus, is defined * tumul- 



■wraning here, men being supposed 'licit^ arestati 

adiabolo' for their sins, &c. ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2645 : 

and in the rescoos of this Palamon 

the stronge kynge Lycurgius is bom adoun. 

88 ptnlar] l>ies, ll. 401, remarks on the rarity of 
compounds of verbs with the preposition ^rr, 

meaning he compares with the Germ, vou in 
^c. But the list which he gives as ' nearly 
i|dete,* is reaDy not so, for even in Auban we have 
> not mentioned in Dies, as parcunter 1680, par- 
167s, parocire 1626, as well as this parafer. I 
sme even that par es in 243 would not be better 
as one word ; in 1050 par est dclitublc, 1476 trop 
cstcs crftens, 1566 tant par est irascuz, 1742 tant 
fa ardant. As there is a predicate adjective, I have 
ikoaght it advisable to keep the par separate as an ad- 
verb. With the parocire 01 1626, cf. the Rubrics, 41 b, 
mt /ar /W odse e mort. From this usage in the sense 
aC finality fcf. O. F. par-close, par-fin, &c.,) seems 
cnlicable tlus word par-aler, the fipuU coming, which 
I do not remember to have met with elsewhere. 

40 nni] from Lat. sine, perhaps through the in- 
iacDce of tlie form dans [not in Auban], which has final 
% bat JQStifiibly, as being from de intw j* ; or it may be 
■Bphr the adverbial final / as in gueres, &c. I do not 


et violenta ereptio arestati, e manibus ejus au 
enmdem arestavit,* which fits in well with tn< 

think that Ital. senza should be referred here (as is done 
by Diez preferential! v), for it demands the assumption 
of a final a appended to a form senes, which is itself an 
enormous assumption, as what would Ital. do with this 
added adverbial s} It is better explained as being for 
assema, absentia. Diez*s objection that this should 
give sdnza with open e) is neutralized by the Old Ital. 
sanza, which is still further from sine. 

— doner] a very common phrase: 334, 167 1 un 
butun; 1008, 1150 un esperun (roill6); but this is a 
poor account compared with the infinite variety occur- 
ring in the old poets. Chaucer Cant. T. has 16276, 
nought worth a ooterfiye ; 14582, the valieu of a flie ; 
182, not worth an oystre; 16946, a hotel hay ; 9130, a 
bene ; though his general comparison b, not worth a 
mite 1560, 12439, &c* 

cf. Roncesv. 10239 • 

la vielle broingne ne 11 vault une aillie. 

ibid. 200^ : 

li haubers ne li valut noiant, 

ne la cuirie la monte d*une betant, 

Li Biaus Desc. 2993 : 

li escus ne leur valurent deus escorees, 
cf. Plant. Mil. Glor. ii. 3, 45, non ego nunc vitam tnam 
emam vitiosa nuce, Lippi, in his Malmantile ii. 9, has 
* non darei quanto un puntsd d*aghetto' (lace-tag). The 
extent to which the expression could be made to apply' 
is well seen in the following absurdity, Guescl. 19453 : 
porroit couper un grant hois en siant 
sans noise aemener la montance tTun gant (!) 
** not to make more noise in sawing a log of wood uian 
the worth of a glove;" cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 1572, the 
mountance of a tare ; 1 7 187, the mountauns of a gnat ; 
14278, the mountaunce of a com of whete ; comp. also 
our phrase, " he is worth his weight in gold'* ; Rom. 
de Troie 318 (of a horse), qui son pois valeit de fin or. 

The following examples will be found to cover most 
of the variations in B. du Guescl. and Alix. : 

B. du Guescl. : 

13987 li trais n*i vali une pomme ptlie, 

14092 vaillant un ^rrjf*. 

14330 vaillant un esperon, 

113^0 vaillant un o^non, 

16089 ce ne lui vasist la mantanci tTun gant (19453). 

16280 qui vaussist quatre gans, 

1 64 1 1 n*i valoit la monte a*un bouton. 

17347 ^^ U ^^ ™c prisoit valissant dius festus, 

17708 ne pot i moi valor un petit JU de tote. 

1 7845 tout ne me vauldroit la monte de deut dh, 

19^96 toute la defence n*i vail un toumois, 

19635 tout quant qu*aves or ne vault un aU peli. 

20277 tout ce n'i vali unstm denier d*argent{ij ^12), 

2 1 146 sans nous iempirer valissant <lrKrex/<j( 1 5740). 

21246 et mains povres ki n*ont vaillant un bastoncei. 

21255 tout ce n i a vain la monte d*unfuisel, 

22003 on n*i conquests vaillant un angevim, 
9032 car je de moi ne veil la monte Jrun soler, 

M377 ^^ oe 11 demanda une pomune pourrie. 

106^7 n*en donroie unfrelin, 

17186 Espaignolz que Jc n*aime un ongnon .'(i 1260). 

17142 n*i conquesterez la monte d*une ortie. 

17695 tons Ics barons ne pruc un poi de erne. 



18924 qui ne priscnt Englois la queue d'un siron, 

19843 il n'acontoit au trait un petit parisi (20312). 

21827 du vo n'emporterez la monte d'un labour. 
Alixandres : 

31. 30 brogne c'ait vcstue nc li vaut une haire, 

52. II ne laira ke vaille une laitue. 

72. 22 ne prisent lui ct sa gent tin fromage. 

75. 20 tout le siege del inont ne prise deus besatis. 

88. If ne li valcnt les armes le pris d'une castegne. 
loi. 23 pour lui ne ferout qui vaiilc une viaaille. 
164. 22 li escus de son col ne li valu un pain. 

167. II jou ne val mie une pume tneure, 

168. 12 ne valent sans lui le monte d' un festu, 
175. i ne perderai valiant deus esporons. 

186. 17 ne li vaut i eel cop li haubcrs une nois. 

197. 30 ne lor valent escu \q poumon d'une vike. 

209. 22 ne I'prise mais li rois de eel mal une allie, 

229. 4 arme n i vaut une paille d'avaine. 

^S^' 13 j^ i^'c" ^^^^ scs ^i^c valiant un parisis. 
42 oumenoe] is elsewhere followed by si, save here 
and 103. Lat. cum-initiare ; in Milanese we have the 
simple form inzh ; Span, empezar exhibits the same 
insertion of /, as in the O. Sp. com-p-^/«azr, with 
which cf. Sard, incum-b-^^tsa/. Wallachian, as often, 
keeps the Lat. word, incipcre, incepe, 

— esmeryoiller] deriv. of merveiUe = mirdbilia ; cf. 
O, F. teille^ from Lat. tilia^ our teil-irce (id^ 

44 Otunont] from cum^ by the addition 01 the adver- 
bial menu ; the origin of cum will be best seen in this 
series : cum (cume), It. come^ Sp. como^ Lombard 
com6d^ Lat. quomoao, 

— damage] our word testifies to the O. F. datnage. 
The M. F. dommage^ with its modified vowel, is quite 
at variance with ordinary phonetic, as in L. L. a 
in position seldom becomes o or u; cf. Schuchardt 1. 1 73. 

46 ki] the words ki and ke have ^ot into considerable 
confusion ; here, evidently, there is needed the con- 
junction to introduce the noun-sentence, but the forms 
are not kept distinct in the MS., and I have not there- 
fore changed. 

48 enoumbrer] Lat. cumulus, Portug. Comoro, 
cunCluSy whence cumble, cumbre, M.L. combrus ; 
It. ingombrare ; cf. It. sembrarc, for simulare. 
The instances are not very numerous of Fr. mbr 
for Lat. m/, but mbr^mr is frequent, chambre 
(camera), concombre (cucumerem), nombre (numerus); 
while apdtre (apostolus), esclandre(scandalum), instance 
Fr. r for Lat. /, where scandalum must have become 
s<-/andlura before assuming its present form esclandre. 
For the use, cf. Jourdains 1 778, je te commant au 
glorioz dou cief, qui te garisse de mort et d*en- 

60 espervep] a very slight acquaintance with Trouvfere 
expression would suffice to show the commonness of 
hawking among the amusements of the middle ages. 
I'articularly noticeable, as one of the commonplaces of 
meilieval poetry, is the reference to the hatred that the 
hawk bears to the smaller birds, and the terror it 
strikes into them ; cf. Spens. F. Q. II. 7. 34, him snatcht 
away more light than Culver [dove] in the Faulcon's fist ; 
Am. et Amil. 2658 — les voiles font drescier, li vens lor 
\ient qui par vigor i ficrt, ainsiz les mainne com Taloe 

espreviers; lA Biaus Descun. 5770, plus le criementli 
chevalier qu' estomel ne font esprcvier; Villehard. 
{ 540, si tost comme il connurent le desconfiturc ki sor 
eus tomoit, il se mirent au fuir sans i>lus atendre, et 
s'esparsent, li uns ch4, li autres 14, aussi comme la 
aloes font por les espreviers; Ph. Mousk. 7133, <roi 
tout ausi comme Taloe fuit le mousket et riprener 
plus que Taubain ne le bruhicr et tout li petit oisilloDle 
noulet a Tesmdrillon fuient pour lor vie saaver, tot 
auscment fuient paien. So, again, the eagerness with 
which the falcon darts after his prey is a usual sinule 
with our poets, ex. gr. Alix. 271, 5, qui plus coit de 
randun quant on Ta esprouv6 que faiLS ne suie aloe^ 
quant il a jeun6; ibid. loi, 26; 190, 4; 227, ^ ; 242,33, 
of a horse, qui plus vait de rancfon qu' espnven aprb 
quaille ; B. du Guescl. 1 400S, plus dfisirent la guene 
qu* esprivier le hairon; ibid. 18376, ainsx seront snrprii 
que du faucun la pie. 

— aloue] this is the simple form [from Lat. alaudd, 
a word of Keltic origin, for the Lat. corydalai, 
Kopi'SaXn^'j the crested lark ;1 from which TDiez, 1. 16) 
Grimm derives O. N. Ida, wnich can hutlly be, as the 

0. N. word /J, /Ja, means * sand-piper.' From alone, bf 
the dimin. suff. -^^a, we have M. F. alou-ftte, O. Sp. 
alo-eta (now alondra, for alondola), as It. allod-A£i, if 
a different suffix, still further heightened hjrpocoristic- 
ally in Dante's lod-ol-etta (Par. xz. 71, where, however, 
other readings give al{l)od'€tta). For the change of of 
to ou, cf. clou'hdiez, where clou = dau (clav*us}, to 
i077 = laud-o. 

— esperyerl our significant 'sparrovhhxwk' ; for the 
deriv. is O.H.G. sparawari ; cf. Goth, sparva^ 'spv- 
row\ Old Sp. and Pg., with the sister luigoages, ud 
the word esparvel, but they have adopted anothier tenn 
Sp. gavilan, Pg. gavi&o, Milanese gavinel (^axmiQ ; 
from the old word capus (= falco) cap-ellus^ cap-^l-aM, 
gavilan. Thus, the root would be cap^ aq>-cre, to 
take, seize, which would ec[uate the word with the 
other factor in our translation hawk ; A. Sax. kaf^^ 
Mod. G. fiabichty O.H.G. kab-ucA, from root Aa6-«ii. 

61 respond] the only case in which the un-Nonnaa § 
occurs instead of the u elsewhere of this verb. 

— pelerin] Lat. peregrinus, p^/vrinus [in which (bim 
it still is in Webh, viz., pererin, a pilgrim, pertrmioit 
pilgrimage, &c.], and by dissimilation, ptf^mnas.* 
For our final m = n, cf. ransom, from O. I^. raaiifOB. 
The representation of the (F.) nasal by m orn ii n 
common in the term, un^ urn, that t'm was to be ex- 
pected for in, and so, indeed, the MS. has (996) 
pelerim, owx pil(^g)rim. 

62 herherge] O.H.G. A^rt(^^^ (^army-camp) hai 
given rise to Mod. G. kerbergen, and O.F. kerberger, widi 
the same modification of meaning, 'lodge,' although the 
O.F. had besides the original meaning ; M. F. and the 
sister languages have adopted a form with a dissimilatfd 

1, (even in O. F. helbcrc,) alberge, auberge, It.albergo, 
Sp. albcrgue. 

— marbriil] marmorinus, mar;n*rinus, manN^rinns, 
maririnus v. 48. 

— ja] tliis particle is almost invariably placed be- 
tween the auxil. ax'er and the pp., this being the only 
instance where the ptcp. precedes both ; t. Gloss. 

• The form pelegrinus occurs in Lat. of 4 ccnl. A.D. (cf. Schuch, Vulg. Lat. I. 137), 



56 nai] sanx c. e fin. ; t. Gloss. 3, a, b, for the 
uunple of sanst with a pair of nouns coupled by e and 
fvipcctiTely ; but the sans is never repeated, as e. gr. 
lata. Altfr. 2a, 29, sans blasme et sans vilounie. 
-— cmniniOiil] for this termination-ai7 appended to 
^rbs to form nouns, cf. 6pouvant-ail ; imitated from 
■OQpinUl, {onvemail, &c., wnere it represents a genuine 
JjA^-^cttlum, spiraculum, gubemaculum. 

M dlWOO] [directiare] ; for Lat. {c)tt » hard sibilant 
cL M. F. sneer (suctiare), chasser Tcaptiare), nosces, 
BVpCiac ; cf. also lesfun, lectio, ana the - esce suffix s 
crtw. There is a notable difference between the 
terminations rssf and fsce^ the former being the reprc- 
itatix-e of Latin concrete nouns in issa, abstract essa, 
leooesse, promesse, presse, &c., while the latter 
se is employed in abstract nouns in itt'a (It. ezza, Sp. 
1} ; thus, m Aub. we have lassesce, seccheresce, 
' Bce, feblesce, jofnesce, destresce. An^oisse (ui) is 
of the rare cases of ss for st, angustia. 

— ftionl (iter) *eyre,' justices in 'eyTe,' O.E. errant 
jodgcs ; dr. chevalier errant, Juif errant, i.e. wander- 
img, dec. The word is monosvUabic, the final e being 
cbded ; cf. Vie de S. Th. a8, I. 21, endementcrs ad fait 
tot Sim eire aprcstcr; B. au Guescl. 16860, lors apres- 
tent lor otrre trestout commun^ment ; Chauc. Melib. 
p. 154, thoa schalt blessc God, and pray him to drcsse 
tkj waycs : Spens. F. Q. I. 10, 1 1 : I hither came and 
tins f>;ood knii^t his way with me addrest. 

60 gOftldi] It is from this form that we derive our 
vt»d /«ard, with initial jtm, cf. guarant (57). In both 
these words we receive back through O. F. a Teutonic 
root : 'ipiarantee* is warranty O.H.G. wer^nt, werin^ — 
and nard is ward, A. Sax. weardian, O.H.G. warttn. 
la * ungvace* we observe the influence of the same 
ortDciple, the M. F. conforming here also ; compare 
M. F. p»*>>^t carder, langage, with the O. F. and 
Caj^iah fonns. There are no other words common to 
Frcoch and English beginning with ^wa, except our 
old gumrish (Spenser), M.F. * gu6ir,* where the i has 
pie i ci 'w e d the v. but the English is to be equated with 
the O. F. ntarir, O.H.G. wtrjan^ A. Sax. tvarian. 

— pOQZtJ I have edited so, in place of the usual 
povfc, because oar word poor is only explicable on this 
prooaaciatioB, though I have no rh\*me which would 
afaiolatclj fnw* the matter. The case is pro- 
bably diAerent with jovre, for we have the derivative 
mfmou, showing that the labial sound was more plainly 
hcaid ; bat cf. Mod. pautTcti and jeunesse. 

— eOBtats] oor language has done well in preserv- 
mg this admirable word, which we have restored to Mod. 
Fr.: cC also descunforUt (384); already Lie. Macer 
fB.C. 66) OSes the word confortart (stomachum), to 

nrach; and in charters it is equated with 
thus ego M. confortavi, or ego D. cor- 

— tafia] for 'fratrin/ a deriv. of fratcr; r»r. sub 
toe. * fratcraili»/ quotes *le csmi'u dc 
coisraigeyni/n>i.* But fratcr wa.^ rc};ularly applied to 

the monks {omx friar) ^ and with this common epithet, 
as Chauc. (Cant. T. 232) has it, * men mooten given 
silver to the porefreres* The epithet was a constant, 
and so the word came to mean generally *poor,' 
* wretched,' and is not confined to human bemgs, e. gr. 
Alix. q6, 18, ct cevauca la mule qui n'ert mie frarinc. 
In DC. supp. sub * fratrin' are quoted ventre frarin, 
Rcnart, 19958 ; escris frarins, Partenop. 103. 

60 pest] = pascit famclicos; cf. Edw. Conf. 1897. 
ki pesscit Ics fameillus fors Aedward li glorius.'' 
DC. sub voc. famcscerey * li goupils est moult artiUeus, 
quant il est 2M(mts fameilleus* . 

— orflELnln] tnis form appears to have been intro- 
duced by Biolical usage into the common discourse, 
from the Greek dp^avo^ in place of the Latin orhu^^ 
with which it is, however, connected. The 6o^av«- 
rpu^f fiiv, orphanotrophium, is glossed ' locus in quo 
parcntibus orbati pueri pascuntur.' Our word * orphan,* 
It will be noted, is taken from the O. F., and diflfcrs 
from the M. F., in which we have the dissimilated 1, to 
avoid the recurrence of two successive syllables begin- 
ning with n, orpha-ni-nus. So Lat. venenum is in O. F. 
vclin, cf. Ital. veleno ; but the original form was also 
used, whence we have in M. F. Tent'n, and O. F. vcnin, 
vcnim, cf. venom-ous. In Prov. the n was dissimilated 
into r, verenos, or vcnenos ; and even vere, vert, are 
used for venenum.* This in Albanian has become in 
one dialect fitptpi, in another gone into (itfiipt ; 
Schuch. iii. 72. So in Portg. we have sarar for 
sanare, in Wall, mormtnt for monumentum, fereastre 
from fenestra. 

61 ewe] cf. with this our * ewer,* for which the M. F. 
has a dcriv. aiguiere, from another form of the word 
*aigue* f- aqua], which, itsell, is still preserved in the 
names of some localities, cf. Aigues-AIortes. 

— Beethlehem] a very noteworthy instance of word- 
degradation is seen in our use of the word * bedlam,' 
from Bethlehem, which is stated to have been the 
name of a religious house in London, afterwards con- 
verted into a lunatic as\'lum. In any case the word 
occurs in a MS. life of St. Eustace, bne 81 : 

une croiz o le crucifi 

de Jesu, k'en Bedlem nasqui. 
so that the phonetic variation of the word is old 

62 la ber A] this form of the article lu is only 
used in the obi. cases, cf. genit. 992, le cors lu martir ; 
temp. ace. 58, bis. lui pri e aikr lu soir et lu matin ; 
prep. 1 704, vers lu ciel regarde. This non-prepos. 
form of the gen., it may be observed, is only found in 
the attributive use. In Gloss. I have wrongly entere«l 
both her and ArchitricUn, which I had regarded, 
owing to ber, as being necessarily nom, 

— Arohitriolin] one of the medieval blunders through 
ignorance of Greek. The source is the Latin transla- 
tion of the X. Test., John ii. 8, which the Vulgate 
gives * hauritc ntmc i-t fcrtc architriclino ; ut auti-ni 
gustavit architiiclinus aquam,* &c. But the bluntlci 

* A very carious instance of this sul>stitution of r for n is found in the Gaelic word mna, mnaoi (the inflection 
aC bean, a wooua.) which is pronounced mra. So, too, every word in Gaelic beginning with en is pronounced 
as if It were rr; cf./> w p w y»^|ta (Schuch. Vulg. I. 140). 



did not stop here. Of course in a monkish tale like 
Auban, the word could hardly be misspelt with the 
Vulgate in common usage ; but cf. in Guesclin, nostre 
sire Dieux qui de Teauc fist vin | le jour qu'i noces 
fust de S. Archedeclin, 

64 meint] prob. from K3rmr. root ; cf. Welsh maint, 
magnitude, bigness. 

— mescreantl our word miscreant, Lat. minus cre- 
dcntem; cf. mischief, O. F. meschicf, Sp. menos 
cabo, minus caput, ill end ; misfeasance, O. F. mes- 
faisance ; misnomer, O.F. mesnomer ; misprision, O.F. 

65 ^erpir] O.H.G. werf-jan, M.F. only in * d6gucrpir *; 
M. L. guerpire, * possessionem reialicujus dimittcre,' "et 
si tunc eam uxorem habucrit, mox ei abrenuntict quod 
lingua Francorum ptrpire dicimus." Grimm, Rechts- 
alt., p. 122. This meaning arose from the old legal 
custom of signifying a cession of property by putting 
or throwing a token into the hand of the new owner : 
we still have the custom as flourishing as ever in the 
manual transfer of a key in giving up a house that has 
been ever rented. The root means to throw^ O.H.G. 
werfaftf A. Sax. weorfattj Goth, vairpatty our warp^ 
used in Piers Plo^^Tnan in this sense *to throw 
words*) ; cf. v. 87 : 

eche a worde that he warpe^ was of an Addres tonge. 

V. 369, the fyrste worde that he warpe^ &c., 
which, by the way, is precisely paralleled by a usage of 
the word in Icelandic — hvat er that manna er verpumk 
oriSi &, who is it that casts words on me, speaks to me. 
Another common Icelandic usage of the word is to tay 
or cast eggs (of any bird); thus aiSar-varp is tlie lading 
of eider-ducks, &c., which we may compare with the Fr. 
limited use of pondre,* as * to lay eggs,' cf. the Lat. 
ponerCy to put ; and warp is in pro\incial English still 
used in the sense of cattle dropping their young, (also a 
common phrase,) though warp is specialized into a 
premature birth. 

66 puant] I prefer to take this as qualifying * enfer* 
(rather than Apolin) ; the same construction is met 589, 
en la prisun. . . gisent obscure ; besides, this * puant 
enfer* is just the stagnum ignis et sulphuric of Rev. 
XX. 9 ; 1769, el fud*enfer puant ; cf. Prov. putnais fuec 
d'infem, (v. note on 289). 

— buo] prob. from a Kymr. root ; cf. Welsh hwchy 

— mastin] prop. * house-dog,' from a form mansati- 
nus,t M. L. deriv. of mansum - house, * manse.' 

67 loi] ' latus' ; cf. as-sez, ad-satis, (aim-ez, am-atis). 
This preposition is obsolete, except geographically; 
e. gr. St. Denis-lez-Paris, &c. 

— mailfd] ' male factus;' Diez quotes Neap, brutto 

fattOf similarly used for the devil, < the ugly one* ; u 
Gachet says, * ce mot sert h nons montrer de quelle 
fa^on le moyen ftge avait compris la penomiificatioo 
de I'esprit du mal. 

— oanpainz] M. L. companium, in Lex. Salic, for 
society, from com and pants after the model of O. H. G. 
gi-leip, where ^i^Lat. cum ; for this short fonn, 
cf . Chauc. Cant. T. 3709, com/fame, [riming Name], 

— yesill] the commoner form in A. is vessin, Lat 
vicinus ; for the s, cf. raisin, racemus. 

69 B-in] the Rhine as a boundary is no unfamiliar ex- 
pression of the trouvdres : cf. B. du Guescl. lo, qui taut 
fust redoubtez jusqu* k Teaue du Rin ; KeU. Komv. 
220.9, plus fort larron n'ot onques jusqu* k Rin. Unfbr* 
tunately the MS. has a hole in the \*ellum here, vhidi 
I have supphed conjecturally ; the omission of the 
relative adv. ii in such sentences is common enoD£^ 

73 a meivelles] cf. B. du Guescl. 4717, ceste nonvdfe 
fist nostre gent moult joians, | que u cuers lor rerini I 
merveille poissans. 

75 foreine] an * out '-house ; so ' rue foraine,' a bye- 
way ; marchand forain, * foraneus,' who sells his vaici 
abroad ; foraneus canonicus, one who resides out cf 
his prebend. 

76 serganz] ' servientem' has given rise to two fonu 
both preserved in English, servant and jergeant, with 
an excellent diss3moDymy. 

79 pucele] ' purcella,' pullicellus, dimin. of poIhiSi 
a word prop, applied only to the young of animals, bat 
used as a pet term of endeannent for human behigi; 
cf. the pullus passer of Catullus and Horace's male 
parvus nlius, dignified as pullus. 

80 snluxn] ' selon,' from se[cundum] lon[gnm] ace 
to Diez, but the O. F. sulum (as here), sufuic, &C., 
make it more natural to take sub4ongum as the origii 
of this prcpos. (which originally denoted s/ateY 

81 ke] a thing which, *id quod'; it seems better to 
take it so, than as a conjunction « for, introdudng a 
causal clause with the noun-sentence in 84, for the 
subject ; for it could not be, methinks, inteUigiUe,that 
God (84) deigned, &c. 

88 ne jo no] for the repetition of the negative, d. 
Mahom. 841, n^ Jidemot n'en mentirai; 1003, neji 
point nc s'en mefiera ; I235,ne ji partir ne s'en ^-olsisL 
Common enough in our older literature ; cf. Spenser 
F.Q. I. I, 22, ne can no longer fight. 

o5 nude] this expression for ' water,* in the emnncr- 
ation of the elements, is noticeable. 

88 glaiye] Lat. * gladius'; the v can only have beet 
inserted while the / was yet pronouncea: riadios* 
gla(d)i B glavi ; cf. gravir for gradire, parvis (Chanoo^s 
par\ise) for paradisus, through par(a)vi8. So arontrt 

* In a word of related signification the same specialization is observable in Fr. ; thus Lat. trahere, to draw, 
but Fr. traire, only to draw milk, to milk. Here in these two very common Latin words p<mere and inUUrtt 
both of which are preserved in the other Rom. langg., the Fr. modification of meaning indicates the more a^ 
cultursd habits of the people ; — the egg-laying and milking form still two very important items in a French 
peasant's daily life, and pondre and traire are no unfamiliar words in a French viilage. 

t To this form (which is M. Brachct's), Schcler objects that there is no suffix atinus. This is true, but just 
as his mesnata formed masnat-inus, so could mansata form mansat-inus. Now, the form mansata exists ; in bet 
mansata is used for family, thus DC. quotes ' at Itali, secundum quosdam vocant homines de fnansaia quasi de 
familia, et illi quasi pro servis habentur.' 


(l6Sj)BR-ai]tre for a(d)uller,* where, however, Ihc u 
foUowing a vowd nniuiully produced ils kindred v 
before U. jtui la in pou(v)ou' tram |>o-oir, and in nvi 

luL has pa-J'tglKme from pa(/)iluinein [out of which 
Mod. Gadie has in fiaitliuH'\ ; andcf. clavus zr clau-us — 
do-QSKchio-o^ ntal.) chiodo. 

89 anbant] cf. Scheler in Lemcke's Jahrb.. x. ], p. 
3y\, tub \oc. fmhut; nequedent bien furcnt enbut | si 
compagiion. eC ass^ burent ; Fl. et Blanccf., p. 79, 
doDt pariert il si decEos, | etpar vostreorsi cmbjus, | 
qac de joie i ros pi& can? { et hamage vous offena ; 
VQloD, p. Si, conune homme emben, qui chancellc el 
trcpigne, | I'ai vca souvcut quand il s'alloit coucher; 
cf. O. Span. btado = one who h:is drunk, just aii:omido = 
one tIio has eaten ; Lat, cenalits, fottu. 

90 OSttt] prob. from a form hauslare, freqaenlalive 
of haurite : tJtere is a gloss of Feslus, txhauitant ■= ef- 
ftruni ({[ooled by Schtler sub »oc.) 

— BWOn] Die* derives from O.H.G. sare, coffin, wilh 
vaf&x •*!, sarqn-eu. He objetts against mrcopttdgubis. 
that it wontd pve tarlkil. True, but with retracted 
act«Dt, MRr^pMjw/wmiebtvery well give sarcueil; we 
ha*e a parallel cose in fcne-il for sco-fu-l-u:, ^o sorco- 
Ea^-tu, sarcDC-il ; cf. also F. eueillir, Ilol. dglhri from 
L^t. tiBigerr instead of caUlgrre. It h curious (hat in 
other wtwds of similar terminBtion, mch as tioccul, 
6ciireuit, chcTTcuil, the accent has been carried onward, 
and tbc Latin -lolus becomes the Romance -iilus. (For 
the rsrc syncope of /, cf. icrvutila from Lai. scro/ella, 
where Sthelct^ scniples, and suggestion of scrabitla as 
'hL- nrij^n, seem quite unnecessary.) 

93 engUMt] It. inmnne, Sp. engtHio ; [Wallach. 
: " .•Sim, which means besides lailler, also singer, balbu- 
'^' r. anbroaiDn' ;) the word can hardly be other than a 
Lai in word. Now, in O. F. this form enganer alter- 
iiatet with engingHier, which latter certainly is dose 
ouragh lo iHgniiam, to remove Diet's objection on the 
»cart of phonetic laws (I. 1^9). Whether the O.H.G. 
punan, contracted gonui, did not then become ganna, 
jiut OS datnnum, daniu) (cf. somnus tonne, domina 
Ammi), and get mixed up wilh an 'ingcnium' form, it 
b not Fftsy to uv,' but the Wallach. tngaima, &c., 
mold nnt come 'from the O.H.G. word, luid it can 
^irdJy have been borrowed (as Diei suggests,) from 

.' lial. 



j1 for the omission of tbc conj. si, cf. our 

^11 iliscoveied,' ic: 1. 465 is ihe only other 

L-e in which this sequence of lenses occurs, with 

- ipodosis, and imperfect sub), in the protasis 

lU] cf. Chaoc. Cant. T., l6oj : 
Thou sehnldcst never out of this grove pace 
Thai then nt scholdest dcycn of mjn bond. 
sad V. nolc on 1771. 
— detmuihei] of obscure origin. Ciez suggests ii 


(which occurs in PrndentiusJ, whence Prov. 
cn-ircncar ; others have proposed mUrimiean, in< 
I'rim'care, which I prefer. Littrt's derivaU'on, from 
tnmcare, does not allow for the genera! prevalence of 
the I sound in Ihc root. 

— brantE] O.H.G. brant = ZM.. titio, whence Sp. 
tixo {= half-burnt charcoal), and Sp. titim, ' firebrand,' 
which in the Old Sp. Poemadel Cid (1456) [always so 
in the ^ofwa, as contrasted with the later fitimaorthe 
crinica] is the name of the laierd won by Ihe Cid from 
King Bucar. 

96 irason] as naistte [nasci] made nascn, from a base 
nasculus, so from iraistre [irasci] came irascu, Prov. 
irascnt [cf. O- F. iieiai, M. F. W<™). But just as 
besides, the Lai. ptcp. natus left ni, so initns produced 
.W(98S, 1JS6). 

St pai Sen] as Ihis is evidently the predicate, it is to 
be rtgardcd as depeodent on a sui amenf to which Id 
m'amSne is equivalent, the rcLitive and principal 
clauses having changed places : I, who have come and 
stopped in this couolry, have been brought by God to 

99 voat] a very unusual sequence of tense ; the pres. . 
subj. sirici following the prel. vout. It may possibly 


r for f. 

100 almomel Ihe intermediate stage between elee- 
mosyna and M. F. aumdne. The modilicalion of 
this word is peculiu-. O. Sp. has almosna, Mod. 
Sp. limosna ; but Pg. has turned it upside down, 
eimola, the consonants of which may be contrasted 
with our aJmi. 

— tranOhlBt] ihe general idea conveyed in this word 
is the kindliness of a noble nature; cf. 5S0, en nos 
deiis ad franchise e dn^or (so also 779, of God's fran- 
chise e debonncielf) ; in 871, 1GS9, it suits most otii 
' loving-kindness ' ; here it means rather ' beneficence.' 
It used lo be of very familiar usage : Chanc. Cant. T., 

gaxtts fraunehit o( ^n gaitiieii 
I. fj6i50): 

to eomplej 
the deth ot genliUs and oT fmurickiir. 

The adj. francs also occura (969) in the a .. __ 
'noble. The two deriw. franccis, franchise, present c 
and ch as the final consonants of the root . The former 
springs from the Latinized Francia, the latter from the 
O.H.G. Franco; cf. It. fraorcse, but fran^Aezza, for 
the guttural tellers of German stems remain gattuial 
in the deriw., (and Fr. i:A:^It. ch). 

101 as,] in m.isc. nom. s^. we have lis, si, and smi, ' 
jusi as ma, mi, mun, and lis, ti, [tun does not occur]. . 

— dm] It. drudo ; bat whether of Keltic or Ger- 
manic origin is not determinable. O.H.G. luu (nJi*, 
dnil, lover, friend, which is dose; but the Keltic root 
drulh, merctrix (Mod. Gad. diuth = lecher^'), corres- 



ponds to another very common meaning of dru^ It. 
drudoy viz., paramour. The Welsh drud means both 
daring and costly ^ dear. [Possibly the two words, O.F. 
dru, drutf and M. F. dru, are to be kept apart.] 

102 al nun] I have given this in Gloss, as * on occa- 
sion of the mention of the name,' starting from this 
name as the foundation of the discourse ; it might 
also mean *in the name of,* the usual * in nomine' 
(Dei, &c.) ; but cf. Ovid's * nomine in Hectoreo pallida 
semper eram' (Heroid. 14). 

— goier] It. guidare ; as hair, from hadir, and that 
from Goth, hatjan, so guier. It. guidare, M. F. guider, 
probably from Goth, vit-an, watch, heed, A.-Sax. 
wita, sapiens ; but the change of a German t into d in 
Romance, is very rare (Diez i., 290.) 

103 desploierl [from dc-ex-plicare, rather than from an 
assimied dis-plicare]. Compare It. impiegare, em- 
ployer, from impltcare, with F. {d)e5ploier. It. s-piegar, 
Fr. espUiar^ from explicare. Besides the two forms, 
plier and ployer, there is the (older) dialectic pleier, all 
of which we have in our ply^ deploy (troops), display, 
from dcS'PleicTf or rather dis-plai-er, with the peculiar 
Norman at for ei. Burg, oi; cf. fricare, making O. F. 
froier, M. F. frayer, se frayer une route. 

104 esoute] [aus-cultare. It. ascolto, Sp. escuchar.] 
This is probably to be taken as a parenthetic 
clause of smiultaneity, ' Auban the meanwhile listen- 
ing,' &c., or, perhaps, *Apl. begins and A. listens.' 
But it could very well be taken as an introduction to 
Apl.'s discourse, and is quite in keeping with the for- 
mulas of the time : * Auban, listen well, and give ear 
to it heartily.' Ben (bien), it may be noted, always 
precedes the verb, of whatever mood or tense ; and 
there is an example in 388, of le preceding the impcr., 
* pur Deu le m'otriez,' where le also has a somewhat 
similar meaning, nearly = the demonstrative co, *for 
God*s sake grant me this '. But still, in the MS. there 
is a distinct paragraph mark at 105 ; and I doubt 
whether le could be used as fo, in the meaning of 
ToSi, as referring to what follmvs, though like 
rovTo, it may, as m 388, resume deictically what has 
preceded. Besides, the imper. 2 sg. is elsewhere al- 
ways entenc, 

— qnor] the rime here proves conclusively that the 
word was pronounced nearly as the M. F. coeur. It is 
somewhat difficult to decide which is the form of the 
word (in X04) that should be adopted. The MS. has 
fully written out five * quocr,* eight * quor.' The con- 
traction 4i'i which occurs fifteen times (together with four 
times in the word reqr) should be written * quor,' of 
course, though in the only case where any test can be 
applied, viz., at the end of a line, it is written ^r, but 
nmes with per, (In pronunciation there is not any 
reason to suppose that it was at all different from what 
it is now. For this rime with per, cf. the German 
rime entbehren and schworefi, to be noted in the spell- 
ing ^i/^i/r in 158.) In the compound verb where the 
forms occur, it is to be noted that in the present tense 
f where alone it is met,) the ist sing, has reqr (all the four 
times), but the and sing, reqrs (« requers), and the 3rd 

sing, also rec^rt (s requert), while the 2nd phir. has 
requerez, written fuDy. [The simple verb z sg. hii 
Guoer (1761) full^.l Besides 1. 104, wbere it is ^r, 
though riming with per, the other four cases whoe 
it rimes with er (205, 68 J, 1348, 1632) are writta 
out quoer. It is never nmed o, bat there occnn 
a plav on words thrice in the poem, showing that the 
souna was different, yet close to the open o: — 

365. ke hem vus face an C0rs a au ^hot waadL 
1350. cist sunt martir de cors, cist de fuardobatr, 
1470. si cars est las, mais sis bcms guorf tot fens 
est e nuveus. 

105 per] Lat. par, our 'peer,' equal, bat not confined to 
persons; cf. our *its luce was never seen.' H. ct 
Blancef., p. 165 : 

li donerent une coupe bien onvi^e, 
onques sa per ne fa trav6e. 
For an example, in this sense of absolate eqnalitT, 
ct Fr. I. p. 227 : 

c'est que Diables li canseiUay 
par sa feme qui I'engingna, 
et li pramist si grant honor 
que^rj serait an creatar. 

106 defendi] hence in 0.£. used = forbid ; cf. Giaoc 
Cant. T., 13925, when that he eet of the fruit defiendit 
of a tre ; ibid. 14006, now wil I yow ddode 

— manger] Lat. manducare ; cf. vender from vindi- 
care, plonger (plumbicare), juger (judicare), charger 
(caricare), forger (fabricare). 

107 le] disobeyed him (God) ? trangiessed it (the 
law) ? I think, the latter. 

108 dieitiueiis] deriv. of dreit, droit » directnm ; d 
strictum, estroit ^764), M. F. 6troit, oar straight. 

— nes] not to be confoimded with nis («even, 792), 
but = neles; cf. es (1482) s^wf l£s. 

— esparnier] prob. from O.H.G. veib sparcn ; c£ 
lorgner, from O.H.G. luren. There is another ibna 
cspamir (451, 1528) from the same root, as if from a 
dcriv. form spam-jan. As a -rule (Liez. II. 36^1 
verbs borrowed from German roots belonein Roniaiice 
to the 1st conjugation, but those frxnn Uie derivative 
verbs [in -jan] belong to the 3rd conj. { — ire]> thai 
hunir from haun-jan; guerpir^ O.H.<x. werf-jaa; 
guarir, Goth, var-jan, &c. 

109 rava] Lat. rogare, ro-er, ra-v-er; cf. glarre, 88. 

— amhesaens] ambos duos ; Sp. ambos i dos, O. Sp< 
amos (P. del Cid 100 amos las manos) ; for other 
strengthenings, cf. Ger. * alle beide,' M. F. tons les 
deux. We have this ambes in Shakspere's 'aMtf-aoe* 
(Air s Well, III. 85) = both aces ; so M. F. ambeMS 
with the contraction besas (and besei), of the two aoesat 
backgammon. This form is only nsed in the obL cases, 
the nom. being always an^dui, 

— eznlller] for the diphthong, v. appendix and d» 
butf^zller (677). I do not thmk that the ortho- 
graphy is owing to the connexion with ' ex-sirl' ; v- 
note on hruid6e (I134), and cf. ebnorsdCe (X212). 

110 demener] nence our 'demean,* the actire use 
(found in Milton) of which, howerer, in the seme of 



t, cairy on (an affair), is obsolete. Spenser 
IL 68i) has to demean a person well, «■ to treat 
I. For the Mod. Fr. use ofd6mener, s to struggle, 
lard, use violence, cf. Lat. delirium, to get out 
furrow [liral (cf. also malmener, fourvoyer) ; 
e O. F. simply meant ' to direct,' with a denv. 
onent ■■ demeanour. The simple mener, to 
loold prop, mean to drive cattle with threats^ 
at. minari ; cf. the alteration of meaning in toxi- 
ren under entusch6e (12). 
mrintl 'none could be a guarantee, nor any 
at it should not beho\'e them to go thither, viz., 
n, whose counsel it pleased them to hear, &c.' 
^positional use of tuz with the dat. pron. lur 
again in Aub., 1302, par la mort t%n lur cuvent 
In Aub. cuvenir is used only with the infin., so 
Blancef. 214, orne argent nel puet garir que ne 
riegne morir; elsewhere it occurs also with 
o B. du Guesd. 22^27 nos Fran9ois en Bre- 
irent telle aramie qu*il convint i la fin li dues 
t en fuie. 

1] the coni. has here the force of a preposition : 
lerwith all their lineage.' 
1] M. F. lacs ; in 1649 we have laf-uns, from 
qneos. It. lacdo, Sp. lazo, * lasso.' 
J for other examples of this le in the attrib. 
:£ 102. 585, 798, 97 J, 1709, andv. lu (62). 
Biftar] Ais word (Lat. ministerium) has 
sides of meaning: i. O. £. mister, a trade^ 
Aier ; — 2. advantage gained by anyUiing, aver 
(as here,) to cany profit, to be useful ; cf. 
F.Q. m. 7.51, as for my name, it mistreth not 
^3. possiblv through the influence and analogy 
esi^ (It. h d uopo,) the longer word ministerium, 
latnnUy meant opus, work^ came to be used in 
sadary sense of opus, need; so It. i mestieriy 
temetter, it is nece^ary, but O. Sp., P. del Cid 
menester, (he has need of) scisdentos marcos. 
V OQUiU] ' cutus consOium' ; for this gen., 
73(S. 948} cf. Vie de St. Thom. 61. b. 12, 
li fait li reis . . . mesprise 
as banms Id pere establirent Tiglise; 
i«e. quorum patres. 
>ther obi. cases cf. (Aub. 1309), St. Thom. 
i reifl, qui r«cui] K regnes apent. 
i ki .. . i^lQi] for this repetition of the pers. 
ith the rel., cf. Dante, Inf. V. 69 (ombre mos- 
pi6 di mille, che amor di nostra %ita dipar- 
ilew indeed it is to be regarded rather as a 
o of two constructions, %iz., *cil i ki'l 
iti%) and 'fl pint ilui.' 
■finv] jactare, from which the deriw. -present 
racteristic forma in the mod. langg. ; It. gittare, 
tcr. Sp. [j>char. Wall, (a)iepta. 

120 diable] is of course governed by descmnfire. 
The whole clause however (i i8-i23) shows that it was 
just as difficult for a writer of the 13th as it is for a 
writer of the 19th cy. to carnr on a long sentence gram- 
matically. Cil prepares tne way for the nom. h haut 
pere, and the intervening dauses are so much explanatory 
matter in a somewhat vague, half conventional wav: — 
' he whom it pleased (even Him who had created us,} 
to deliver us hence by his grace, and whom it behoveid 
through the agency of man to discomfit the devil,— the 
High Father of heaven could trust none but his dear 
Son in that business.' 

121 d. e. mater] a very familiar pair; cf. Alix. 
239.22 par tens les pores vus desconfire et mater ; ibid. 
248.34 et Daire desconfit et ses hommes mat^ ; B. du 
Gmescl. 39 chascun sc tenoit desconfis et matez ; ibid. 
2d07 pour veoir le champ desconfire et mater ; ibid. 
45 r9 quant la bataille fii desconfite et mat£e ; ibid. 
13467 ct uns hons desconfis vault autant que matez. 

— desomnflre] [dis-conficere], (ficere : fire » dicere : 
dire) ; conficere was used exactly as Mod. Germ, eirt' 
machetiy to prcser\'e, pickle, whence £ng. comfit (also 
confect). But the common Lat. usage, to kill, was 
also continued, thus M. L. confectura meant both F. 
confiture and our discomfiture, 

— mater] is prob. not to be connected with Lat. 
mactare^ but is a deriv. from mJ/, (check-mate, Pers. 
shiUi mdtj the king is dead). 

128 86 Yoat florj the poem carefully avoids prefixing 
se immediately to the governing infin. ; cf. 690 se s6et 
atemprer; 707 se pout garder; 1204 se puet retenir; 
1649 se savent garder ; 1783 se pout vanter ; and com- 
pare with 161 5 her se lessa ; 1804 baptizer se funt. 

124 bUBOinne] of obscure etymol.; perhaps O.H.G. 
bi'Siunigi (= scrupulositas), from subst. bisiuni, whence 
besoin, (of which M. F. besogne, O. F. busoinne, is the 
fem. form ; cf. Prov. besonh, and besonha). Our busy, 
A. -Sax. bvseg^ has no relationship with this word. 

127 iflsf] the final element in this word is certainly sic, 
but it is not so dear where the other syllable is to be 
referred. Besides this form, we find ainsinc, (shading 
off through the dialectic ansin, ensin, into M. F. ainsi ; 
Sp. has asiy O. Sp. ansi^ It. cori, SkU. accussi. This 
last form suggested to Diez aeque sic as the origin of all 
the forms, (cf. It. cotale^ prob. for aeoue talis,} which I 
accept for tne It., but I am not sure tnatinourword issi 
there is not simply a compound of itasic; as to the 
nasal in M. F. autsi, it has not yet been satisfactorily 
explained (cf. ensement 186). 

128 molier] this Latin form, as compared with muil^ 
lere (ii()\)^ is probably intentional in the Salutation.* 
All the Rom., except M. F., have preserved the word« 
It. moglie (ra), Sp. mujer, Pg. mulher, Prov. molher, 
Wall, muiere. 

precisdNr the same way we find in an old Ital. poem, edited by Mussafia, in Sitz.-Ber. der Wien. Akad. 
p. 201, L 151 : 

Oi beneeto/w/r de Beleem 

per Deo Mcs^r, no vegnirme unc'a men 

Kc tu no cxaudi lo prego e la vox mia. 

L 2 



129 Mia al this construction oi fain h with inf., to 
be worthy to oe — ed, (cf. 1345 tant fist ^ leer), is one of 
the most characteristic and frequent in O. F., and Prov. ; 
Diez (III. 230) refers the origin of this phrase to Lat. 
facit ad rem. 

133 esbaie] M. F. 6bahir ; possibly a deriv. from the 
interj. hah of astonishment. 

134 baraii] * for she did not wish to experience the 
company of a husband : ' cf. Chauc. Cant. T., 2313 
nought wol I knowe the company of man.* For 
* barun ' in this sense of husband, cf. Kell. Romv, 
238.19 voir, jc Tamaisse, se n*eusse baron: (the Queen 
says) faith, I would love him, if I had not a husband. 
Mar. de Fr. 11. p. 271 elle respunt ^ sun barun ; B. du 
Gucsc. 6916 et doint recongnoissance roy Pietre, 
mon baron; Ibid. 16159 : 

mais mon p5re gentel ... 
ot pl6vie ma mere par bone entencion 
et si just avec lui, et en fist tout son bon. 
et lors fu-oe engenrez, et en celle saison 
ma mdre le pooit bien tenir i baron : 
cspouser ne pooit fame voir se elle non ; 
et pour ce, ne suis ne bastart ne coistron. 

136 recmiBer \ cf. B. du Guesc. 8764, where the 

137 ennmbrer ) text (Dieux) *qui pour nous fesconsas 
en la \'ierge Marie,' has an altera lect., qui faomhrasy 
&c. Rayn. rv. 370, quotes *le St.-esprit surNiendra en 
toi, et la vertu du souverain t'enomtrera ', which is a 
literal rendering of the Vulg. Luke 1. 55, spiritus sanc- 
tus supervenit in te, et virtus Altissimi oJumbrabit tibi. 
Instead of r«:unser, we generally have ^jcunser ; cf. 

B. du Guesc. 668 1 quant on prophetiza 

la venue de Dicu, k*eu vierge s*esconsa. 
Burg. 1. 235 (R.del.V.) parle Saint angele Gabriel 

mandas d la \irge el canciel, 
Dous Dcx, k*en li esconseroies 
et humanitd i prendroies. 
The meaning appears to be that of *hidingy [from a 
Lat. absconsus;] tnus of the setting of the sun, DC. 
quotes under absconcia * solcil levant ou soleil 
esconssant', ann. 1325; B. du Guesc. 2022 ains solail 
resconser ; Ibid. 20873 ains qu* esconsse solaux ; Ibid. 
21352 aincois que landemain soit le solcil escon ; and 
i^-ith a wider signification. Blonde of Oxf. 
se j'estoie aussi rices horn 
com vous estes, une maison 
tons jours o moi emporteroie 
en quoi mon cors ensconseroie — 
of which there is a good example in DC. sub abscon- 
cia ; Sic Deimi deprecatur : — 

fai moi de Toi un esconsail, 

un abril et un repostail 

oil je me puisse aler bouter. 

cf. also Froissart s *ils estoient escotisis entre arbres oii 

on ne les povoit voir*, and this brings us to our £. use 

of the word, viz., to ensconce one's self. 

138-9] The construction is confused, apparently 
from a aesire to get the two pronouns together, tei lui: 
< it befits to be bom, and thee to bring forth, him^ who 
has lordship, &c.' 

138 poerj 'power,' as buele (1265) becomes bo-w-el; 

in both cases, the F. having destrojred the dental that 
separated the two vowels, a mediating w was after- 
wards inserted. The root of this word is a constnicted 
pot-ere, for Lat. verbs, with no union-vowel, esse, vdle 
posse, &c., were not adopted by the Romance families, 
who regularized them all: thus It. esse-ie, F. ess*it 
= cstre (etre), [but Sp. has ser, O. Sp. se^ from udert^ 
Diez II. i62;1 so velle became It. voler, F. vdoir; 
posse became It. potere, F. po-oir, Sp. poder. In Sp. 
nlabar, the v has nardened into h (cL Paulns, Pablo)^ 
laudare, O. F. loer, Sp. lau-ar >= lav-ar « alabar. 

141 reprayerl DC. 'reprobate,' "Gallice aUas ft- 
proirver pro hoaiemo reprocher; " so also onr leproach 
and reproof (s. 1690). In 13 14 it is employed m the 
derived sense of * proverb,' as frequently in O. F. 
The two ideas are commonly enough imited : cfl 
our byword, bs a common saying, bat also used as a 
reproach &> town's talk, he hai become a byword, 
Petrarca*s *■ favola fui gran tempo.' 

142 ottreit] M. F. octroyer [auctoricarel, It. otriaie, 
Sp. otorgar, O. Sp. atorgar, F. del Old (\^), It ii 
noteworthy that the M. F. has brought back, both in 
spelling and pronunciation, the c of the first syllabk, 
Mz., 'o^roi.' The word octroi, in its modem sense, 
has gone through our 'grant' into the moie precise 
meaning * to^m dues, toll.' 

143 dOTls] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 12194 that sdud Ithce 
deiyse. From ' di\'isare,' freq. of dividere, to analyKf 
arrange; hence to discuss, and so to narrate. From 
the meaning to arrange, distribute, &c. (56.849. 102B), 
comes that of planning, making a device ; the soccesi- 
ful carrying out of the plan is denoted in ' pcnnt-device.' 
As the coat of arms used to be divided conventioDany 
for the purpose of distinguishing its wearer, it was 
natural tnat the characteristic emblem should be caBed 
a dc\ice : ' loricas induunt et desuper picturis variis se- 
cundum diversas armorum differentias, se distingmmt* 
And fmally, as in M.L., dividere is used «> to dispose ofhy 
will, so we have the O.F. ' je doins et devis ' oioor iKDs. 

145 oitisme] from a base oct-esimns on the analogy 
of centesimus, &c. 

148 vertuz] common in the sense of 'minde' : cC 
Fl. et Blancef. p. 172 : 

U oii gisoit toz estandna 
fist Diex por lui si granx vertu. 
— paraletios] for this litany of sick people, cf. Ed. 

Conf. 4427-4434, which indudes many more than are 

mentioned here. 

149 kaift] ' epileptic,'»in Marcus Empiricns, we have 
cadivus, to signify one attacked with thu disease, the 
falling sickness, epUepsy; he couples both wads, 
cap. 20, etiam caducis AtAmn. prodest : nam si vd duos 
cyathos cadivus inde sorbeat, &c., and Fliny 15. 16. 18 
had used cadi>'a (mala) instead of the commoner caito- 

ca. Caducus is found glossed iiriXvmc^c- Sothesik 
of a (horse) was annulled, if it was ant coecun, aat 
hemiosum, autcaducum, autleprosum. 

— avogles] [ab oculis] I take this as an ad)., 
because the s termination is not nsoal with ptcps.; 
in 177^ however, where it also occurs in an ennmoa- 
tion with desv6, it is probably a ptcp. 



— dflfTtt] t word very varionslywritten [even in Aub., 
(1774) the MS. apparently has detvf\^ but the meaning is 
well nxed by this passage in Vie de St. Thom., p. 151 : 
en terre est dcus od nus pur amur al martyr, 
e les morz fait revivre, mutz parler, surz oir, 
let contraiz redrescier, gutus, fevrus guarir, 
ydropikes, leprus, en sant6 restablir, 
das vecir, en lur sens Us desves revenir. 
The origin of the word is prob. the Lat. desipere; 
M.F. has it in the comp. endever^ to be mad. 

158 Ms] Lat. vice(m^, with an unusual change of 
initial V to / ; cf. 28, pale/rei. The M.F. toutesfois, 
h o we v e r , does not contain this word, but is an alteration 
of O.F. toUS'Voies^ our always « all ways, 
158 r. 6. piiB] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 

ne renoun, ne ve3me glorie of pris of armes. 

156 gllfltei] O.H.G. waht^n, It. guato, our < wait* ; 
it occius also (1065) in the compound aguetes, watches ; 
cf. the M.F. gaet-apens as premeditated ambush, and 
Hod. F. agnets, used in the plural. 

157 teiiual O.H.G. leit, A..Sax. Iddh, our loathe. 
Even in O.H.G. leittuon meant to do an injur}% as in 
Mod. Ger. er hat mir ein Icid gcthan. 

158 liimgis] there b hardly any O.F. poet who has 
not taken occasion to mention this personage, who 
pierced Christ's side. He received Christ's pardon, and 
was cved of his blindness by the blood wnich flowed 
from the wounded side. Cf. Poema del Cid 352 : 

cstando en la cniz,virtud fecist' muy grant ; 
Longinos era ciego, que nunqua vio alguandrc, 
di6t' con la lanza en el costado dont yxi6 la 

conri6 la sangre por el astH ayuso, las manos se 

ovo de nntar, 
al261as arriva, leg6]as d la faz ; 
ibri6 SOS oios, cat6 k todas partes, 
en ti crovo alora, porend' es salvo de mal. 
PKMonsk. 10776: 

Longis le ftri el cost6, 
etf quant il ot le sane tast6, 
i set ions toa9a, s'ot v6ue, 
qo*fl ooqoes mais n'avoit 6ie. 
B. do Gnesc 14284: 

f Dicnx endura) la mort 
demi la crois, quant Longis le per^a. 
AjoMO (in Bek.) 710 : 

fcnrhonneor) du pardun 
Loogis. qu* ou corps le voult frapper. 
nb ct Amu. 1305 : 

lanc ot e eve de vo costel issant, 
Longis qn'ainz n'ot v6u en son vivant, 
tent i sesiex, si ot alumemcnt. 
SUsfd p. 7 (Digby Codex 86) gives the follg. 
1:— ^r ittufff estauncher, pur saunc estaunchcr 
ccsl offcison. Nostre scignour fu pris | et en la 
fn mis I Longis i rint i Tui | e de la bunce li fcri 

I saunc e ewe en issi tret | • scs oilz leve et der vcit. 

I pur la vcrtu ke deus i fist | coniur les vcines c le 
saunc I ki nc seine plus avaunt | deu veray pere pater 
noster III. fez le dirrez. So in Mort. Dart. II. xvi. 

159 murut] these rapid resumes of the well-known 
story are very common, and are all cast in the same 
mould. Possibly there was a rhetorical pause intended 
here after the first word in the line, wnich would be 
somewhat unusual. 

160 bis] It. bigiOf Portug. buzio^ Sp. bato (pan, 
brown bread, pain bis) : all these convey tne meaning of 
a darkish colour, but the origin of the word is not so 
plain. Rom. de la Rose 1198, qui ne fu ne brune 
nc bise, ains ere blanche comme nois. DC. un- 
der bisus quotes from Frederick II. *s book on 
hunting, (cygni) qui primo anno sunt bisi sen 
cincricii, &c., . . . quibus, tempore coitus, florescunt 
suae plumae et |>ennae quodam flore pulveroso et biso. 
So bisetus was * panni s[)ecies, a colore cinericio sic 
dicta.' Voss proposed bj'sseus, cotton colour, which 
would suit well enough with Pg. buzio, and M.L. 
busius, DC, which is glossed in Aelfric fealu^ fallow, 
yellow. But Dicz prefers (bom)bycius, found also 
bumbacium. It. bambagio, whence could come Sp.doso, 
\t-ith the omission of first syllable. And the forms of 
bombycius, bambucinum, bumb^ium would thus run 
parallel with Fr. bis^ Pg. buzio^ bazo. 

161 murnes] Goth, mauman^ O.H.G. momen, our 
' mourn' ; Portug. has momo, in the signif. oi lukewarm 
(lit, or fig.), thus agu€LS momas means ineffectual 

164 dalurofll {dolerus of 354 ;) Shaksp. uses this 
adj. in Ant. Iv. 2239, you take me in too dolorous a 
sense ; Mort. Dart. II. 19, the dolorous stroke. 

165 lesii] this is the only instance in which this word 
used in the nom. has not tne final s. The ace. is gene- 
rally Jesu^ but occurs twice in the Latin inflected form 
(491. 1705 Jesum). 

— releya] never used pronominally, as in M. F., but 
simply, and i^ith the full force of the particle re, 'rose 

— poe«tifc]M. L. 'potestativus ; * generallynsedasadj., 
esp. with the word sires, but cf. adso Alix. 13.17 il en 
estoit sires et poestifs. 

166 oheitltoj * captivus ', It. cattivo, our caitif, M. F. 
ch6tif. A captive tends morally to become a caitiff 
* cattivo,* and physically fA/Ti/. Here, as throughout 
the poem, the O. F. form is to be taken in its ethical 
sense, 'wretched ;' cf. Chauc. Cant. T., 926, where those 
who had been queens are now caytifs ; ibid. 1554, ' so 
f a>'/iy* and so thral.' 

— prisQUB] [nrchensio, prensio] ; O. F. agrees with 
It. pngione, and Sp. prision, in eroplo}'ing this word 
also in the sense of prisoner (as here). So in Portug. 
prisSo, is used to denote the quarry at which hawks are 

* It appean to me that something is wrong here ; the charm should rime at issi : blood and water came out 
(•f. lor pi.) ; I t€rt ses oilz et ckr vcit, &c. I do not know how Stengel would translate, but I think he hM mis- 



167 adostrd] 'ad dextramsui patris;' in 1705, al 
desire is used ; the latter apparently = (antiq.) M. F. 
au c6t6 dextrc. 

168 seilLE FJ in the three instances of its occurrence 
in nom., we have esperitz always, but 13') seintz E. ; 
168 seinz E. ; 340 seint E. 

170 les m. et v,] for this freer use of the def. art., cf. 
153 la renum6e c pris, where two nouns of even diif. 
genders have only the one article. 

171 diira] I do not think that the form has any ctymol. 
bearing, dir-ra ^uasi dic-ra. In faire the whole of the 
root, save the mitial cons., has disappeared, the future 
fonns frai, fras, fra, frum, frcz, frunt, being as lopped 
as they well could be. 

— mes] mes, not mi^ seems entailed by the rime, 
i. e. the needful gcntilr led to the use of the inflected 
form for all the last four words of the L'nc. 

— leans] nom. sg. has leal, loial, leus ; the pi. is only 
used here. Cf. our loyal, and the Scotch (land o' the) 
*leal.' In fem. loiele (1268), cf. faiele (1254) ; so in our 
words fealty and lesilty, Jideiis and legalis nave assumed 
parallel forms. 

173 mortz] this might be taken as nom. to nafra, 
parallel with noise, &c., but I prefer to take it as ace. 
pi. * where (nothing) ever hurt tne dead, neither * noise,* 
nor * duel,' &c. (For the omission of the art. cf. 151 
mortz resuscita, guari les ydropics.) Besides jamais 
must be taken as negat., even without ne, though it is 
rarely so used ; but on the other hand the ne . . . nc 
are ne7.*er used without a negat. attached immediately 
to the principal verb. 

— nafra] also navcrer (1625) ; It. naverare, from 
O. H. G. fuxbagSr^ Germ, ndber, Icel. nafar 'gimlet,' 
M. H. G. nabe-ger, or nebe-ger, where ger = Goth, 
gairu = * stimulus.* The word itself is familiar to us, 
i()r as in Dutch the word has become (n)avegaar, so 
we have transformed it into auger (O. E. navegor). 

From this use it was transferred to that of * piercer* in 
general, whence the deriv. verl) na\Ter, to wound. 

— noise] = quarrel, strife, contention, Lat. nausea 
or noxia ; either can be defended as to the form, though 
the meaning does not correspond, and the Eng. use 
(derived through O. F.) of noise = clamour, &c., suffi- 
ciently complicates the matter ; (apparently, quarrelsome 
and so noisy). Cf. R. dc Troie 3310 : 

mes ja par lui n'aurez vos guerre, 
noise ne tendon ne mesl6c. 

— dnel] [twice (485. 1409) rimed duel, as a dissyl.]; 
M. F. deuil, It. cor-doglio, from Lat. cor-dolium, cf. 
Plant. Pcen. I. 2.89 ibi tibi erit cordolium. 

— estrifs] our * strife ; ' possibly from O. H. G. stre- 
ban, but perhaps rather from O. li. G. stiit-an, as there 
is an O. F. estrit^ cf. soif from sit-is. 

174 tnt dis] a variation of the common ' tuz jurs,' but 
is to be preferably written as one word tutdis, as the 
tut is umnflected both here and 1 769 & tut dis, whereas 
it is always tuz with jurs. For the <//, cf. lun-di, 
mar-di, &c. 

— eu fen] the ellipsis is easily supplied from Matth. 
XXV. 41, discedete a me maledicti in ignem aetemum. 

176 en] in gloss, will be found a number of instances 

where this pron. is altogether redundant ; here it de- 
notes a sort of general r^nence to the preceding wad: 
and then he answered him *on that nead/ *]n that 
matter,* &c. 

— piiis] v. note on uis (18) ; all the mod. langg. have 
the vowel t in the root syllable, perhaps thzoogh postal : 
viz., Fr.^M, Pr. fois, Sp,pues, rg,pois, [Scheler, 
after Diez, sub ' puis,' gives Portug. tws, bat the mod- 
em word is poiSf though pos is found in Old. Pg.,] IL 
poif Wall, apoi |= ad post ; the simple/M, howerer, is 
used in poi-maine, post mane). Cf. also the comp. 
depuis, dipoi, despuis, where Wall, has the fonn daM. 

177 oimtenement] as a definition of the word, DC 
quotes : * aestimatio et conditionis forma et ration qua 
quis in republica subsistit ; ' in the SnppL, from F»* 
tenop. 'por aprendre Tus del pais, et die Fnnfois 
I'afaitement, Ic mors et le contenement.' 

178 establis] cf. D. C. < maledictionem 
si hoc stabilimentum frangcre tentaverint ; ' 'nne'estab- 
lie ou ordonnance.* 

179 ouiage] * if the fancy takes me;' cunge means 
the will, determination, and not ' conrage.' In Spin. 
and Portug. it often means anger, * eso me da tanto 
corage,* puts me in such a rage ; the fundamental mean- 
ing being any violent emotion of the heart. 

— par aventure] these two words are variooily 
written ; Chaucer has par adventnre (6655), bat ako 
paraventure (11267), and the shorter pew wufc r 
(11783.14350); translated *by adventnre' (25). ITiis 
word, in the short form aunUr^ has gone over even 
into Welsh, antur, an attempt, a venture, with ts- 
rious deriw., as also into Germ, abentener, M. H. G. 
aventiure, through the medium d the Old Fr. romanots. 

180 ke] I take ke here as introducing a noun-dame 
(in gen.), i. e. enrage [de ce]] ke devdngne » corage de 
devenir ; but it would certainly be quite possible to ex- 
plain it as a dause of the effect (whether final or con* 
secutive), i. e. (result) intentional or non-intentional, of 
the idea expressed in the chief dause, enrage me prant, 
** if desire takes me to the end that I should become, or 
that all events I were to become." 

— enseignement] (in, -signum), the root insig&aie 
preserves in Wallach. the fundamental notion of *maik- 
mg,' and insemn = to mark, quote, Hi«ritip iifh^ &C., 
but it has not acquired the secondary sense^ in whidi 
the other languages use it, viz., oi teachings as in Sp. 
enseilar, Pg. ensinar ; [for the common (not liquid} «, 
cf. Pg. sino (= bell), from signum, and F. toc-im]. 

181 ke feral] there seems a distinct progressioo, 
' what I shall do, what I ought to do, what is the right 
thing to do,* i.e. my conduct, my proper conduct, 
everybody's proper conduct. Unless 152 is to indude a 
* hereafter ' — ^i. e. what I shall do at firsts and iriiat I 
shall Jiave to do hereafter. Still die after is not ex- 

184 e. e esprent] ' light and heat ; ' esprendre is con- 
stantly used of love or anger, or indeed any strong 
emotion, and is frequently accompanied by tne other 
verb alumer, &c., une dame qui m'alume e esprent. 

1851 YOZ the 2 sg. pres. occurs thrice, each time dif- 
ferently spdt : voz 185, veta (129;), voih (1665). 



186 aUBflinsilt] also without the nasal, O. F. esement, 
"Prow, cissamen, eps-amcn ; the latter shows the origin, 
Lat. ipsa mente ; the n is inserted, just as in M. F. at'nst 
(cf. issi 127). Curiously, the pron. ipse itself becomes 
m Wan. inSt and in Sardinia the dialect of Cagliari 
hit fitsoni [b ipsorum] for the poss. adj. pron. 

187 TVnuiBmeilt] vend, from veracus (for verax) ; 
hence our verv, through the older verray, primarily used 
as an adj., his vefy image, the v^ry tning, cf. Chauc. 
CaaLT. I750vciray wommanhedc|; 1533 by verray lyne 
and of hit stok ryal. 

190 ^TCS] [ad pressusl nearness in linear sequence 
implies succession, which naturally led to the meaning 
rnftir; cf. the phrases < he came very near to his rival/ 
*praxim4 accessit,' &c. The older language had also 
tne form prof, preuf, apreuf, from prope, adDro|>e, in 
the same sense; Laws of Will. Conq., p. 326, Ko. 5, si 
antre vienge aprof (« afterwards^ dedenz Tan e le jur. 
Hus adprope is the regular word m Wall., viz., aproape. 

In the sense of * near ', apres occurs in Old Sp., P. del 
Qd IS35 apfcs de la verta^ Mod. Sp. * iunto4 la huerta *. 

191] the metre in this line b awkward ; but I do 
not insert anything, preferring to read simply ^-ith the 
legnlar three accents : Adban 11 ad dit | i-r6em6nt. 

191 Mnitoinflnt] some of the Fr. patois still pre- 

nmque, from Lat. singulus, as indeed 
also have it, but the distributive singuli has dis- 
appeared from the Rom., except in Old Sp. senos 
(cT P. del Cid. 350, dos ladrones contigo, estos dc 
wthmi partes), and Old Pg. selhos. It luis left, how- 
ever, a my interesting dcriv. in sanglier, M. L. singu- 
laris, a wila boar, from its solitary Imbits ; cf. /lovvioc* 
attd •ItiT^. 

195 taoif] throughout I have so edited, because it 
is alwayv wntten so ; but des hier, and des dune, as 
tbcy are given in the MS. 

196 dl&tl B0 niflons] a very common pair to ex- 
pieu the sin^ idea of* right* in all its torms (alike 
the dictates xA law and reason], and so used with verb 
in Bn|(. 

— m] Thb isthe commonest construction, viz., with 
the fifst IV of a pair omitted (v. Gloss, ne I. 2. b.) 

100 VtitU] ' orison,' so benison, venison, from the 
OJF. benatson, venaison (■ venatio). 
901] With this discourse of A. and Apl. may be 
1 the dispute of the Christian Roland and the 
Fcmgus in Ph. Mousk. 5915-6017. It is 
that in all their disputes the doctrine of the 
■IB to hare been the great stumbling-block 
to tbePHgans, and the one thing specially enforced by 
the other side. 

Mut] The construction seems to be as fol- 

■^God does not wish to abandon him fand he 

thia dcarl)r1. in that he [Id « quippe quit deigns 

to dhcl oa e the luadcn quarrels, &c. ; I take doinnc as 

ad.] in 294 sanz fentosme u 
Iblafe; 'Dhantom* phantasm,' ii, Chauc Cant. T. 
C457, p^fttTt thoaght he, lantom b in my head, i. e. it 
m a mete defanioB* 

i] mA mmjpitf a nhststa for ke, bnt always 

involving something of the idea of the manner, corres- 
ponding to its origin, ' quo modo,* as indeed in 1028 it 
is expressly so used. Cf. our vulgar As hew (M. F. 
comme quoi)^ and Chauc. Cant. T. 1387 him thought 
that htnv Mercuric byfom him stood. 

209 aoheyer] [^ chef, ad caput], to bring his life to 
a head ; Shaks., and so grow to a point, Mids. N. D. 
i. 2. 10, which does not mean 'come to tlie purpose,* 
as Schmidt gives in Lex., hvX finish. 

211 ren] often rien nity anything in the world : with- 
out hiding a single thing. 1 his * res ttata* has divided 
itself between Mod. Fr. and Sp., thus while the Fr. 
sa>'s rien (rem), the Sp. says ffai^(=natam). Somewhat 
similarly the Mod. Gr. has broken up the old Qvl-i9 
into liv-no\,y where the negative particle is totally omit- 
ted, as also in the Scotch and Ulster Irish cha for mh-cha. 

212 par tens] cf. betimes^ Shakspere's, * all in the 
morning hctimey Ham. iv. 5. 49. 

214 sal as a rule sa is never elided, and is found be- 
fore all the vowels, thus before a\ 214 sa a>'isiun ; 619 
sa adanture; — e-. 305 sa encamaciun ; 1147 sa emprise; 
1724 sa entunciun ; — i\ 490 saiglise; — : 1704 sa orai- 
sun ; — u : 327 sa uraissun. 

215 bens hofites] ' fair guest !' Henry Eighth I. 4. 35, 
my fair guests; commonly as a mere prefix of courtesy, 
fair cousin, fair nephew, &c., so common as to be 
ridiculed in Troil. iii. i . 46. Spenser has the original beau^ 
cf. F. ^. iii. I. 35, bcauperes » fair peers, companions, 
and the euphemism beldame, which we have so hope- 
lessly destroyed into beldam ; cf. Bedlam from Bethle- 

216 STunl This is the primary F. form of Lat. somnus, 
from which the M.F. for distinction's sake has by 
means of the dimin. sufC -eil [ »■ iculus] made som- 
meil. It is interesting to |note the dinerent verbs, 
with which various members of the familv connect somn: 
here we h.z\(i prendre sum, M.F. says /aire un somme, 
Wallach. a trage un somn Sec. 

217 songai, ne oistes] the paratactic combination is 
much more frequent in O.F. than in Mod. F. ; we in- 
deed omit the reL constantly, just as in O. F. and 
I^ov., but M.F. no longer permits the omission. The 

I secondary clause Is usually negative, as here. Perha|)s 
I the omission of the rcl. was conditioned by the form 

to be supplied, viz. dunt, for duni ne oistes unc 

would have had a very unpleasant sound. 
219 jo] besides the ordinary forms of the pers. 

Sronn., M.F. has secondary forms, obtained from the in- 
ections, viz. moi, toi, lui, eux, which are used when the 
subject has the rhetorical accent, or are contrasted. But 
^I.F. generally uses the secondary form in conjunction 
with the weaker primsay form, thus producing a 
doubling of the subject, mais moi^je Ic ferai atnsi, £c., 
je ne suis gu6re content, moi. O.F. howe%*er, used the 
weaker form e\*en in cases when the pronoun was to be 
emphasized or contrasted, and that too when the s bj. 
was used elliptically ; cf. 616, where y«> is separated by 
an adv. extension olthe predicate, 181 i,b^ an attributive 
relat. cbuse to itself, and 476, where ^«> is separated 
from its verb by its regimen and an altxib.«iclat« dauM 
to the latter. 



cf. Rom. dc Mah. 724 aui de pcchi€ se va lavant, 

en molt grant francnisc se met, 

quant ^ Diu scn-ir se sousmet; 

scs fils ctevient, ct il scs percs. 
In 807 there is a good instance of this form, n*est 
autre Deu si il nun ; cf. Rom. dc Troie 3396 ^ votre 
rei n'ai rien a faire «'// ^ mci. 

221 ke ne VOille] never shall any condition of life or 
death be able to sever us so widely as to make me 
unwishful to abide in your teaching. 

222 seri] calm, pleasant, cf. Part, de B. 6321 li tans 
est soes et sicris ; Benoit 7678 beau tens faiseit, seri et 
cler, cum senz pluveir e sens venter ; B. du Guescl. 
19030 li garderons le pas .. . tant et si longuement que 
nuit sera Jc'n> ; Ph. Mousk. 14886 et la nuis vint coie et 
sierie (ouiet and calm). It was applied to sounds, 
and Gacnet sub voc. gives * faisant fwise serie, a dit i 
vois serie,* 

224 li eels] the pronunciation of this is determined 
by 1482 where it occurs, es eels, riming with term.-^//j, 
regularly ; eel and ciel arc used indifferently like chef, 
and chief. 

225 b. e delitables] cf. the ' delectable* mountains ; 
Li Biaus Desc. 4377 (ens el palais) qui moult ert 
biaus et delitable; Chauc. Cant. T. 1 1 21 1 m other places 
delitables ; 8075 a thorp, of sighte delitable. 

230 esohivi] our 'eschew,' from O.H.G. skiufiany 
whence the adj. It. schivo, O. F. cschiu, our * shy.* 
Of the deriv. verb eschivir, the ilialect of Coire has 
prcser>'cd the nearest form schivir, but O. F. has 
cschivcr, where Mod. Fr. has es^«/ver; cf. Matz. Altfr. 
xiii., 10 chascuns Ten doit hair et eskiever. In DC. 
both forms occur, eschiv/Vif and eschivir*?, the latter is 
the better form, v. note on esparnier 108. 

231 prest e selsi] so our phrase ' he took and seized 
him ; * m Aub. cf. 823. 889. 1408. 1598. 

— seisi] M. L. sacire. The forms of seisir, saisir, 
Prov. sazir. It. sagire, bear very well the deriv. from 
O.H.G. sazjan {bi-suz/an would= Mod. Germ, besetzen, 
A.-Sax. bisettan, beset) ; for it is noteworthy that DC. 
quotes two corresponding fonnulas, * ad proprium 
sacire ' = * ad propnum poNt'rt\* thus equating sacire 
with portere = sazjan ; precisely as in modem times 
a squatter may be said to seize his land. To this deriv. 
Scheler objects the It. staggire, as presenting an initial 
combination st which could not come from a form saz- 

nects the form staggire rather with staggio = ostaggio, 
whereas sagire b used exactly as Fr. saisir, and no 
deriv. connexion of the words is necessary. Similarly 
saisun (1 721), Sp. sazon, must be severed from the It. 
stagione : this last is from Lat. statio (cf. Germ, stunde 
from stehen), whereas the Fr. and Sp. are to be referred 
to satiOf the sowing- time (cf. vcre fabis satio) ; DC. 
sub ' satio,* quotes inter ambas sationes (hibcmaticam et 
sestivaticam) possunt seminari c modii. 

233 esdumu] the a of the root here is probablv ow- 
ing to the r, for the O. H. G. has shern^ derision, sldmd, 
and is therefore more closely followed by It. schemo, 

schemire, than by Sp. cscamio, or O.F. eschanur, when 
however, the other form escIuTnir is common enoagh. 
Ph. Mousk. 22841 quar paicn fiissent escami. 

ibid. 5609 mais Agoulans, pour escomir 
lor oe\Te et lor mangier blasma. 
234 esonrgles] our * scourge,' It. scorcggio, vfcip; 
from Lat. corngia, strap, It. coreggia, Sp. Pg. conea, 
Pr. correja. Mod. F. courroie, WalL cur^ (x= coidL) ; cf. 
Vie de St. Thom. 156. 30 s'il enssent sun cors tut mi I 
nu cer^€ | des curgies Teussent trou6 tnt depesd^ 
[[where it would perhaps be better to read d'escurgiis\ \ 
lor the whole passage cf. Bartscb, ChresL PTov. 133. 27: 

deus se laisset vendrc per nos salvar 

en receup mort, en sofii passio, 

el auniron per nos juzeu fello, 

en fon batutz e liatz al pilar, 

en fon p)er nos el trau, qn*er en la ianhay 

martiriatz de correjas ab notz, 

e coronatz d' cspinas en la crotz. 
— S«^*aa saiio e.l This construction is the icsnlt 
of an assimilation of the preposition ^ (which relates to 
the infinitive espandre,) with the def. art. of sane 
governed by the same \'erb, viz., cesk*^ (le sane) c^ 
pandre, — an inversion which the &nguage permitted, 
while it did not tolerate tlie side-hy-side existence of 
h and le. It occurs 91^, au coup duner, on the girinc 
of the blow ; 973 au semt cors tucher, on touching the 
holy body ; 1234 (pur Ics testes duner) au brand ftrir, 
to the stroke of the sword ; 1530 as plaies bender, in 
order to bind up the wounds ; 1548 as cors garder, in 
order to guard the bodies. With these i«g*niK«>« wf 
be compared the commoner construction of the infim^ 
tive used as a substantive in the dative ; 258 au saucher 
de la lance, on pulling out the lance ; 105 1 au partir de 
cest siecle ; 1 1 53 au passer dc un pund. Cf. vlUehar- 
douin. Const. 147 'fu li conseils dcs batailles deviser' 
= *■ le conseil (itait pour ordonncr les corps de bataiDe ; ' 
ibid .157 quant ce \int as lances baissier; Matz. Altfr. 45.1 '• 

236 entraTors] this cannot be right as it stands. 
Barlscli in Clircst. 345. 22 has entraviers parmi sei 
mustiaus J jut une grant hachc danoise, i. e. en trmen 
= obliquely ; so I render here, crucified transversely be- 
tween [two] others ; but the autre shoiUd be antics, 
qy. was the s omitted for the scansion? 

— parmi] a very unusual, quasi-adveri>ial position of 
tlie preposition ; cf. Montaigne (II. 3) il y a quelqae 
plaisir corporel, naturellement mesU parmy. 

237 enoroa] ^I . L. incrocare ; not connected inth crmx^ 
but from r/vr, a hook, i. e. to fasten on a hook ; hence 
frequently found in this connexion ' encroez e pendvz.' 
For the root crocy O. Norse kr6kr, cf. our to get by hook or 
by crook y which very often amounts to encroackimrvpaa. 
another s property; thus incrocamentum (enctoaii£ment) 
with the English j unsts was the exaction by a lord from h^ 
tenant or vassal of a greater ' relief ' or semce than his doe* 

242 huxu] O.H.G. hdnjan, to shame ; Goth, hanni- 
tha, O.H.G. hdnida, Fr. honte, It. onta : familiar in 
the well-known ' honi soit qui mal y pense.' 

244 demeine] the use of this worn, at one*s own, is 
clear enough here, and 293, 1186, where it always fol- 
lo>^*s its noun. But in 909 1'acoilt Deos of les ^^r'"**'^^ 



olitc, [wliere note (hat it is muqttdy dcjmeine, and also 
precede* its noun,] it ii baiely possible thiit it has a 
matt primitive meaning, vit., those possessing ' de- 
metnes,' i. e. barons, vassals, &c. Both meanings arc 
well authenticated, and ate in fact closely related. The 
damainc vas no doubt the dominium, which the lord 
held as tut men; 909 would then be either 'his men 
<hosen anes.' 01 'his chosen ciijjii/.i',- butin the laller 
case the amission or the linal s would be very irregular. 
Iprefct the (ormer. 

314 auttl] M.F. autnii, II. nltiui ; in Wall, we have 
not only the gen. sg. a/lui — alleiius, but the gen. pi. 
ailirr = allcroram. 

In the Rom. there is indeed much more vitality in 
the inflexion of the proDouos Iban in that of the nouns, 
and foims of all the cases, — nom. gen. 3cc. and dal., 
have been preserved and utilized for the sake or dis- 
tinctness and convenieDce ; c{. It. io - ego. loro = illo- 
mm. mt = me, cui = coi. Very arbitroriJy indeed : 
lot hardly any tingle form is coDfiDed to its primitive 
meaning. Tlus lerminalioil -ui was widely citended 
among the pronouns, thus we have O. F. aurrun-ui, 
Hul-ai, as gen., lui, eelui, as ace. &c. Of the gen. 

E iind Sardinia) 

1 O. F- lor (Aub. lur). ^ . 
keeping with the origin, lur is not inJlected, even 
wiien used with a pliual, as a poss. adj. pron. [jusl 
■s in Mod. Hal. 3, for it was felt to be = iflorum ; Mod, 
Fr. has wrongly added the plural i, Uurs ; but at least 
it has no separate feminine form. 

The analogy of these genii, fonns in crum makes 
itroDgly for the derivation of ui from lur, [so that au- 
cnii wooldeall'rius,] as against Diei's other suggestion 
of tiu'-c, and mi, though certainly the regularity with 
itliichal] the langg. have adopted ui is suffidenUy start- 
ling, dther way, nor has ui » ih anything to recommend 
>t phonetically. The genit. meaning is seen very clcarty 
in this line : ' save thy own body u thou couldst that- 

SMfl KWMi] cf. Shakspere (Merry Wives, iii., j, ij), 
I cry you metcy — I beg your pardon, common in M.L. 
metciam clamare stiper, &c. In M. L. the word mertia 
I121 three meanings: I, merchandise, i, fme, 3, forgive- 
n«s, this last being found very early; ihe Lat. metces 
means iittertst on capital, hence the later 'trading.' 
return for conduct, hence ' a Gne ; ' but perhaps the 
third meaning has arisen from a cooTasion with miseri- 
con. [We majr further oolc the uie of the word in Span, 
and PortDg. as a term of respectful address given to all 
who ore not tiobles. Sp. 'nstcd' = Tuestia merced. Pg. 
'*oc<' — vossa merci: wiih which comp. our expression 
•yottt wotihip." trurfA-ship, your grace. Germ, eure 
gfadftt, which, however, are titles of honour; bat 
tbc HinigwiaD hgy-ti (gratia tua) is precisely as the 
Spaa, uittd for mestra merrn/.] 

Far mewed-^O.F. rocrdt(Alexii37, 54I. where La(. 
re from eercus ; generally, however, 
-icg to the attraction ol an 1 of the 
roUowine trllable, as cccWra, ccclnxa = egliie. 

M7 oUtT as It. quctlo = cccn'istum, so eccu'illum 
produced 11. ijuello. O. F. eel. There is a very sharp 
■"-"""^'^ (in Aub.) between the 1" and » forms, for 

cisi is nom., but eeil is obi., v. Gloss. Prom the latter 
«j/, M.F. derives its ert, lightened before t 
into ce, precisely as in Engl, the indef. a, 
lightens itself of its tinal n helott an initial c 
thus at ange, but ct livre, as an angel, but a book. 

2G0 Adon^J I do not remember having met this 
word elsewhere used in an O. F. poem : it was no doubt 
familiar to the monk M. Paris, from the Vulgate, Exod. 
vi. 3, et nomen meum ADONAI non indicavi ei^ 
though I believe it does not occur anywhere else in the 
Latin version (save in Judith xvi. 16). 

2G1 oninuitj 'commendo.' DC: — 'in commenJa' 
pontbant inferiorii 

.t bononim 

licujus census pcnsitatiom 

253 tiwnbla] ' tremulare ', for which Sp. has temblor, 
oinilling the r, while Portng. preserves the word fully, 
Iremslar, to flutter in Ihe wind. 

263 deaira] Mod. F. dfchiier = dc + cschirer, where 
eschirer — O. H. G. skerran, A.Sia. sceran, to Cut, 
shear, ic. In I5i4we have the form decirer, bnt in 
533.1602 dcjirer. For theomission of the reHeiive le, 
with tiiese essentially active verbs, cf. 1064 eel ki deiclot 
e uveri, with M4 Ii eels « daclol c uvri. 

364 (ToiBiwnt peres] ptob. from the 'pctrae sdssae 
sunt' ofthe Vulg. (Matt. 27.51). The word 'froisiitnt ' 
seems formed from Lat. frendere, whose ptcp. is Ires- 
sus and /tail] ; from Ihe latter we should have regu- 
larly froiser, altered intoyroiVir./VnwiV",- M.F. hasfrois- 
ser with double jr and 1st conj,, just as in Aub. 65a 
fruissent. The some collocation cf this verb with en- 
palir occurs 652. 

— enpell] for the prefix en, cf. enblanchi, enobscnri, 
enmaladi, enorfani, entauvat^ envespri, eniumet; in all 
of which the inchoative notion is included :— in enhu- 

'holly otiose: [49a cist Ten 
shows that the ^n is a prefix, not the pron.] 
260 de eui] I call particular attention to this collo- 
cation : de is never elided before eut, perhaps to avoid 
confusion with deus 01 Dens ; at all events there is iw 
instance of its eluion: cf. 356. 410. 731, 14B1, I493. 
1325.1527. 1592.1768. 

— otusills] cf. Ph. Mouik. 26746: 

dont commanda U tois c'on aille 

ostcr del conte la evrail/e, 

el fust portCe en Aliscans 

li ont-u Vcntraillt entierfe 

en voissicl rice, et ensicrte . 
deriv. from Ijt. cor ; similarly Span, corada = entrail, 
chitterlings, and It. coratella (liver of birds), which is 
nsed ■ dcgli allri visceri eontenuti ncl tiooco vcno la 

267 BUiO B ewa lllsai] for the sg. verb. v. note on 13; 
here the line simply follows the Vulgate 'et continno 
txi-Bit sanguis et aqua', (John 19. 34). 

SE8 aaitohet] (elsewhere always spelt laeher,) cf. dC- 
sacher.tounsheathrde-saccBs]: pips, through [ex-sacctis] 
ii-iaeher, and so by omission taeher. If simply from 
saccns, sacher ought rather to mean to ilUath, but it i* 
always used = to pull tut. 



259 felnn] two ideas are included in this word : 
treachery and cruelty ; it is used in Aub. in the latter 
sense, but always with a deprcciative significance. We 
have preserved it provincially in the sense oi fierce, cf. 
Tennyson's North. Farm, x., * the bees is as fell as 
owt.' As to the origin, nothing is agreed : Diez sug- 
gests O. H. G. filloy skinner, scourger ; and there arc 
many more theories far less probable. But I do not see 
why we should not take the natural explanation, viz. 
Lat. fellot on the analogy of larron, from latron-. For 
the meaning, the obscene use of the word by Martial 
indicates a word commonly used in a bad sense, and in 
fact the word is simply the equivalent of the low slang 
transcript of Mod. Fr. bougre, 

365 esoelnt] I have given this as a pres., = cn-ceint, 
from ceindre, Lat. cingere, (cf. (19s) cjchauntement for 
ench.) ; but the connexion with fluri is not clear. 

266 l02| also liez (1538), Lat. laetus, It. licto; we have 
still in M.F. a remnant of this adj., viz. lie, joyous, in 
the phrase of Lafontaine, faire chere lie, to make glad 

267 Yestir] constantly used actively: cf. Joinville, 
p. 80, car moy ne mes chevaliers n'avions povoir de vestir 
haubers, to put on our mail. 

268 esbandi] 'were joyous, merry:* from Goth, 
balths] balthjan, to be bold ; cf. It. baldoria, * feu de 

\ bie,* from baldore, in Aub. 558 baudur. In 1 195 i quor 
)aud, with glad heart, and cf. the deriv. baud-et, the 
little merry beast, the ass. The root has gone through 
many a variation : Mod. G«rm. has bald, soon, M.H.G. 
swift; O. Norse ballr, stubborn; [perhaps A. -Sax. 
baldor, lord, Beovulf 4848 thd mec sinca baldor at 
minimi 0der genam, the Eddaic Baldr (Baldur) ;] and in 
Goth, it means' outspokenness*, * daring assertion*, (us- 
baltheins, diarraparpiPai, conflictationcs, I Tim. vi. 5.) 

269 rentino] given in Gloss, under retenir, with the 
meaning, * I retained in memory*, I heard and remem- 
bered ; the verb is not elsewhere written vnih n after re, 
which may be a mere mistake ; but as the collocation, 
rentinc e entendi, is itself doubtful, I am suspicious of 
some further error. 

273 nel] la joie is a nomin. pendens, and the neutral 
-/ refers to the whole clause : * as to the joy that was 
there and which I heard there, heart cannot imagine 
that state, nor do I tell it wholly.* 

274 plus] seems still to continue the idea of com- 
parison involved in preceding verse : * to a greater ex- 
tent [than can be imagined] did God show me the 
heavenly secret, which I refuse to reveal to you, for I 
dare not, you may be quite sure.* 

276 oeriB e fi] certi, fidi, cf. our ' sure and certain ; ' 
the construction * cert <f^ fi* is perhaps more common ; 
cf. Spens. F. Q. ii. 12. 12, ' uncertein and unsure.* 

AHx. 13. 8 d*une reins soies vus, sire, seurs et fis. 

Mar. de Fr. I. 78 de la mort est seurs e fis. 

Ph. MoQsk. 666 g*en sui ciers et fis. 
ibid. 9667 chiertains et fis. 

278 k'est ke b.] I think the second ke is here to be 
taken as the pregnant demonstr.-rel. = 90 ke, — * what is 
that which it signifies ? * the line might also be regarded 
as containing two co-ordinate queries: 'this vision, 
what is it? ^liat does it mean? ' 

282 primes] to be taken as an adverb with the-j 
final, as in gueres (i i) ; still it might be the nom. of an 
adjectival form, cf. 1075 psu^lc primerains as autia, 
where, however, it means * in his capacity of leader.* 
The adj. use of ^n'm^ still obtains in de prime abofd,de 
prime saut (pnme-sautier), and cf^rin-tempi, Ginc 
^primetemps full of froste white.' Cnanc. often, indeed, 
uses prime in Rom. Rose, in imitation of couiie. 

283 mara^] a common epithet to peisnn: yet K. 
Michel in his ed. of Trav. of Charl. 581, reads: 

encore ai un capel de almande en ^vlet 
d*un grant peisun mage que fud fait en mer. 
In his Gloss, he gives up the word mage with a i e f enace 
to Schilter*s Teuton. Diet. ; but both metre and sense 
are restored by Henschers emendation wiaragit, ▼. Hof" 
man*s note in his Amis et Amiles 1301. 

284 ki] 'which does, in fact, comfort him' (inhisagili- 
tion), rather than * that it may.' 

285 parage] from par, * peer,' so that it is eqnrrakat 
to * peerage , which is similarly used absolutely, 'thepeer- 
age,* those possessing an equality of rank, genendlyiued 
A^ith grant or haut, Rom. de Troie 75 : 

(^ui tant fu sages et poissant, 
nches, et proz, de haut paragits^ 
et clcrs merveillosement sages. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 5832, used absolutely, 

if that sche be riche and kA parage, 
Ra>'n. iv. ^25, quotes from B. de Ventadonr, ' psa- 
bres e rics fai Amors d*un paratge* a lore levels aH 
We have it, indeed, best in our own * disparage ' ; Chaac. 
Cant. T. 8784 : 

him wolde think that it were disparagu 
to his estate, so lowe for to light. 
Spens. F. Q. IV. 8. 50 (of the opposite case) : 
so, as it fell, there was a gentle Squire 
that loved a Ladie of high parentage ; 
but, for his meane degree might not aspire 
to match so high, her friends with coansd safe 
dissuaded her from such a disparage, 
280 gine] the orthographv of this word is plentiAd: 
the short form Giu, Giue, has given ns oar J^; m 
Giucu, yueu, n^e have the earfier and better ftm, 
= ju(d)eu(s). As to Brachet's idea that it is the Lat 
d which has become M. F,fia7ttty, it is not tenaUe, 
even for this reason, that the ola language used no/; 
the /is merely a hardening of the labial at the end of 
the O. F. word jOeu = juev, written jmf. Just so, feu, 
fieu, fiev, fief; veuf, Lat. vidims, (cf. Alens 99, vei^te 
= vid-ua) ; in soif from sitis, the / is harflj to he 
explained as by the influence of Germ, saufm^ to bome^ 
but is, I think, much more inob. thronrii the homcn^ 
suif, from Lat. sevum, which shoold regularly gne 
, soi/. This acted upon the form xm from JiMx, pio- 
ducing soif. Then, afler the two 'words had ran toge- 
ther, the vowel of one was slightlv modified smf, [la « m, 
' as oflen] : the process may be snown thns : — 

sev-um = soif \ ., ^ ^v^^^^jt f «uf 

I sit-is ^soi^soifl^^^^^'^'^S'^^isoif 

* — putage] B. du Guesd. 16397 et s'ai crea Jidfa 
I qui sont de put afaire. There is a whole ^roap of words 
connected with this adj. put, Lat. putidns, stinkiii^ 
, V. 66. 1759, in fem. 524 ^ pute destmie ; prps. it had 




liorrowcd, 0al<cv. The fonn wadiuin, and the regnl^ 
■ailU] g (gu), in Ihe Rom. vords, indicate a Germ. 
on{.. [*Tiol the Lai. vasiinn^ij, at least nolinuiiediatdy;] 
il. Golh. vatii, pledge [our Ktd, vedditig), whence 

pat in pledge is m-gager, to tree a pledge di- 
tgrr. Pro*, has gadi => ' last will,' testament. 
SM nuigs] Lai- soniniimi = somi'jum = M. F. 

D = lin-jum — linge ; so domiaarium = do(nJn- 
^ari-nm = lianget. In oilier cases the same combination 
Hgr has risen from mia, thus commeatus ■> comjal 
= cong^ limia = ringe, so louange and vendange, frotn 
iaodcmia, vendctnia. 

28G ftutn] appears (a mean here dXXoiDc, rather 
th^Q JXXec, 'Ttal by anotber land of language'; (unless 
i.ilced. it ought lo be autr/ = altcrius). 

296 mal le cmnce] 'cbimged yont heart'; Miitz. 
.Mtfr. rv. 37 si Ten dciut plui funlf » mufr;c{. ChatK. 

.-nt.T. ij54r: 

anoon his Aortf ehaunged and Ills mood. 

297 linguioe] 'al-leeiance;" froro[oolligc(ouT/i>ff), 
vhichispmb. of Germ, origin; t)ius DC. ijuotca from a 
document (ann. 1153), 'li^us homo, quod lenlonin 
dicitur UJighmma ' ; as Sdultcr gives il, qui uni soli 
homagio obiigaliis est, i. e. a man frit from all engage- 
ments tawaids otliers (than his lotd), from ledig = vacuus, 
lie. As to the form of the suffix, wc have in M. L. 
tdgaiUia, ligiantia ; tbt wordi 'lingnnce e humagc' are 
a lamiliar pair in phrases like ' redierunt in honiagium 
el ligantiam meam,' 'homagioro cum tigencia facerc' 
The word seems 10 hare been used also in a wider sense 
10 express the general relation of ' subject,' for in [he 
lawiofEdw.Cunr. l5(inSchmid'5Ge5eUcdErA.-Sacbs. 
t' 506), we have ; ' omnes Judaei, sub (utela et defen- 
ce regis ligiar debent esse,' from Cod. Harl.. where 

I leden's test has limply ' sub t. ct d. domini regis 

-04 lifK^] from levin was fonned an adj., levianus, 
uhoiceli. Irggiero, M. F. Ifgrr. From the same root, 
ve hair Sp. ^tpiar, but It. alltgioit. Ft. alUgtr, while 
Pg. baf both aliiviar and aligrirar; cf. suage (184I, Lai. luavi*, snavi-BTC. 

— TQlan] Lat. already nted volaticus in Itie same 
schk, =vc3ati]c, light-minded, cf.Cic. Alt. 13,350 -aca- 
dcrouid Tolaticam .... modo hue, modo illucj ' 

no Tuwlagfl] Rayn. Rom. Lei. V. 470 quotes 'avelx 
rcncBI per inslrt vasseklgc';crchauc. Cant. T.3056 : 
and ccrtainlv a man hath most hononr 

to deycn in ois excellence otid flour 

ihamu; whan his name appalled is for age : 
fuif al fnrgclen is bis uttittage. 
, c TOft a Kymric. cf. Welsh^iii. a y outh, enrly adopted 
■ ' ii M. L., under the form tiusiis, ' mios faiioi lulgo 
^ml,* youDg nun of the lord's following, able for 

nghline. thence brave, whence vasselage. brtveiy ; we 
have &e concrete bamage from barun in next line, 
(cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 3098. • bv alle the counseil cf the 
baronage.') though bamage, baronie, have constantly 
also the abstract sense, irarrry. From this root cass, 
by deriv.-of came vassal, further derived iuto vasidelius, 
vasiet, varlel. A lower vassal was called vassus vas. 
sorum, whence the lerm vavasur (575) orvalvassor, It. 
varvassore. Thus in LawsofWtU. Conq. 2of., wehave 
Ihe giades: de reliefs cunlf: de relitf i barun; de 
reliefs turvaisur; de relief il fiYorn. 

301 bsntagej this word bamn has not improb. gone 
through precisely the same series of meaniiigs ag vas- 
sal. Its origin can only be Lat. or Germ,, (because 
it possesses the variable accent, bcr, banin,) no! Keltic. 
Now the Schol. on Persii^s explains the word biio (which 
as a genuine Lat. word occurs in Cicero, meaning bloclc- 
head,] by scrviu mihium, 'the burden-bearer for the 
troc^s,' and saysilis of Gallic origin. This il could not be, 
for the reason given above; but it was easy for the schol. 
lo mistake Genn. for Keltic, and the probability is 
that it is Germ., and derived from Goth, bafran, to liear, 
from which we conld have an O. H. G. form bent (ace. 
bcronj. bearer, hence aclivt man, and so on, as in vas- 
sal. With the sense of tnoH, is naturally connected the 
meaning of Aiu'^m^ (Aub. 134), cf.iir el fcmino, mano 
und weib, man and wife, Sic. Curiously enoagh, while 
barun means husband, but also 'man of high rank, 
honda, (whence hQs-bonda,) besides its common signi- 
Rcance of husband, meant in A. Sai. thuri; the bonds 
was neither a Ihral nor a Ihegtn, a thrall nor a thane, 
but a liber pauper, v. Gcselie der A.-Sachsen, p. 241, 
Ij 3, where a penalty is imposed, of 30 pence on th# 
bunda, 30 shillings on the Ikign, but the Ihriel pays 
»-ith bis hide. 

304 le Si] of this obi. form instead of Ihenom., tbeni 
are several examples, some of which may perhaps be 
eiplained by assuming a kind of attraction, e. gr. 306 
le pueple ke veisles Giuea sunt, populum quera vidis- 
tis, but in others the obt. case seems used without 
reference lo an^ determinate rule : v. app, on article. 

— meimsB] mded., 656 i lui mcimes ; 341 par Deu 
meimes;withfinal adverbial J. Theformswith the dental, 
vii., O. F. Hudiitni, [so always in Alexis, 14, 87, 108,, medesimo.O. Pg. medes. Pr. medeps, inBoelh, 
smrleisme, lead to the origin, a IJit. semetips-issimni. 

307 meiprijtiii] The meaning of this word is ■ eiror/ 
cf. Spens.F. Q. II. 11. 19:— 

which through great disadventure or mespriie 
her selfc had roune into that haxardiie, 

I have given in Gloss, 'ill-usage', from 163 nrenl e 
mesfoil c mespris, which would seem to imply more 
than mere 'error'. The proper technical meamng of the 
word is 'the non-disclosure of a felony commilled by 
another'; bat mlsprendcre in M. L. was used in k 
much »-ider sense, = foris-facerc, apparently of any ill 
deed towards others. It is commonly loUowcd by 


-se, examples of Lat, vV.g. ex, gr. vagina, gatne 

'■ SS5): soalsovespa.gii///, where 0. H,G. vt/id prob. had some influence, just < 

gui : volpeculus, golpil. gufiil 

ri'; volpeoi 
iO. H. G. 


3l}9 JBdis] La(. jam diu, as uodis (Aub. iijbu-aldi) 
from tam diu; Ihc final j eillicr simply adverbial, or 
owing to some confusion with a plural case oCdui. 

318 4 bandun] from Goth. ianJv/an, to denoteby signs, 
we have Ilal. bandire, O. F. bannir, to announce, pro- 
claim, cf. ait bani [l iSs), [also to denounce, It. bandilo). 
The subst. bann-um, band-um, thus meant 'edictum , 
■pcodamatio', vhcnce our 'banm of marriage'; hence 
uaoeestre-tande, illegal trading ; italso meant 'intcrdic- 
tnm' ; hence forban [foms bannitus] is an outJavi ; cf. 
our use of •proclaimed district". From this use of the 
word arose the adverbial use of i bandun, signitying 
'at the discretion, iD the power, of anybody'; whence 
M. L. aiandum came to mean (DC.) 'rem arbitrio 
cujusque exposiCam '- Following the more original sense 
of a sign, we get the meaning 'standard', 'vcxillam 
quod iamium diconl', whence Pr. auri-ban, gold- 
banner, the 'orillamme'. Another deriv. in M. P., 
artidrc-ban, has arisen from a misunderstanding of O, 
H. G. hari-hannum, Che summoning of the army to 
take the field, which in O. F. is conectly ar-ban. 

SI? llnnDSiu] an allusion to the idea that lion-cubs 
have not really life till three days after their birth, and 
that then they are awakened into existence by Ihevoice 
of the lion.* 

Of this the following allegory is given by de Thuan, 
\a his Livre des Creal. 683 scqq. ; — 

or fait I'um queatiun des gaels a! leua 
que JMO signifie, que iij. yxtz sunt seni vie, 
enz el cummencement de lur founcmcnt ; 
e puis venent 1 vie par le liun ki crie. 
e feo est grant ligtteliance, aiez en remembrance, 
d^ fud mort en tcrre .iij. jura., pur nus conquere, 
lulunc sa bumanitcd, nent sulum deited. 
par le cri del lenn la vcrtud Den pamun, 
par quai resuscitad, enfem despumad. 
320 Viel] there are three forms of Ibis used in Aub., 
which may be connected somehow thus : Lat. vetolus 
— Tcclus, a plebeian Latin form, (tl = c1, cf. Schnch., 
Vulg. Lat. I. 160,) whence by vocalisation veil (I) 
Aub. 1765T so pariculus, pareil; arlicuJus, orteil; in 
It. cf. specchio from speculum, and veccbio from ve- 
tulni ; this combination il, '^ the liquid I, frequently be- 
carae dmple /, hence vtl (U), or, with final sibilaut of 
nom. (g., (vels = ) veui 1375. But the e being now 
short and accented, became it (cf. bene, bien ; tenet, 
tieni ; ) whence viel (III) 746, the immediate parent of 

the M.F. vieui (= vidsj, where Ihe fern, vieflle pi 

the liquid il iana of I (veil) , and -cie-iti-t e vt-ti 

— aenglaiitlLat, sangnilenlos was used aJrei 
the (ii5t cy. ATD. for ' BBnguinolearns ' ; its m fm 
an abusive epithet is paralleled in modem vulgar uMgbtrJ 
1744 It traitre senglant is jusi literally a mlgai eipns- 
sion. The vowel is always e, senglani, as nmuaned 
with the II of sane; cf- ensnnglacnt^, 534, wilh lltt 
form ensengl. of 951. 141S. 

antiquum, qulestdiaboluset Salanas, et Ueaviten... ^.. 
annos mUle' ; Chauc. Cant. T. 5054, 'he that fot oB 
redempcioun bonde Sathan.' 

S33 en nm] ' on the top ' ; Lai. summns, cf na 
ai6, sleep, from somnus, where M. F. has bail to difc 
tinguish by adopting in place of the Utter the dimiB. 
somm-til. The « spelling, though not organic, regnUil)' 
occurs, and misled Grimm into rendering the eooinioii 
' par ion I'aube ' (Hibemict, the iep of ihe momiDj; 
by 'per sonitum aurorte '. From the form tarn. i- 
have our summit. M. F. sommet. The word itf.-i!, 
M, F. son, has yet another application, vji. rAojf, l 
being the upptrmasi in the wmiutwjng ; cf. the Sp. 
soma {the coarse meal used by farm -servants), whidi 
seems decisive for this etytnology of the word wn =iluff, 
as against that of Littri. vii. son for ittm, ■= sccan- 
dm, la ifcoHde mouture, for certainly Sp. isma could 
not be thus derived. 

334 BntaillB] the root of this word is Lat. tain. > 
cuttting for planting, whence came a verb taltare ; Uci 
quotes from Nonius 4.47J, 'ctiam nunc msticl rtee 
inUrtaliare dicitur dividere vel exscindere ramum'.* n 
Span, entretallar. to cut, slosh, jcc, but also to sculpt 
in bas-relief, cf. It. intagliart, which is Dsed di rihrro 
or d'incavo. The O.F. word we meet often enoa^ in 
our old writers ; Chauc. Rom. Rose, i6>. an imaee of 
another difttyic / Ibid. 1711, this lady was ofgooa iw- 
biyle ; Spens. F. Q. II. 3, il : golden bcades whicb 
were enlayUd with curious antickes ; Ibid. II, j. ; : 
a work of rich entayle and curious mmitd ; which 
pair, entayle and mould, exactly correspond to the 
mtaille and f<i(un of Aub. In Jj. F., the word eo- 
taille means notch, groove, or slash with a sword : the 
simple faille has been allowed a pretty free tvtffr ei 
meaning ; the edge of a sword, the hewing of Mode. 
engraving on wood or copper, the f*/ of any thing, f 
or body, i, his stature, i, his waist ; but is nowoUo- 
Iclc in the sense of bas-reUef. 

cf. Cbauc, Cant. T. goLj, waymec- 

■ I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. Land ofLeyden, for a copy of his translation of the Syriac ' Pbysio- 
logns' published by him, and from which I extract the following passage, p. 31, 'quando Icaena catoloa idoi 
pant, mortnos eos parit ; verum leaena custodit cos ad terlium usque diem, quo ad eos pater venire solet. Qui 
ubi adveoit et accedit ad eos et mortuos eos inveuit, spiral inter ocnios eoium et eos surgerc facit." Tie elpli- 
nation is the same, of coarse, as in dc Thuan: 'codem modo etiam Dens surgerc fecit die tertio primogcnicwn 
omnium creaturarum, nempe Dominura nostrum Jesum, filium suum dilectum.' Physiol, continues ; " prnedut 
enim dixit el Jacobus : 'dormit instar catali leonis, et quis earn surgerc fadet?' cf. Genesis 49, 9 [where the 
Vulg. diflers considerably], and sec also Dr. Land's notes, p. [37, op. cit. 

f The Frenchman seems to have noted how his coat was cut, and looked after a lailleur ; the Italian and 
Spaniard were particular whom they got to mend it, so It. saitore, Sp. sastre, from Lat. larcire. We botioui 1 
the tailor, and have imitated iise fashions. The Germans also borrowed a deriv. for the cutting of thetr brc.. . 
and butler, ^-ii. teller, a plate, from tailloir, a board on which to cut bread, a trenclter, (tranchotr.) 



tjBfe ; the verb also occun as guaimenter, which may 
be ponibly a made-up Terb, out of 'tnenter from 
Ift-menter, and the interj. Lat. vai^ It. gnai^ O. F. wai, 
GoCh. tusf , our woe. Somewhat analogous is ' compli- 
BMBt*, which is a deriv. from O. F. complir^ ratner 
than the Lat complementom, though no doubt influ- 
enced bj the ktter. 

186 laptmil according to Dies (I. 414), the old 
Konnaa u which comes from Lat. 0, never assonates 
witli the u from Lat. m, i.e., words like barun, amur, 
aie not awonant with alcun, dur. This theory is not 
fffnabU In Aaban, for here we have distinctly Neplun 
(Lat. Neptflnns,) rimed with a whole set of un for Lat. 
•^-tfie&r. Again, we have (1699) commun (Lat. com- 
mtais), Jeson, Mahun, among Uie Lat. -Km rimes. In 
the wrnmes (541 -SSS), we have still clearer examples, 
for along with amor, pastur, ermr, &c., i.e., Lat.-<>r, we 
bcfe(5«>} maiir, and (573) seilr, i.e., Lat. matur-us 
ad •ecnr-us. In the "ure rimes (589-619) there occur 
cwe» obtcore, dure, nature, from Lat -wm, along 
with (691) aiire (ad-6rareV and (6o8| honure, both of 
whkii (584-5 aiir, honnr,} are found amongst the ur 
which it Lat or. 

Am to Fallot's theory of two Norman M-sounds, s M. 
F. Mi and tfw, we have (86) fw (fire), and (860) /eu, 

with (85) fu (was), vertn, &c., and both again 
wkh !■ (864, 1389) M. F. loup; i.e., we find equated 
in aiaomnce three different M-forms, viz., M. F. fu/, 
Cnr, and lomp. It is evident that no sharp line of divi- 
■OB can be maintained between the sounds of these 
three, whatever the precise sound may have been. 

— iMOQBllS] for this use of the word, e disown, cf. 
aCar. de Fr. IL 219 : 

dimt s en volt as corbiaus aler, 
e corbel revolt resambler ; 
met il Tunt tuit desconeu, 
B Tont saki6 et debatu. 
1] in classic Lat. ' paganus ', rustic, came to 
as opposed to military; so Fliny says, milites 
Later on, it meant, ace. to DC., * qui mili- 
conaecnti ad eam sese accingebant * ; and 
Mod. Gr. has wayapia « la milice. But it has a differ- 
bendes. DC. quotes from St. Augustine, 
fidionnn nratoramque cnltores ouos usitato 
vocamos*. No mention of tnesepagani 
asade before 365 a. D. ; the Cod. Theod. 
laoerdotales pafanae superstitionis '. The 
' reBgioo tow refuge in the P^p\ after 
had sobstituted the Christian reli^on in 
tL the line ' magnis qui colitur solus m urbi- 
ChriMM*: hence DC.: — * constat a pagis et a pag- 
idobtiia |Mi£anoa nnncnpatos'. 

i early applied to the Mohammedan 
with Sarnzin (13), used generally for 
[From the deriv. paganismus, * pagan- 
«difk> vd terra', under the form paenisme, paien- 
get oar old pajmim, which has reacted on the 
JC L., p t udutln g the curioos word paganimitas.l Our 
pocCfcacraDyhasanopprobfioos epithet to add: tne>'are 
cv^cwB, 469; nescreant 796.1734 ; maodiz, 884 ; crimi- 
1600; fil Belial, i6J8: adverser, 1669; felon, 1759. 
Ml MtaWM] cC KdL Romv. 204.37 : 


par soi meismes s'est-il endoctiin^s 
que d>scremie et d'armes sot as^. 
848 aoointe] Lat. ad-cognitare, It. accontar, our ac- 
quaint; compare with our usage, the It. accontarsi con 
alcuno. This verb is often used as an active verb to 
make the acquaintance of, (with accus.) : cf. Burg. II., 
289 (from Partenop.) : 

li est avis ^u'a mal eur 
Tavoit acomt6 ne veu. 
Matz. Altfr. III., 17 : 

ii ma dolour n'a mestier couvreture .... 
mar acointai sa tres douce faiture. 
XIX., 25 las ! quant amours me le fist acointier. 
XIV., 37 helas ! pour coi Tacointai ? 
Kell. Romv. 233.29 : 

car R. et G. me vuelent acointier ; 
but still more frequently as a reflexive verb with dat., cf. 
Fl. et Blancef. p. 77 : 

riche homme lors vous cuidera, 
puet-estre ^ vous s'acointera. 
Kell. Romv. 212.7 : 

au conte Huedon se vorra acointier. 
234.7 as premiers cops se voldra acointier. 
B. du Guesc. 9825 : 

au prince des Galois m*en iroie acointier ; 
but also ibid. 9837, de lui m* acointerai. 

844 BOiDOinl from (sum-monere), which retracted 
its accent, ana became of the 3rd conj. (<^re), thereby 
producing O. F. summon're, sumondre, whence the 

J>tcp. sumuns (715.1418), and subst., sumunse (1588), 
rom which we have summons. 

The i in (Aub.) sunuuVt, may be compared with that 
in d^<ns from duner ; thus sumoin : sumunent (1426) 
m doins (491) : dune (817). 

846 asohoikil choisir from Goth, kausjan, to try, 
^oci^a^fiv; (Diez compares Choisv from Causiacum :) 
our verb choose is directly from the Germ. (Goth, kiusan), 
but the subst. (adj.) choice comes to us through O. F. 
choiz, chois, 

— bon gre] Lat. gratum used in M. L. as a subst., 
whence bongr6, mal gr6, O. F. maugr^ : our maugre 
(mauger). The M. F. *maugr6er' denotes rather the 
probable results of that which is mal gr£, viz., to <fret 
and fume.' Besides iu use as a subst. with bon (mal), we 
have venirdgri (1012) precisely as venir^pleisir (1^6^.) 

851 a bonme] ' bom to good luck ' ; in the MS. bon 
ure are always written separately, indeed even apart, 
(save in 1043 martir bonuret, cf. also malurtf, 354 \\ 
but I have edited bonure, as one could not give ure witn 
final e, unless it were made to come from hara, which 
is impossible, hon being of course masc. The M. F. bon- 
heur, malheur, are usually (and ri^htlv) derived from 
attgurium, as the spelling (eur, aftr,) m O. F. shows ; but 
the last syllable was often confounded with hom, and 
hence spelt with initial h, heur; thus in Mnli^re, I'Etour- 
di, II. 13. 'et bien k la malheure est-il venu d'Espagne,' 
and cf. Malherbe*s i la male heur, Hora was commonly 
so used in Romance ; there is no phrase more com- 
mon in the old poem of the Cid than en buen ora, 4 1 cinai- 
estes espada ; 73 (fuestes naddo) ; 303 (naico). kc. 

865 aloae] deriv. from los (992), praise, which owes 
its origin to the Lat. pi. laudej, usied in the Krvice of 



the church : DC. quotes a very old laudes [/o^-gesang*], 
beginning 'Christus vincit, Christus regnat, Christus 
impcrat/ &c. Besides the deriv. aloser, we have lo- 
senge (1197), losengerie (1235) andlosengers (1569), in 
the sense of w^-^r-praise, flattery. The M. F. louange 
is derived with the same sulhx -^nge from the root, 
laurf ; for the vowel ou = au, of. alouc (50) from alauda. 
357 feffe] deriv. from fief (pl.yf«, 506J, the possessor 
of a fief, hence rich, &c. M. r . has transformed it into a 
dcprcciative adj., (coquin) ficfK, an arrant, downright 
rogue, — ^who possesses all the qualifications for the title 
of rogue, &c. The origin of fief itself. It. fio^ is clearly 
shown in the Longobard {aderfitdm, patrimonium, 
where fiu, propcrtv = O. H. G. fiu, /ehu, cattle, Goth. 
faihu, iJsX.pecuSf «c. ; from the form/irw, with a neutral 
term. -«»i, feu-um, the M. L. made feu-d-um (cf. It. 
chiodo = cla-us, v. 88), whence all the deriw. fgudaif &c. 

859 saet pes] this seems to have been the regular al- 
lowance for dead heroes ; cf. our King Harold*s answer 
to the envoy of Tostig. 

860 almej Sp. Pg. alma, Pr. O. F. arme, with / or r 
instead of the n in Lat. anima, but also anme (Alex. 67, 
aneme)t whence M. F. dme ; Wallach. keeps nearest to 
the ong. in its inimSt which it uses for soul, courage, 
and even fbr stomach, thus durere de imma, stomach' 
ache ! Perhaps the / forms are, to some extent at 
least, owing to the Lat. alma, which the poets con- 
stantly use in reference to the //^<r-giving Venus, Ceres, 
Cybele, Faustitas, &c., and which therefore may have 
become (or been) familiar in the Milgar. In M. L., 
however, sdmus, almitas, &c., arc generally used of 

— mortftlite] the MS. has here santz mortale, which 
of course is unmeaning : there can be no doubt of the 
necessity for the alteration, which further corrects the 
imperfect metre, there being a syllable wanting. 

861 mansilin] ' abode ' ; the Lat. ' mansio * is used 
also in the sense of a dwelling-place, &c., hence its 
transfer into the Rom. under the forms F. maison. It. 
magion€t to signify a house^ in place of the canonized 
' domus,* duomOf dome^ ^c. 

868 gaeredims] our guerdon, only used in Aub. of 
rewards for the good ; it really means, however, * return^* 
and Spenser uses it of both good and evil, F. Q. II. 1.6 1, 
' till guiltie blood her guerdon doe obtayne.* The etym. | 
of this word is best seen by comparing the related langg. ; 
in M.L. we have widerdonum^ It. guiderdone, Sp. Pg. 
galardon {ao). The origin of all is the O. H. G. widar- 
idftf * recompensatio,* the last element of which, loHy 
was p>erhaps confounded with Lat. donum ;. widar = con- 
tra, cf. the widrigild of the Longobard laws, the coun- 
ter-cost ^ used instead of the wen'geld of ihc other Germ, 
tribes [where, however, weri- wer, homo, vir]. Sp. might 
indeed be derived directly from ^ndarldn by the inter- 
change of d and / famUiar to the peninsula, this would 
give wilardon, — now the i of an initial-syllable is often 
assimilated to a following a (cf. balance for bilancia), 
and this, with initial w = g, would give galardon. 

— atnmel from this verb is derived the snbst atv 
(19), dress, through an older form atam^ *praepantio'; 
atumer : atur b a-jumer rdiumum) : jur. The origm 
is tumus (r<$pi/oc)t turners wheel ; whence tonnier, to 
turn, re-toumer^ and tour^ au-tour, it Pentour. 

865 hem] " be not moved for any e^ that man can 
inflict on your body, or the devil on your heart.*' TV 
usual play of words on cors and quar (v. 104) is fiirther 
heightened by the opposition of hem and maufi. Hut 
* hem * is thus used emphatically may be inland aho 
from the fact that there is no eusion of the ke^ the iai- 
tial h being preserved and aspirated. The coUocatiai 
is k^em in every other case (79. 6d8. 688. 7 1 9. 1 366. 1 678)^ 
save here and 815, where exactly the same contnst ii 
aflbrded, 90 ke hem, desdit, .... tesmoine le ekracflt, 
that which man denies, the elements affinn, &c. 

867 estue] I take this to be the same as onr 'ito/ 
A.-Sax. stov; in the three instances of its otcuii O Mt 
(4- 7 1 1. 982) it can onlv bear the meaning of plaoe^ pal, 
keep. There is another verb, very like this, the can* 
mon estuet, estut, from stetit, &c., whence has come fit 
verb, estovoir, to be fitting, M.L. estoverinmt O. £. 
stover, provision, but in Aub. neither form nor "tpffnf 
correspond really, though I do not find in tlie !<»»» aif 
reference to this verb, O. Fr. estuer, to stow zwvf, to 
reserve ; ' le regne ki vus est estu£ ', the kingdom mch 
is reserved for you (which is htsUntnd on yon) ; it ii 
taken from the Vulgate, Mat. xxv., 34, pottidcte pars- 
tum vobis regnum. 

874 onnge] this word was used in the sense of sinqde 
'permission*, cf. the phrase cong6 d'dire; so ia 
Mohdre, I'Etourdi I. 3.8 : 

et si dans quelque chose ils vons ont oatiagi^ 
je puis vous assurer que c'est sans mon congi. 
An older form is cunget, whence M. F. camgid4er; 
from Lat. commeatus, leave ofahsence^ generahaed into 
leavey permission. Here, of course, it is nsed in the or- 
dinarv sense, our ' to ask leave* , Spensei^s ' comteoos 
conge\ Sec. 

— requis e d.l a common pair ; cf. Rom. de Mah.X28: 
i lui vont les gens de la tern 
conseil demander e requeme. 

876 8i] a very characteristic particle in O. Fr. For 
the instances of Its occurrence in Aub., v. Gloss. (siiL\ 
in some of which (592) it has its peculiar Lat. sense [ac 
te diva potens Cypri, &c.] ; in some, as here, it is little 
more than a cop. conj., while in others it is *^if^r vh^ if 
not impossible, to define precisely its function *w«j| fivtc 
(v. note on 1 743), and to distinguish it from the adv. a 
as in *so great , &c. 

— esnoie] this form is no doubt owing to the 
dency of O. F. to insert an sf before », as a mete sin 
of the length of the syllable, (for it is not pnmoimceaj 
cf. cajffard, for canard ; resne (1604), M. F. rftne, LaL 
redina ; fraisle, M. F. frele, Lat. fragilis ; trosne, H. F. 
trone, dpoi'oci &c. So here, esnuier is for enuier, fen 
enui, Sp. enojo. Old Sp. enoyo. It. noja (Old IL ncjo), 
ice, all from the Lat. phrase in odio, which is well pie- 

* Indeed Fallot even thought of deriving losenge from lob-singen ! 

t This interpolated s is not found in any other of the Romance languages. 




II the old Milanese dialect, *plu U sent a inodio 
\ ti sono a nqja.' We still have the verb (active) 
f, (and also, annoyance t) but have lost the subst. 
as Shakspere, 5cc., had it, cf. Rape of Lucr. 
mirth dotn search the bottom of annoy \ &c. ; 
F. Q. II. 9. 35 ' all plesaunce was to them griefe 
oy . The M. F. /yuiMx which we have also bor- 
ts a late meaning; the taedium vitae does not 
have been a mraieval grievance, or rather the 
bad not yet found an apt expression. 
vIb] this form is hardly susceptible of ezplana- 
most come from vado, which regularly makes 
the final X is unintelligible, and the diphth. oi is 
r. This vois is common to all F. dialects, and 
Inced a snbj. pres. voise ; we find a similar in- 
/ in a few more verbs : ex. ^. duner, doinr (491), 
\ doinst (592), truver, truu, subj. truirt, so that 
s explanatioo of vois as containing an j to dis- 
i it firom VM (« video), which in itself has little 
RUDOid it, is rendered still more improbable. 
f the snbj. forms doinst, truistt &c., may have 
•std the s first by a not unfamiliar interouation, 
the notion arose of/ beinf radical. 
the pret. ist sg. occurs omy here, and b rather a 
dim than a Norman form ; the 3rd oers. out b 
ly Noiman : o-i seems to have arisen from a con- 
ctmuA for habui, still it can hardly have been 
UB moBo^rlL (Burg, even o\ and is not much 
than the diphthong in vois above. 
iMVOhl he] ' since , either temporal or causal ; 
I think I am sure, since (ex quo or quia) God 
has lealed your heart. 

bU] our X(M/, from Lat. sigillum ; M. F. has in- 
iB momnic c in sceau, sceller, to distinguish it 
an (O.F./m/), Lat. sitell-us; (cf. veau, our veal, 

] hereaod in 376, (y. 789, 1539,) simple ^is written 
for «Pi, whether intentionally or not, I do not 
it oocvn very frequently so in some phrases, ex. 
Gcr. de V. 176, 371, 4029, it is always * ^ non 
I th« name of God; so Fierabras begins, ^ nom de 
psyre. I have edited en however. 

■ at S>] this most betaken as a parenthetic danse, 
laf. ciiDfCftir it ao infin. of purpose following 
■i, I am going off in order to convert. 

tali] not vsedin M. F., but we have preserved 
my', and the adi. plenteous, correimonding to an 
Ictiv. plentcif, plenteiveuz ; from Lat. pUnitas, 

■ Vttivnat, *hiimoris plenitas', 6, i, Prov. pitn^ 

J the vowel u, instead of e (/ncore, or a, 

)f Mttnu to have arisen from a confusion with 

the proper form encore b Lat. Mane 

FoMibly, here, micore b simply the two 

• imraod one ; but the other langg. liave hanc ; 

w. Old Sp. tmcawa^ Pr. tmquera. 

Mm] thb form b cidnsivdy applied to mental, 

r to bodily aflictioo ; cf. 840, tut le candoiUani; 

tOlmmihwnA U DCif ; cf. Hor. Carm. Ul. t, ih 

m, of bodv or miod ; Portog. domt€ does not 

grieved', birt iicfcly, vnwcO. 

885 triei] the use of the condit. in apodosis after a 
protasis with si and indie, pres., b found onlv here and 
^88, 'lidoilz serroit grantz, si tu murs ' ; inbotn cases the 
idea of reality is apparent : if you were to leave me, 
(which you are going" to do) ; or, if you were to do, 
which you really seem bent on doing. For this abnormal 
sequence of tenses, cf. such sentences as Tibull. I. 8, 88, 
'ctfaceret si non aera repulsa sonent\ 

886 semaine] through sepmaine, from M.L. septi- 
mana, still found in Wallach. sept&mhi& ; It. settim^Qn, 
Sp. semana. An older Sp. form is hebd6mada (from 
the Gk.) contracted in old Pg. into doniaa, 

— yeauaj ' at least ', from Lat. vel in its intensive 
meaning, with the appended adverbial x , cf. *vels une feiz ', 
*even once ', Alexb, § 90; it was often compounded with 
si, siveau, sivaus, (suvaus, 941, q. v.) 

887 de la lei] thb might be taken as dependent 
either on plus, or on enseinnerez : * you shall teach me 
more about the law ', or * more 0/ the law.' 

389 TOiea] from vetare, O. F. v^er to forbid, also 
cpd. deveer ; cf. Chev. au Cyg. 12806 dbt ly roys Cor- 
barans : * ja voet ne sera', exactly tne same phrase ; oi 
b awkward, but Aub. has erne, crrire, craire, and 
crtn're, and v. app. 
892 sutlTe] ct. Rom. de Mah. 1231 : 
un celier fist faire soutU 
^ sous terre, ti nus n'aloit fors il. 

similarly Chev. au Cyg. uses soutieument, 1013. soutieve- 
ment, 17060, and soutius ; from subtilis, we have sutU, 
with vocalized /, sutiu ; with u hardened through v into/, 
suti/and the fem. sutixv, as here. No doubt our pro- 
nunciation of subtle as suttU b based on the O. F., 
cf. doubt pronounced dout, through O. F. duter* 

896 zeleTees] * afternoon ' ; cl. Mar. de Fr. I. 68, eel 
jur meisme ainz relev^ ; Ed. Conf. 4379 : 
avint un jur de relev6e, 
ke I'ure estoit Ja pass^e 
ke li moine deussent lever. 
M. L. relevatiOf the hour immediately after mid-dajr, 
when the monks rise ex somno meridiano ; exactly 
as in Sp. sitsta is used, » sexta, the sixth hour from 
dawn, 1./., the mid-day nap; cf. M. F. faire ta meri* 
dienne, our old * nooning.' 

— ti anoitei] cf. Villehard. 4 630 li G. avoient mandl 
de plain jor ke il venissent % la Serre \nnkm II /#• 
roit anuitii, ' at night-fall ' ; similarly B. du Giifscl. 5681 : 

je m*en irai ennuit, quant il ert envetpm, 
Rom. de Tr. 2203 : 

quant la nuiz fu bien anuitidit 
et la lune se fu cochi^e, 
isstrent fors li baran« 
897] for the whole passage cf. Spent. F. Q, J. 10, 19 : 
she unto him discloted eveiy whitt ; 
and heavenly docvmenti thertoat did preach, 
of God; of grace; of Justice; of free-will; 
that wonder was to heare her goodly spcacb. 
Cf. also Chauc. Caiit. T. ltt^t : 

tho gan Khe him ful betlly to prcche 
of CriMct come, and of his peynet teche, 
and many fointet of hb paMiMio* 
how, kc. 




899 esnez] prob. not the inserted s before n, but a 
remnant of tne t in einz (= ante) eint-n^ ; cf. in O. F. 
puis-n6, from which we have eliminated the j, in puny 
( M. F. puin6), save in the older language, and in the 
legal expression the puisne judges. 

403 Damnedeu] tnere is a snarp line of distinction 
drawn between this compound expression, dominus 
deus^ and the simple deuSy in Wallachian, in which 
dumne-zeu = God, while teu (deus) means a pa^an 
god, an idol. The compound is found in It. domme- 
ddio, Pr. dombredieu, &c. 

404 iglise] (ecclesia) only occurs twice, and in both 
cases spelt iglise : so Sp. iglesia, Pg. igreja, while the It. 
omits the initial syllable, chiesa. The g sound was prob. 
derived from the Greeks themselves, amongst whom k 
before X is (now at all events) pronounced as y (v. 
Mullach, Gram, der Gr. Vulg. p. 113.) In Old Sp., 
however, we find eclegia. 

406 par nnt] unt is from unde^ which being used as 
an oblique case of the relative form, has prefixed to it 
par ; so dunst (v. 32) for de unde. 

— e p. poiiu] I am not sure that it would not be 
better to edit en, * instructed in several points', &c. 
As it b, it must be taken as accus. to ad desclos 


408 es-YTls] ^J is a contraction from Lat. ecce, * look- 
you*, (in Plautus, eccum, eccos, eccas;) cf. It. ecco, 
eccO'lOf Sp,ele, ((or ec-ie), Pg. ei-io {(or eis-lo); with the 
It. ecco-te-ioy Sp. e-te-ley may be compared es-te-vtis, 
Aub. 823, 1157. 

409 fenestre] Lat. fenestra, with a change of accent, 
fenestra, the latter leading to festra [explained in 
Macrob. "minusculum ostium in sacrario";] (and 
Germ, fenster), while the former was preserved in It. 
fenestra. Old Sp. finiestra. The peninsula, however, 
has now lost tne word, its place being supplied in 
Span, by vent-ana a windy-place (cf. our window, 
Dan. vin-due, Icel. vind-auga, A. -Sax. wind-edge, 
wind-eye;) and in Portug. by janella from janua, 

410 ke] this might be taken as a temporal particle, 
* whilst he watched them *, cf. 808 and 1750; but I prefer 
to regard it as introducing an ace. noun sentence de- 
pendant on (de eus ne fu veil =) il ne virent; still 
ke might also (though not probably,) be taken as ki 
[= cist ki] cf. 650, 105 1, 1 1 70. 

— espia] It. spiar, Sp. espiar (our spy), from O. 
H. G. spehon, id. 

411 nitz e 0.] th« pairs are not symmetrical (cf. 421), 
avisa lur faitz, and oi lur cunseilz. 

414 hastiyement] of Germ, origin, cf. Old Fries, hast, 
haste ; with suff.-«/" [= ivus], cf. chitif, naif (=» natif), 
joli, O. F. jolif [= gay, O. Norse y<^/, « yule '-festivities]. 

417 enten oa] listen here I elsewhere we have always 
entenr(456. 556. 1669). 

418 dnnt] for this parenthesis, v. 13, where the 
clause with dunt is also inserted between an antecedent 
and its relative, and cf. 380. 

420 mar] with this may be compared the contraction 
O. F. hiur, bor; mar = mala, bor «= bona, the final r 
being probably from hora^ so that mar = mala hora, 

and bor=s bona hora, Pg. emboia. Old Pg. boa; both 
expressions, mala hora and bona hora, were common in 
the earliest M. L.; compare Aub. 1503 tant mar tos vi, 
with ' tam mala hora te videnint oculi mei,' quoted bj 
Diez from Gresta Reg. Franc. 
424 hatant] cf. Rom. de Troie 4603 : 
Paris a molt tost envois 
un message forment batant, 
novele dire au rei Priant. 
Ph. Mousk. 17060: 

es vous le vallait entretant 
jusqu' d I'uis del palais batant. 
Ibid. 1785 : 

mais n'el vot pas laisier atant, 
ainc a fait prendre lues batant 
as boriois, &c., tant d*avoir. 
Guil. de Tudela (?), quoted by Rayn. Rom. IL E96: 
li messatge s*en van tost et isnelament, 
al plus tost que ilh pogron, a Roma bat batm. 
These lines are from the Crois. cont. les Albig. 236, 
from which Diez (II. 451) gives ba^atM, *at nJl 
gallop*. So in Old Ital., cf. Sitz.-Ber. der Wiei. 
Akad. 46, p. 154, 1. 220 e per La dtil tnta batatUbu 
lo trasso. 

423-428] these are very loosely pnt together venei 
of hasty narration : the connexion I take to be Moe* 
what the following : — ** [The source of it all is] an ttioe- 
rant pilgrim who has deceived him, — a man who b 
rapidly joume}'ing from abroad, with more magic aiti 
than tongue can tell, and with a vamped-np tale whicb 
he is preaching of some strange deity, whom the Jews 
crucified, &c. ; if you don't t^e precautioiiy things wiD 
go badly.'* 

427 Sulie] ' Sjria,' of coarse ; bat it is alwayi wzit- 
ten with the Im Aub., cf. 502. 716. 1447. The m- 
stances of this change are not frequent in Fr. ; cf. antd, 
from altare, and the dissimOation pelerin, 51. 

428 ounrei] It. corredo, Sp. correo, finom a primitive 
redo, O.F. roi = order, in Kuteboeaf (qooted by Gi- 
chet), *oti il n*a mesure ne roi.' From this «i0ii- derir. 
has come also the M. F. corroyeur, prei>arer (of leaAei); 
by another prefix we have O. F. azrei, oar tanj, tad 
O. F. desroi, M. F. d^sarroi. The root is rtdQp prolh 
ably German ; cf. A.-Sax. gersedian, M. H. G. ge-xcttcDf 
to make ready, 

430 TMUtorens] Lat. adj. pastoralis, ItaL paito- 
rello, M. F. pastooreau; even waU. has p i ^e sci te d tbn 
as a substantive, pastorel, though it appears to hm 
abandoned altogetner this tenmnation for adjectives 
[Diez II. 304]. 

431 brebis] Lat. vervex, in Petronins berbes, M. L. 
berbix, O. It. berbice, O.F. berbis, brebis, WaU. bcAec^ 
ram, berbec batut, sheep. The M. F. bercail and beracr 
owe their forms to aM. L.berbicariasand bert»cale,[aEa^ 
with sujSl-f7is, berbect^, giving O. F. berdl]. 

432 par] amongst the rest, or periiaps, by 
the rest the evil ^sml spread. 

434 garde doner] cf. Bl. de Ozf. 464 : 
si ententivement le regarde, 
que de riens ne se donne earde 
[ors sans plus de li esgarw. 




B. da Gvesc. 3619 : 

B. da G. ne s*i est airestez, 
sor reschiele monta, n'en fa espoantez. 
B bascoDS de M. s'en est garde donnez ; 
i.e. liad perceived him. 

435 BAinite] elsewhere in Auban (496, 968, 1020), 
it is written mesnie; cf. Chaac. Cant. T. 14459 : 
he gaf the lord and sith then his meyniy 
whim that he com, some maner honest thinj^. 
virioosly spelt, e.g. 14731 meigni^ iz^mayni, InChau- 
eer's time, therefore, the s was not pronounced, as 
it was at an earlier period ; we have it in M. H. G. in 
tht form *messente*4 cf. Parzival, I., 13, 9 (Lachm.) : 
doch wAnde der gefuege, 
daz niemen krdne triiege, 
kiinec, keiser, keisertn, 
des messente er wolde sin, 
wan eines der die hoehsten hant 
triiege iif erde iibr elliu lant ; 
wiuch also gives the termination 'mie ; cf. M2tz. Altfr. 
snr., 41 : 

dame, de vostre maisnie 
ne [m'e]stuet pas devenir. 
CC Li Livres de Jastice, gloss, sub voce : — ''le sens 
ds niot musnu fut fa.€ par un arr^t deparlement (1282) 
. • . . oft on lit, ' et fut puis desclain6 do ce mot, sa 
propre mesnie demorant en son ostcl, ce est ^ entendre 
oe ceoijyi foot ses propres besoignes et ii ses despcns* ". 
435 nmdn] ufeindre m to hesitate, delay, oally. 
Cf. Rom. de Tr. 1956 de tost nagier pas ne se feint. 
Ibid. 2460 de bien ferir pas ne se feint. 

B. dn GoescL 4429 qui ne s'i faindie mie. [feint. 
Mitz. Altfr. ziii., 9 qui d*amoars essauchicr ne he 
The affirm. 'sefeindre* means *toact a part*, 'behave 
kypocritically*, so its negative im^es serious purpose, 
*to be ea^,* &c. The modem French (slang) word 
ftigmami is the participle of this word ; it means what 
Ckcro caQs f/Mrax. 

437 nOH] elsewhere (390, 610, 1364, 15201, this im* 
Boat, is ahrm osed parenthetically, but the following 
Jv ii a difficiiltj. It might be taken 2s a conjunction 
ifto' laccs, or as an aoc. pi. of the rel. pron., * ilium ct 
■uprtiWD fsdltcet) qoos comprehcndet.' 
441 1'] the coostnictioQ b not clear, and would 1< 

Citljr i D ip rote d by reading si and iP ^in follow-in;; 
) mtcMi of/* and ki-. 'if j-oa take fitting ^er.- 
nch that every one who know» it oay U: 
■nd that all may say', 5cc. 
■Wn] I have given this in Glov*. a.% frorr; 
r, b«t I am not at an satisfied with the fonn. W^ 
dirra (171, 439) with rr, againtt dira '1570 . ^A 
Ike fct. of aver miwayt pmu i ts the € beff/rt r, ^^ •*?«/, 
Ice Theantyacociated form JorvTV would be i^f^tfJUK 
proper Konnan farm; bat this does cr/t n^U^n t:vt 
abDormal aawpva, nor is the meamsg 'p^ >x'.-f^.r^>r% . 
Oa tbc other hand, orHtr, to avcrv. itxlut trse, ^i« « 
a food mfairing, cf. Rayn. ^v. 503 : 

Tesloire le te^moigne k mjt. 
aas boos coDtcrm r tztr^it ; 
bat this is not a iifluJi i i verb, so ai to 7rr» I'l-vtm, 

444 mnna] pregnant constr., *that all mav ^ay. ^c. 
[which ^ill ot the case] when [as soon as, if | A. \\w% 
on account of it.' 

446 d'ire] this is the only example in A., in which a 
final vowel is cut ofT before the initial 1 of iie. PoMibly 
ire may have l)ccn pronounced with a strong a!»piiati(M), 

cf- 543. 582. 993. »243. ^h^'^^ IS<»<». 

449 aj I know of no precisely |>aranrl crtir. in 
which the auxiliary h so inserted belwrrn u noun and 
its attribute, and that just at the cn-huia ; but it ran 
hardly be anything else. Of course, the objnt <»nrn 
enough intervenes between the auxil. and ptfp., cf. 
Joinvillc 81, vez-ci le prchlre (lui a leu huit Saita^ins 

— ke] "if that is true which he had heard, mtm/fy 
that, Sec.** This fuller meaning of /'/[rf. ('n*kar« 'om- 
nibus Gallis idem ckhc faciendum, iiuihI I Irlvrtti rnr- 
rint, ut domo cmigrent', <lc lirll. (tall. I. 31,) 1« 
(juite in accordance with the free u^age of O. h\ lirtp 
it resuItH from a blending of the two coniitrurtlonM nl 
o/r, which in preceding Tine taken itn nbjrrt kr, and U 
followed also by a caM--ficnti*nrr [arc] riplanutnty 
of the relative in 44K. Cf. the plrnnatitU' nun of in In 
279; soaliioin Iof>M, voirnl Ir Hrpulrrr kr tut fu tm liiirl, 
where indeed the Af might be taken an ihr irlallvr by 
error for ki, but in |K*rhap*i bellrr rrtntrd hrir, aiiil 
the whole line explained, *lhey mt the tomb, iimi/ fhtit 
it was all lit up * ; v. aNo 84, 279, 6cc. 

457 desCTlTeR] 'denounced*; M.L. tiiumt/^n 00 \n 
commonly usefl in the M-nur of 'rri 'onnoHiiiig', 'ajiy- 
ing', and so re|Kirting, l>elraying; l)i', qiinlra, "nullus 
de hift Nuurn parent div fjfffirrial vel pro<lrtl ". 

459 sires ke b.] ke in probably |i* lir taken with llm 
preceding /i//, an t» Kat. lam. . . .'|UuiM, hulh . , , nml i 
though I do not know any other eKuinpte of ihU 
coll'ication, and tii*rhapH tut nhould l»e tnnt ; iinJeM wr 
rea/J sires e bailh, whuh I should prefrr, 

— baiUi ] wholly rrja«ter and ' steward ' ; fr<;fn I.ttt . A/f/M- 
/i/i-^aj^^t^tSpoc.afarrier.iiwr/fd wMf h tnM. I., wm* u«ed 
for cust'/s, |#tf'<JagogijH flhu* in the I'^Mern I'.rnpirt lh«t 
$$'»yar fiaiov^o^ ha«l «liar((e t4 the rdiMHilofi of lh«' 
chjldrm of Ihe ^-inj/^-r'/f ]; ##«-# fiti//ffiiu, MM({l*tMt« , (in 
Verju.r th** «:arly wre f4ll«f| ftwutnukut 11 ndir 
f'itirk iTiI'-.J arid even f'/tu\, •/# M,. «|ii«fl« « " priiii Uh «, 
baror,' •, 6cf.., titf irrit^ni Imlttium fl*|f*nirit." f h" 
r'/rrimoTj»-»tt ij»ai;»- 'A »*»*■ w>fd «r«*a \»t *\»%\iA» lh« * wim»« 
t\\^Xt\ of li.f- kjfiif't t'tttw't and m* %*t*U f h« y Umn lit* 
Oury*: fA ftuv a) J fir*/ «. «- v fi« *tu, / nuUu jli*fitm, Ar« ,, 
/wh.^^* '>t.r 'b^jljff '». b'if If »-!« wt*U$tf*\ Ut ifM bid* Miiy 
k.'f.d fA k/,m*r*ii*rtt g«-ri^r«liy, «f. l.4Wa *A Win, 
','/f.';. III. '#, 'f|^^t4t*^*u*tt^UMl^ll^^,l*f»t*^t ^U» ■t*t9hkt*9 
et kl'>rrr.4/.M '^ {yr^(^/«iti rf t»Ut\ tt*$tti»t «.| iiiMiMll 

'.'/e^ U'/rt, p'lltinri l1.f/«rrM, , l^*i\t , » ^m9^U u 9, m$»t{%tt « 

442 tLU\ W L 'tt,*ttif' v«4 f«4#d > 'lo '«<««« fi'f' 
••>► .«• Or.; A •''.4*. fn*firft*tn, * 9 If '/ M* 

vjuri - •'* .^'^•^ •.*.* »*7, u.»tf*9'i* ').*«.*/». **••*'« Mi.i««, 



Ital. [cf. Dante, Inf. I. 3, V. 72, XV. 50, Purg. xix. 14, 
Par. xxvi. 9, 4]. The most usual meaning is *contra- 
rier', 'fScher', to grieve, annoy, as here. 

— seroie] this is the regular form of the conditional, 
against the serroi of 384, but the other tenses here 
occurring, viz./ra, and the pres. subj. ««, make it pro- 
bable that serrai should be read. 

463 deservi] for this use of the word, = our 'deserve *, 
cf. Bl. of Oxf. 216: 

et sachi^s se vous emploii6s 
votre sens en li bien servir, 
raon gr6 en pori^s desservir. 

464 ohent] for cTielt, cnalt, from chaler, Lat. calere 
(aUqud re), which Diez aptly compares with f/ij 
olihiv OaXiTfi Ktpfoc. Here the verb is personal, *who 
cares for me', but it is usually impersonal, cf. It. non me 
ne cale, O. F. il ne m*en cnaut, O. Sp. poco min cal, 
(minchal, P. del Cid 299), but cf. M. F. nonchalant, 
nonchalance. Nonchaloir was even used as a simple 
verb, and Schcler quotes from A. Chartier, *dcpuis 
longtemps la loy avoit demour6 oublite et non- 

474 onard] It. cod-ardo, from Lat. cauda, (either as 
representing the timid animals which put their tails be- 
tween their legs, or as denoting those who are at the 
extreme end, the tail ;) with the termination It. -ardoy 
Fr. -art^ Sp. -ardo and -arte^ derived from the Germ. 
hart (Goth. hardus\ used in O. H. G. in forming 
proper names, Regin-hart JReynard], &c., in M. H. G. 
also used for appellatives m a bad sense. Jug-hart^ cf. 
drunkard^ &c. So Ital. bastardo, bugiardo, F. batard, 
couard, criard, hagard, pillard, canard, renard, &c. In 
this word Sp. has co-b-arde, "with h for v fv. 138] ; 
cf. the insertion in ju-v-icio for ju-icio [v. 88]. 

476 pur quel kej ' proN-idcd that ' ; cf. Rom. Stud. 
Hft. 3, p. 411, 1. 27: 

en ceste terre n*a mastin 
qui me rescossist un pocin 
por qoi je Toiisse cngol^. 

476 esolavina] M. L. sclarina, It, schi'avina, {Slavonic) 
dress, of coarse woollen stuff, worn by pilgrims. It 
may be noted that 'Amphibalus' is glossed in DC. 
**rcsfis villosa^ sicut est scla\ina*'; with this compare 
the Aub. rubric fol. 33, rect. b, "villosam vestem lin- 
quens pro focdcre testem." Amphibalus, like Archi- 
triclinus (62), is a myth. 

477 pelei<;Tm] cf. Ger. de V. 2083 le pied li tient sor 
Termin pelicon. From Lat. pellicius, pellicia, "indu- 
mentum peUicibus factum"; O. F. sur-pelis ^pur jf<r- 

lice), M. F. pelisse, Pr. sobre-pelitz, O. H. G-. pelliz, 
[od. G. pelz. The suffix -on* (pclis, peli9-un^ is 
common in Romance : besides the Latin nouns m o, 
oniSy we have numerous deriw. in -on^ in all the lan- 
guages ; Wallach. has extended it further, into -o-iu 
(a Lat. oft'ius) instead of 'On, Its use (as in Latin naso, 
cf. yaffTpwVf KtpaXvv,) to express a heightening of the 
primitive idea, is seen in It. ghiottone, glutton, from 

Lat. glutus ; cf. Aub. glut 1332, and glnt-nn 1728. As 
a simple augmentative it is foond in the £. and 
S. W., thus It. cavallone, Sp. caballon, Walladu 
c&loiu, a big horse, — while in the N. W., its force is 
that of a diminutive, e. gr. Prov. (anzelh), aiudhd, F. 
(oiseau, oisel), oisillon, a small bird. 

480 ofaokes] this word, = avecqnes, a'vec, fron 
Lat. ab [== apud] hoc, b a specially French j^rawth. 
It never occurs again in this form throaghont the 

foem, though the simple * of* is common enongii. 
t is further the only instance in Aab. where we kifc 
this combination of vowels, viz., i40, except in the 
* ^uor* series : possibly the /u (9 /w) was simply a 
digraph for r. 

481 arpentz] one of the few Old Gallic words preserad 
in Romance. Here it is used lineally, of a distance 
traversed, but it really meant a certain measure of land 
(cf. M. F. arpenteur^ a land-surveyor) ; according to 
Columella, '* GalH semijugerum quoqne artpemnem to- 
cant ". The final t is an addition, as in tinmt (J09), 
paisant (1141). 

485 kar] v. Gloss, for the other examples of this me 
of O. F. kar = M. F. donc^ with imperatives, and cf. tbe 
use of >do in ei(^c ydp, and nam in utinam, in optative 

486 espomi] from pavor, which becomes icgnlaily 
poiir in Aub., (pavor « pau-or =& po-or, Nonn. po-or,} 
M. F. peur, cf. hiur for our from augnriam. 

489 ke] is here to be regarded as introdndng a caie- 
sentence dependent upon a verb of ' asking', to oe taka 
out of the general idea expressed in the preceding fines: 
' I commend you to him, [breeching yoo] that yon be 
not separated from him.' Or perhaps, moce indirectlj: 
' I commend you [with a sincere wish that lie will lo 
sustain you], that you may not, &c.'; v. also 517. 

— esloixmes] cf; Spens. F. 6. 1. 4, 20: 

from worldly cares himselfe he did esloyne. 

491 mettez] indicative forms in dependent sentenoei^ 
instead of the rightful subj., are met with, but hcR 
perhaps mettez is to be explained as a qnasi -imp e ialiv fc. 

494 part] elsewhere the 3 sg. pres. md. from /«r»r, 
to appear, is always pert For the tautology, y. Sil» 
and cf. B. du Guesc. 5194 I'endemain an matin qwnl 
jour fu esclarcis ; Rom. de TV. 7040 rendemam i 1 ajor- 
ner, anceis que levast li soleill. 

498 a ki peise a agree] ' no matter whom it mn wmof 
or gratify' ; a very common formnla of defiant aetenn- 
nation, cf. Ger. de V. 1020 4 cni paise n'en agree; 

Ahx. 171.22 c^ui ^u'en poist ne on'en place; Rom. di 
Ren. 1042 cui qu'il enpoist ; B. an Guesc. 20403' i qv 
qu'il desagr^e; Kell. Romv. 217.3 ^ <^n*en pkorae 
qui chant ; Rom. de Tr. 7034 qui qn'en ait dn^ ne q« 
qu*en rie. 

504 espee] It. spada, Sp. espada, M. L. qpada, d 
Albert's Troilus V. 640, pensat qnem finem bcffict 
spatha petat. It has gone over onto O. H. G. spato^ 
our spade f in a different direction of meaning; the 

* In the notes on P. del Cid (1073), Sanchez deriyes peltMon from Latin peliicufM, genitive plural KtiptUiasl 
VfYiaX pellices comes from, is not said. 





to brin^ is a fiaal c2aa%e, 'ts or!^ 

pnHemd to rrp4in hj vz^yM^'^^ 
a verb of * aikiii^' from the pnce<dinf b:^ :— *- m Lki 
oAaB declared hst belief 'Kcluh6e) in the Ijv of CLri**. 
If HiB] tlut Hii wtae kbcnl^ ^ 

617 MfM] tbe rime -/r. «L<yvi thj£ tiLsi » & r»^«J 

fonn, tad not a caie <cf. ott. 773 of zoik -.««< 

lor fern., ■• in Mitx. Aldir. xzl ji'^. et a a i-.'u k^ :.-. 

.- b 

LaL ipatha, a qMitola, batten, was already in Tacitus 
SMd for a broad, pointless sword. 

— maonesl in Lat. we meet mateola, It. mazzuola, 
« maftnrlr, from which is inferrible a Lat. matea^ It. 
maasa, F. masse, 'mace'; from this by a different deri- 
▼atnre, we get mass-uca, (in Old Pg., « a small iron 
bar,) M. F. massue ; cf. carruca, lactuca, verruca, and 
M. r . duume, laitue, verrue. 

606 BMdlM] our * medley', M. F. mel^; fonned 
from a Lat. misculare. It mischiare, Sp. mezclar, O. F. 
mesler; H. L. has misleare, formed irom the noun, in 
O. ItaL mislea ( Villani) ; the M. L. forms are various : 
mesleia, meikia, melleia, melleta, medleta ; the radicals 
b<rame assimilated to the /in the one case, mc//da, and 
disappeared after generating <f, medleia, in the other 
{dL ladre from lazaras * lazdre, and coudre from cons*rc). | 
The word is defined as the crime of interfering in any | 
matter, and so creating a disturbance, but without , 
malice prepense; and * melliatores ' is used for* noisy 
btawlen*. But the brawl easily grew into ^fight^ its 
cnmmnn meaning; cf. Mort Dart. I. 12, then waied the 
wuddU passing hard on both parties. 

Dies (I. 444) sajr* of medler (mesler), that the d was 
' a slcst letter, to indicate the length of the vowel ', on 
llie groimd that d in French does not allow / to follow 
it. Our word 'medley' (chance-medley), howoer, 
•hows that the d was pronounced. 

606 MMTM] Lat. has ' sera', bar for fastening doors, 
wUch was shot in different directions for opening and 
•hattiiig, as eipressed in the veri>s, 06-serare. and re* 
MraiCt bnt M. L. uses the simple 'serare' for locking, 
■kattiiig, &c., ' serrare januas*. Span, and Fortug. have 
adopted initial r, cerrar^ to distinguiUi this verb from 
scsrar, to taw ; It. has serrare, whence serraglio 'a place 
Mhui up, a haiem, by confusion with the Penian icrai^ , 
wfciA Baa been botiom- e d by the other langg., F. serail, 
Pf. Mnlho. 

614 mnrnd] Lat. 'subinde*. Ital. sovente; lAtz 
(Lex. I. 369) notes the unusual change of ^ into /, hence 
m Gr. I. tao, he regards this It. -«wi!r. as an adaptation 
ftom the Lat advertnal form, as in repente. ice. 
la O. F., however, the change of final ndxo ntu faoj* 
liar in the simple imd£ « O. F. ent, umd^ « unt. quando 
mm onant, the gerund, forms '■^mh « F. ant. Ace. 

616 IIUMJ is prob. formed directly from Lat. ' ros ' ; 
tL akMCa, 355. Thb seems better than to derive it f roo; 
^ l O Mida a*, whence the Portug. get r.>^iar aad rv.^ar 
[thooch their ordinary tenn is orx^har, of uJc^ovs 

The Mod. F. 

of ervover. tlt 
,. li tii X 

veer, as contrasted with the Burgundian tntoiirai (which 
Montaigne uses). 

519 ^Tublee] Lut. fibula, with the change of 1 into u 
aAer the labial, as in fumicr fromyfrnarius, and the forms 
^MF-ons, Sec, from oib'Crc. In the other langg., the f 
is preserved: It. affibbiarc. Portug. afivcUar [Mixl. l*g. 
has /Ff^/a, instead of the old flhula]. 

521 ohasoniiB] a.H in the Ital. ciarcunn, the s of Lat. 
quisque is here prc}»cr>'cd ; cf. It. qufxto, <). K. iw/, 
M. F. cet. Span, and Pg. have a curiciUM fonn. auU% 
uno, but Old dpan. gives (|uiHcadaun() (Y*, del ( lid 1 14s), 
which runs parallel with Ital. ciaHcn-cd-mui for Lat. 
quisque ad unum [or ft unun]. The linal a \\\ radu is 
strange, but is prob. an inorganic addition; cf. M. K. 
char{u-/, which was formed from ch:ic«un. un<l in not 
derived from Lat. nuiH<|uc, as \% the I'rov. ywA*. 

— benee] * to pitrcc with arrown*; the vuiioim r<»n« 
jecturcs as to its origin, IktIk'x, lirma, &r., uir not 
satisfactory. Diez siip|H>s<r*t from ImtIh'XUU llul. I»riri« 
are, to thrust at as a r/im, to pierce, (|uotiiig(ioin I HI. an 
Ital. chrf>nicie, * trabs ferrata, qiiani htn rUum | r | .iii|irlla- 
bant'; ctbtlUr, battering-r/i;», and ihr Wulludi. vrib 
imberbec^ to butt, j'rom thin li.ick und forwuid tnolioii 
we should have IktccI, M. I*, btnemt, 'ro* king 1 ladlr', 
cf. M. L. agitatoriurn. For the niodifir.ition o( inrun- 
ing, V. note tin navrcr, l^^i. 

622 blaoMj prob. of origin, if. O. II. O, 
plez, M. II. G. hlctzrn, zr|,lci/m, to (hop into pir<«. 

523 gorgM] (f. the following*ta|;r (.1 Montrwlmt 
mys^>g\'uij»tic \iew, it \\ to \tf \\i\\^*\, u\ iliiniratlr irla* 
tions lin the middhr ajf^', inwhuh a qiinn und her 
daughter have fallen in love with th«' *amr nun. und 
arc quarrelling in ronwrquen'r ''KrII. Kornv. J41, a6/;— 

la dani<^ Pot, a \iti\ %\r\\ enragir : 
\ifM\ nVn faijt m- I'a hirn < hapigner. 
"garr.he", dint ell**, **<.onie t\\f% deftlle«, 
torn iiavc* bi/n dir*: ^*tant ffor/fie ■ 
\S€r\ X\t v'rt d'/ing r% i\t-u% ijiir |f«lghir" ! 

524 truantx, a w/rd wh'/v rfif.iritfig u luw h mora 
wattled thafj iM Mw/i«/lo^y. 'Ihr rri«-jriirig U glvrn In 
IX,., v,rAt:t trutanu: * ttrnav) itji /|ij| i^r pp/vlrMUs 
ii^y^'.Tii V4;'uri*'.r f-t \ufu*\*t \\% »* atrophi* xiiia i«ffirill/ij« 
ill'i'I'jr.* 'J'irfi ^\iff\ kf fuiyuttt '^uutu fyn nuut. utnir p4«- 

p'y/,-,r» jr. Sj#, truM^in, I'y Irtmu^ i>*ttUiUf attiit^^ ' l«oiiff'#fif 
;',r.;'V*r,' ^''** *t.f tru/tttt r***A u ttnttuty; ('/Id Sp h«« 
trufan, K'.f It^ / ^.**^u\ (>.i4 » fr««r«- *»t\tU%t\A\ jp|««oit> 
^^..*i%^'ttrufftt j'yjf, Mirf-zaiiM- P'/rtijj^ )t4t tt*ttfuf9*»* 
'Jr.t* l\ V,. t.^* It ttr^^itAy \t^\ Iru/'ir, rffid «l||| Im* 
tru/aruj, Vjt^VtT), mA Ou\ Sp li.t« /ru/'td'*r 'I liii* 
!r>t ^fT*/ trujar ttxx^^A^ mA ««« t/t»Af. «l«fiv*d U'ftH 
truffa k M f. m*/t^ - f/«'ii. y0 u« M !>.« •i9\^\%* *A mUu ^%^ 

*'.y '/*-*'*■< *'■"• *• *» i.kf'.y k« »f#>*Kir.jf «l.-* | /f •#}/«/•# «f, 

l* » *••• .• '-■•../ ff^t. *l * ''.V.*t'fJ» If. tit* 4Ult,lf, 

;••: '.'.• '.'^ .'/f. '-^ '.'.* '.*./t. f. 1 Mt'l »t • '.n.'.i ' •if'j hf 

. '-.'/..•-': • > ' .f '.',? '/ **'M-* »'/fj 'f^ n^ nthi»y f 

:• J 



to offer. It is noteworthy that brigand is in a very 
simUar predicament. Both brigand, and truand are 
ptcpial forms from brigare, and tru{})are, but further 
than that we cannot get; cf. alsofriand, ga/ant {0,F. 
gala fid), which are not much clearer. 

626 onntniTee] from this we have our word * contrive *, 
to devise, invent. In Fr., however, * controuver ' only 
means to invent a falsehood, to fabricate, as here in 
Aub. But the origin of truver itself is not much less 
disputed than of truant. Diez inclines to a Latin 
turbare from turba, through the meaning confusion, 
toss into confusion, rummage, and so seek. But seeking 
is not 2lyif2Lys finding, and even so, the wrench given to 
the meaning is very violent. I prefer Grinim*s sugges- 
tion of a German verb with radical u, instead of the e 
which is found in O.H.G. trefan. Mod. Germ, treffen, 
to hit, to find. [As a matter of fact there is one such 
verb known, viz. : the Gothic truda, where other 
Teutonic dialects have e not w, O.H.G. tretan, our 
tread, &c.] This assumed tntfan would better suit 
both phonetic and signification. Diez compares the 
lidl.frugare to search, (rom /urea a pitchfork, but the 
comparison goes but a small way, iox frugare docs not 
mean to find, and turba involves the idea of con- 

630 par tut, u] Chaucer's * over al, there,* cf. Cant. T. 
249.549, &c. ; 1209 frely to go, wher him lust orver al. 

— prUTOe] " wherever truth is tested, I will be secu- 
rity that he will not be found wanting ; I i^ill answer 
for him, if he be put to the proof, in the matter of right- 

631 ohanoee] It. calzada, Prov. caussada, i.e. Lat. 
calciata, from calx, chalk, prop, the raised lime-stone 
causeway over wet ground; then generally, the foot- 
path in distinction from the carriage road. Our word 
causeway is a mere mistake from the older causey fas 
still spoken provincially), which represents with tnc 
O.E. calsey, the O.F. forms cals6e, caus^, M.F. 

632 saiu m. e manee] under < mercia ' D.C. quotes : — 
kar molt par est fox [fols] ki autre amor essaic, 
k'en cestui n'a barat, ne fausct6, 

ne es autres n'a ne merci, ne manaie. 

Rom. de Tr. 1073 • 

trop par esteit li estors fiers, 
et sanz manaie, et sans merci. 

The word occurs in O. F. also under the form 
menaide, manaide, and this gives the origin, \Az., Lat. 
* manu adjutare', to help, and so to support, spare [cf. 
Rom. de Tr. 10696 ne Troylus pas ne manaie, he does 
not spare], hence Prov. manaya is rendered by RajTi. 
IV. 143 * merci, discr6tion ', quoting * en la sua man- 
aya ', * at her discretion'. For the compound, cf. main- 

534 huter] M. F. bouter, Ital. buttare, Sp. Pg. botar, 
to fling, from M.H.G. bOzen, to push ; whence F. botte, 
a thrust and bout, the butt-end ; with deriv. -on, bouton, 
the part thrust out, the bud. From bout, we have the 
adv. de'bout, ' on end ', and aboutir, to end in. 

636 80 onrooel from the noun curuz (544), Prov. 
corrotz, which Diez takes to contain the same deriv.- 

suffix as in Ital. corruccio for coler'tucio ; bat Uiii 
seems improbable, as there is no other instance of sodii 
change as Ital. uccio s F. ms, Prov. otz. I take 
corruccio and Fr. curuz to be totally distinct. Littrl*! 
corrupti-um from comimpere is certainly nearer the 
phonetic, but the meaning is not satisfactory. Perhaps k 
has been influenced by a connexion with cor ind rupbu^ 
cf. * heartbroken' . DC. ouotes from an ItaL stat (ann. 
1269) : — " quod nemini liceat levare corruptmm sea 
plangere alta voce propter mortuum " ; tfie vuleat 
emotion of sorrow might become that of angtr^ dL tlK 
changes of meaning in courage (179). 

540 menee] cf. Rom. de '^ie ^^2 : — 
haster nos covient cest anbire, 
ik quel que chief en deions traire 
o seit del faire ou del lessier. 

Vie de St. Thorn. 105, b. c : — 

un itel visiun li aveit deus mastr^, 

qu'ilsout certainement, (s*il dist sa gciit]mv6e^) 

^ quel chief la parole sereit le jar fin6e. 

643 mue] Lat. mutare ; Mod. F. nas displaced thb 
word by the commercial changer^ It. cangiare, camlmR, 
from Lat. cambire. Ital. uses mutare and cangiaR 
indiscriminately, but in the peninsula, the modem usage 
keeps them distinct : thus Portug. cambiar is onlyuied 
of commerce or navigation, barter, exchange, change of 
^-ind, sails, &c. ; whue mudari& the genersd term. 11k 
phrase here used, 'muer la culur ', is very common in 
O. F. Sec, cf. Old Sp., Alex. Mag. k 23 cambiosHi k 
color € files todo demudando ; and Portug. still uses 
demudarse, for * to change colour '. We have another 
common phrase in Aub. 296 Deu vus a mu6 le enrage; 
cf. Chas. d' Orl. (Rayn. IV. 281) :— 

bien me revint son gradeux langaige 
et tost muey mon propos et coraigg. 

Mod. F. has lost the wora, save in muer of the 
moulting of birds, Aub. 1005 cum tins ostms mn6; 
whence mtu, of the cage or enclosure for birds dmiiif 
the moulting season, our mew, ** the place in which the 
hawk is put during the time s^e casts, or doth change 
her feathers " (quoted in Dyce, Shak. Gloss.}, and to 
mew up in confinement. It has left its trace mofeofcr 
in Moa. F. in the compound re-muer, to change one^i 
place frequently, to move, &c. 

646 kej ** who hast abandoned (all) that thj noble 
ancestorsneld dear " ; cf. 552 ore croiz ke vm prechant 
un tafur, now thou believest (all) that an impostor goes 
about preaching. 

— gentil anoesnr] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 6737 : 
ne folw his gentil ancestor that deed is. 

648 liyres] ' to give up', Lat. liberare; as to make 
anything free, means < to let it go', to give it up. The 
meaning of the Latin word can only be e x pressed ia 
Mod. F. by the compound di-livrer^ whete the other 
Rom. langg. have the simple verb ; we have oar Uvtry 
from the F. livrie, used specialljr of the dress fomidied 
to various officials by the authorities. 

649 11 grant e 11 mennr] cf. 746 jovre e vid ; 1765 
veil e enfant ; r84i veillant e meschin; 1067 jone e 
enchani; a very common expression, cf. in imitation 
of the O. F. romances, the Mod. Gk. romance of &n- 


b^oi fed. WagDer), J6au/ia0ai- o! itflpuwoi /nrpoi rt 

650 Btft d>} Tor the constnicticn, cf. Rom, ite Tr. 
6S76 qui molt €St -rages dts set arz, 

— uoise] I luTc given this in Gloss, is = ' learning', 
bot DC, sub voce, 'apprenticiatus' (= drocinium, 
appmiissji^) qnoles : — "ponneu qo'il ait servi Itois 
ons en bonne afrrise", "se u e&t filz de majstre, et de 
tadtcie aprinse, il ne paiera (]»e la moitii de ladicie 
anse"; and perhaps ' apprenticeship ' would have been 
Deant the meaning. As alaw-lcrm, a^prisia in M.L. is 
defined ; ■■ mandatum quo jndex supenorfonrani senten- 

ijfpriifi : • appiendie ' cipi 
\-ul^ar ose of learn for leaL-n, 
£51 detUM 

iresses both ideas ; cf. o 

oflhe impft. subj. is based on 
lie apodosis of the form of 
the rerb in the protasis [wliieh here is omitted, Lc., 
"if you wtie what might lie eipeded from you"]. 
Tie rabj. ofien remains, even when the protasis has the 
indie., cf. Rabelais HI. 6, wnsy, si I'annee secunde 
itttytitt en gnerre occiz, lenr nom et annes reitast a 
Iran enfans. 

— minorj cf- Chaoc. Cant. T. 1 1 76 : 

o Teuta quern, thy wifely chastite 
to able wyves may a mirour be. 
TUs fbrm mireur, Prov. mirador, = a Lat. mirator, and 
■honld denote T3iber the looker ^f. in an opposite di- 
rectioii, Ififin, for the fye'\ i M. F. has miroir = LaL 
inm. The tenuination -ivr is only uscdin Aub. 
u of agency; boiseur, changeur. conquesteur. cu- 
lt, cmpeieur, cngiimur, fableur, pecchur, pre- 
cbent, uuTCur. And even here, miteur is referred to a 

653 talto] this foreigri word is early glossed; "Iha/ur 
(«ieeiitilesdictmtnrqiuisnosjyHi/annei[v. r/winrj 524] 

and Rw.. and (till eiists in the peninsula, Sp. lahur, 
eifdalned by Covarruvias as a confirmed gambler, ■ el 
(joe conltniu niodio el juego ' ; Pg, has sa/ul, profes- 
iwnal gamblef, cheat fthe fern, tabula curiously enough 
loeans a cofuttr*]. The word u probably of Arabic 
ndKin. bot iisr«ot is not known, Kayn. V. 194 derives 
It Irom AiBh. daJiur, which does not exist ; Engelmaon 
fann John, which is abo objectionable, because Arab. 
4 doe» not become Romance t. (It is singular that the 
nxH ibonld not be fortheoming. for the form is distinct, 
■Ad ibe meaning is cvnainly ' gambler '.) 

5S3 imiTM] uUy occurs here, and 164 ; it means 
'dcrdict', 'fiMlom'. We have it in tivi/ : 'vaivae 
m' (DC) ue objects ■ quae niillius proprietati attributo, 
(tee poneaoru reclamattone, sunt inventa '. Thus, 
tu t wdiii E to oar O. E. law, a woman could not be out- 
Laved. Kthgata, • quia ipsa non est sub lege [instar viri 
ID letfem Don jnralnr}, imyyari tamen bene potest, et 
pni SertlKia haberi ; est ernm Tpayi'ium quod nullus ad- 

vocat nee princeps earn advocabit nee tuebitur, cum 
fuerit recte wayviata," Bracton ; v. Grimm's Rechts-alt. 
738, ) 10. Tlic word is probably of Teutonic origin : 
(A. -Sax. fofian, to hesitate ?} 

654 htanwi] means evidently ' has fled away, gone off'; 
we have biller {= s'enfcirl given in the suppl. to DC, 
but I never met the word elsewhere, to my knowledge. 

— leOBgie] as in F. p-renouille, g has been prefixed 
to the r of Lai. ranucula, so perhaps this tene-gre is for 
tene -re, from tenc -btae ; Sp. tinie -i/as, Portug. Cmvu, 
(for te -vras = telnelbras). In Rom. de Tr. 19144 =el 
jor n'cst pis li dels lenergn', sans rccessei venla et plul. 

655 ^pUz] perhaps no other animal has so many 
different names in the Rom. languages and dialects: 
(Dicz gives a dozen which have no etymological connex- 
ion with each other). Prov. valp, and Wallach. 
vulpe, have preserved the Lat. vulpes ; Old Sp. gulptja, 
O. F. goupille [also masc. goupil, as here), are from a 
dimin. vulpecula ; preserved in M. F. in goupillon (fox- 
tail), bottle-bmsh, though the old ^^1? has been ex- 
changed for Renard through the celebrated satire, in 
which O.H.G. Regin-hart (^ strong iu counsel) was 
the proper name of the fox. 

659 folagfl] a very common suffix in French (even from 
verbs, arrosage), courage, ftomage, carnage, &c., all 
mosc. ; formed from -atiatm, after the model of the 
Latin word viaticum. It. viaggio, Fr. voyage, Sp. 
viaje |T)Ul Pg. viagem is femin., for Portug. has 
nssunilated all such nouns, cairuagem, linguagem, 
&c., to the Latin fem. forms in -ago, -aginis^ In 
marage (183), we have an example of its rare use in adjj. ; 
there being hardly any other instance than the original sUvaticu!, which, however, is found in all the Ro- 
mance, It. selvaggio, Sp. salvaje, Portug. salvagem 
[better selvagem], Fr. sauvage, Prov. salvatge, Wallach. 
silbatic [though Diez II. aS8 says this form is not 
found in Wallachian]. 

667 ft fBuMS] the only instance in Aub. of this pre- 
dicative use of a with an adj. 

— k'il out] ' in that he was afraid, it is clearly seen, 
that {his doctrine) was found to be false'; cf. 241, 1088, 
where the indie, is of course used. It seems better to 
explain this adverbial clause 'k'il oat poiir', as an 
elliptic case of a substaativiied adj. clause, " it appears 
[from this, that} he was afraid", rather than to lake 
pert absolutely, and ke as introducing a causal danse ; 
"it is apparent that the doctrine must have been false, for 
its preacher was afraid'*. Cf. S]6 tesmoine le element, 
ktk toi est attendant, "the element testifies [by the 
very fact that] it obeys thee ". 

659 aTOUe] Lat. advocatus. a defender : from the M. 



it unpos- 

a relauouship, araaxd, M. F. 1 

siblc that the forms from Lat. votum, M. F. vdm, i.._^ 
have become confused with this word ; cf. vow and ainn* 
with M. F. vau and aveu ; and for the vowel -relation- 
ship in noun and verb, cf. mrxd, but nouer, jeu but 

aword 'quisembleiuisaavenirdagreclvaiiy^f, 


t'auer). From avou4, comes O. F. svoaesun, our ■ ad- 
vowson", to express the relation gf a pniroo to Wschurch- 

661 boiseoilprob. of the same origin ns Germ, host, 
O.H.G. b3si, from a Teutonic root baHsi, whtace Prov. 
bausia, lul. hugia, O. F. boiiie. There is another O. 
F. vord of siinUar import, roisie, voisdie. but which is 
oltimately coonecled with Lai. vilium. 

663 wllle] the Prov. sulha, sow, ii derived from a 
Lat. su-cola, to which F. souille may nbo be referred, 
(cf. gTBOoniUe from ranuciiU), hence suvUUr. " " — 

^...^ owallo* 

in filth like a pig, lo defile. Or perhaps the verb is from 
a Teutonic source, cf. Goth, ii-iai^jan, to defile. 

cil oisel eit mnl encumbrer 
qui loille sun demeine ni. 
Mar.deFr.n. J28: 

mes aim qo'od ax fust repairiei 

— an ohef de tni] a very common phrase : cf. Rom. 
de Tr. 1333 :- 

essait s I soot ja plosor 
qui (urent moil au chief de lor. 
GflS oonqnestcnr] M. L. conguislus had a much 
wider meaning than might be iofetred from our * con- 
quest': it came lo denote even a rightful hereditary 
possession. Here it seems to mean, 'landholders', 
grandees, patricians. &c.. ns the result of their having 
been 'cooquerois'. 

— U] owing 10 a very onusunl omission of the verb 
in a scries of co-ordinate relative clauses, we have to 
supply yurent from the following line. But even then 
the coUocation is veiy awkward, as the caesura must 
comeafter fnrent in 564; the rime most bear (he blame. 

68? sunt entendaitj Ihb periphrastic ose of the 
pres. plcp. with eslie, u common in Aub., but is mainly 
oiriog lo the eiigenctea of the rime ; cf. 816, 8*9, 832, 
i\zA, 1118, it37, :f43, iij», 1177, 1178, 1194. 

606 la pajnr] ' you will be none the worse of il ' ; the 
pecubarconslructioQ, wilh the obi. form &, aeems owing 
to the phrase, 'aver lepejur", to have the worst, where 
le pejur is grammalicilly correct, 

668 drapens] II. drappello; M. L, had very early, 
di»ppus; 'si quis nllcro per mano aul per drappo iratus 

giserit'. The word is perhaps of Teutonic origin; 
iei quotes trabo from a gltBs. of lii. cy., meaning 
'fimbria, extrenia pars veslimenli', whence possibly the 
word was transferred to signify the cloth itself. [Qj. is 
the word really Irabo. or a mistake for trado, our 
threadf] Here the word means simply M. F. draps, 
cf. "Ton ne connoisi pas In gent au drapeau". 

— unit] the 3 sg. pres. subj., while dropping the 
inflective e, preserves the final t, thus aint from amer, 
autfrom ater; [Jlst from aider, doinat (59?, 660, 1218, 
1711) from duncr, with inserted j, v. note on 399;] 
sam m jaS, 933; cf. Rom. du Ren. IV. 602 etjou le 
doins cai ou'il anuiti Mali. Altfr. xi. 30, ne m'cn 
proit nus; ibid. xii. 14, n'ai quim'en consent. 

■ — pnur] " fling away thai dress, — Icl nol Ibe fillby 
thing hurt you!" cf. Vie de St. Thom. i 85, 4: 

tmitez denst bien estre S mult gnmt deshomn, 
gcler en mi pnlel q en greimior puor. 
Rom. de Tr. 33 T: 

de la puor des con porrii 
_ . ... — ..-J ep^(^ji|j_ 

Ibid. 136S9; 

■5 (airs) esl pleins de jiaan 

from Lai. 'pulerc'. to stink, so puaot (66] 1 tiit lir- 
mination -ur is not very common in F. from adj], m! 
ptcpp., we have in Aub. irur 544, baudur 558, (oi'tr 
574, dufur 5S0, hisdm' (i*) 570, and there aie protulN> 

S70 hisdni] I am very dnbious as lo this line, fm !^f 
MS. has dun e as ; I have given duoc for dnni ai \-- 
nearest approach I could make : — 'whence tboa lii> 
fright ' ; ihe phrase aver kisdur, to be terrified, ii lum- 
mon enough; cf. Vie de SI. Thorn, ros, II:— 

quant il esguardeil si le hanap tut entur, 

e vit le vin si irubU qu'i! en out gruil hisdm. 
Trisl. I. 115; 

tel saut feistes qu'il n'a home 

de Costentin enlresqu' i Rome, 

se il le voil. n'en ail hisdor. 
The word 'hisdur' has no congener in Ihe tisui- 
langnages. so that ils origin must be tougbt oa tbe 
basis of its two O. F. forma, hiide. and hide, vbtaee 
adj. hisdeux and hideux, our 'hideovE*. If Ihie j llta- 
scrted, the O. II. G, egidl (borrcr), contracted toW 
eide, ide, hide, may be the clyinoD. Or, tti orl^ 
might be Lat. 'hispidus', hispidosus, bytheominka^ 
the medial ^1. (cf. -sad in manssade Imm ia-pt^n/); 
the meaning here, however, is not veiy suitahk, ibI 
perhaps itsoccurrence solely in F., denotes a Keltic origia. 
671 gabber] It. gahbo, gabbore, to mock ; OU Sp. 
gabar-se ['tanraro en nueitro idioma como frtcntalt 
en el P. de Alejandro ', Sanchez]; meant 10 bout, uul 
Portug. slill uses the word gatar of sarcastic pfaae. 
The origin is prob. O. Norse gabb, mockery, jtaMo. ;o 

676 ertnr] our O. E. and provincial iUra-rt ; v 

eitont. It. stormo ; from O. H. G. Sturm. Poitnt ■■ 
has eslournr, to break with violence, vfoum, aaSi. 

677 duTsinB] Prov. dereiran, conespfiniling. lu : 
Lat. form derttraitus, (de retro,) the farther eitoska 
of which, dmtran-arius is the origin of the Mud. f. 
<iri'n-i>r .- O. F. darrein-er (Aub. 1591). Theiloplt 
rttro if. Do\. in use [save in PortBg., where 'veaiicii 
rrtre'means'lo sell with a power ofbuying hiH*']; 
bat, compounded with dt aaA ad, ire h»ve derriin lai 
arriire. It. di-elro, with the omission of 1^ tniuil r 
In Rom. de Tr. we have the word doubly coiopoandoL 
de-deratn (7051). 

— prenmr] the unscltlednws of the gcDds- rfm 
tuin words in M, F., e. gr. amoMr, has its counlei;>' 
in the fact that the deriw. in -i>r we femin. in Fm- 
but masc. in Ital. and Span., with considerable (u- 
lions be^des; e. gr. tlie fern. Lat. arbor a Uwan. <~ 
Portug. arvore, and Ilal. arbare, but masc. in Fr. ariti. 



WKflkfftd br J< 


i Span, mwhci; cdmre b 

iCir^ bat femia. m Fr. [cemlaa'\. and Pata^. ::m-i. 

ia«« marked tbe gmkit a( xbt Aah. savms si >; 

cudiug to tbc best d bt dbsesnucns ob 

O. F., bat OB bjr DO xbbss satis&ed is r 

hs wcrtl B odtsDUT Ksnnoe in lif 3d. F. viiut it 

malb^ nKiBf tbe fint frnixs cf tbe teuooL bm cL tbe 

M'— "*c bne of Hbk. Ackcrmasn. "cn isr. d ssaa. 

I pftflMor CH eiQUHC u 

"^ " * core. frcBD Lai. raakrcv. mikciczkeftf, 

ia tbe iCBse oT tbe M.F. nmnof, 
ooonDooh' used in lif . L. for itsl, 
mP'T'" • ▼. ]if cndofi s {.Iobl. IB bs winiop of Troalii&. 

i7I Id] appofCBthr for ke. **tbere » bo cme u vise. 
IPC^ BMf af B BOC MjaMLtiiBe& seoooeo **. 

§77 teliiML pnaar] ran are aestber tbe last B:<r 
te fine, wbo bas been 'deoenvd : all aert liable i :> lie- 
gmH^ nappnn ; bat jon ess ictiatje luiu sieps and 
HpeBt of foar p^t foDr. 
581 tint] tbb mst be aoc. pL. bot it i> tbe ooh- 
n. basBOttbe final ixaobL caieof tbe phh- 
m tbe test are tencs e d ter frrini 
I fi£g c baiUto e t6r ; tboo^ cnst is so rarefy osed 
ifter (17.787) its aoan, tbat perkap - grant fiez * af'Gk>s&. 
bbcctcr: t^cs^cil^ I l^raat Mc rba^rat etor. 
887 mtaBV] Lat. grmmdwr; of tbe fire com- 

paiatjics. ve baiv in Anb. 
547; ■Kav549: pcjor 5^: auZ^acr cDrkxulr does 



•mIIhA of tbe rest of tbe poem: in placse of jxjr osoal 
BOfBli, tbcre m jnvif, whicB viO be best fdt br reading 
$89. $9«« 599. 603, 60^608, 609. 613, 614, 618. 
BCCie m tbew fiaei. it nl be seen, is tbe saaoe as 
fa Ibc few Freacb rawt* gpm m tbe Pre£Ke in tbe 
MBOMt of Ibc MS., of wbicb tbe Sollovinc tvo maT be 

Aabiapor aioi 
k'alme fnf s iht i mabainae; 
■Mat sani cb Bivttainoe. 
1b 589^61^ tbe inner riaetsvaBting.battberbTtbm 
iilJbaiMBB. The renuBBinf tines exbibit tbe saaoe freedom 
■hanif aolioed (▼. BoieoB I). To regolariBiebT addition 
B^iiBBblniitoicBOfeO. F. usage. Now and tbcn it 
bo ^Hlr caij : iaaert nm before qoor 590 ; in 
; ar hUmt pimr and en before a. Sec. But otber 
iCMt sack a metbod: e. gr. 692, wbere, 
r« Ike beats are plata cnoogk : — 
edist: aab! 


pRt. of * geiadre*. from Lat. ge^trt^ cf. 
iBjah i BUL , eraindrg^ Lat. ti e n ieie . In 
f7f9 wilBfl W Murfro Bi rme mkrt [ stiB presenred m F. 
LbL nsdfaDciCt wUdi as a verb bas disappeared 
F. Tkc stroBf farm gfindrt bas beea trans- 
fa If. F. ialo a weak vnb of tbe tir coojogatioo 
; c£ alio tbe new formatioD imprimer. 

5U qnBV * ibe coSkxaokn is pecnfiar, tbe qoestsoB 
bring cridrntV : - qnms est pins baat. b creators a sae 
cxancT •" 

5M Qiote' Sp. P^. .-sni^r. Old It. 4-ywtery, Wallacb. 
ruressL. frntm LsL cctjn^are : bencein di£Rerent directions 
rf nwrar.Tnp. >7 . ruidadxi^ carci. aaxietT, bat F. oatre- 
rmr.anrr It. tra-<>Liianza. prcmmptkm. 

5[i5 puaie' It- fiirail&. Prrr. paranla. frtna parabola. 
'rmJ^aSt^*^^ : Span, and PnmLf. bare traasfXHwd tbe 
brnids^ :i&i2.iirs. palarra. 'paTixvcr'. so pdardotn <36t) for 
widarinxL esmcua loo fee elmosa. In ItaL and F., 
parlaTT and parkr are ibe terms in ordinarT ase. bat Sp. 
paKa*-. 1*1^. psJr-er anh" mcin 10 chaiUr. On tbe otber 
haTii. to 2a.> 1* ex;iircs«*d \*y Sp. (kahlsr, Pg. fmUmr^ 
frnm L^. laliclan. vbicb bas otgcutja ted in 1^. into 
kir'.'r^. ::• itncnre. brag. AH tbe Rnaanoe langg.. bow- 
e^trr. hive b»arrcnred this word ^onaMia. to nae instead 
cr tbe canrmirrd * mlnuii '. esoept WaDacbian. in wkicb 
r.iTM means vard^. vbDe speecb. disccane, is ratber 
rurJKT : tlins a hu cxrmrol. « prendre la parole, bat vorba 
sin:, ibei- are mere '■•ords. 

5M JOM] if this be the phiral of tbe indef. proa., it is 
very nmusaal. DC. qaotes from Rom. de Garin : en 
unrs bmes arost les pa^ boat^ It b coamMB eaoagk 
in I Span, and Portng.. vbere mdeed ttms di8cjs from 
a/fwu. jnst in being absotatdr ^rasd of aar drfinilfwcas . 
T^is seems to be tlw iatcatioa bere. 

800 iiiBiHiir a coamMB ad^ob, cf. Vie de Sl 
Tbom. 167.12 si dul en langar g i c ^us e i 
Mar. de F. I. loo bele estcit 1 

e se fist apderrei, 

e fist ntnge e grant deaci ; 

roba avoir i desmesare 

sanxniettf e saaaj 

808 iqpinMe] perhaps aa error for emetitable ; at 

leasttbefona. if cxirrect, slKMddieoreseataLat. spaabibs 

(Mrgfl's codi spirahde laaKa), wbick voaldaoC foiaisk 

— BOttoj Lat. mitidMS, It. nttL\ Sp. mrta, li. F. mt^ 
WaDacb. n^ui^ all vitb similar meuiiar. bat Portag. 
ludto taedio' oahr aieaas sleek, wdl-fod. cbabby 
[Horace's *pingnem et aitidam 'J. 

807 fleockinij Lat. flcctcre. witb altered ooajag. ; tbe 
change of Lat. tt iato Fr. ck n rare, bat oocan ia otbct 
▼erbs also, as cmcktr for co-«ctare, emtf^kfr for im» 
pactare. It is a regular change in Spauik, tbat fiKtat 
becomes kecha, lacte, Ucke^ 8cc. 

808 K. rani, k*A floto trait] cf. Cbaoc Cant. 
T. 4:^: 

what schal as tydea of this new 

bat thraldom to oore bodr and 

and afterward sit Mir i» %ei 

for we rmrvfJ MmJkimmJ oar u e aam e ? 
8KoeiCllflllMl prob. for -sarcame*. mmmtmrnfti^, jibe, 
scoff : a« defined m tbe Lersd* amors fRata. V. 15$ ) : 
**sarcasmos vol dire ajrtaa coou maladigi o TiLaBia 
qa'om dits ad alcaaa penoaa per eacarafaBCB **. 

817 rioti f Borataraj tbe firat of thb alraBee pair 
«rio(*, has no soluble ct y ip u tegy; tbe aeoond fa horn 
Lat. natnre« bot tbe predae mcaaing of tbe two to* 



gether, I do not know. Riolc certainly means * quarrel- 
someness ', cf. Rom. de Mah. 456 : 

il est adi^s plains dc rihote, 

chascun jour plus et plus assote. 
where the Editor renders it by 'humcur chagrine*, which 
is not strong enough. And nourriture means some- 
times 'education', so Lafontaine, Fab. VIII. 24, la douce 
nourriture fortifiant en Tun cctte heureuse nature. 
Possibly * riotous living as men, owing to bad early 
training*, may be taken as a paraphrase. 

618 ordurej dcriv. of O. F. adj. ord, ort, filthy, from 
horridus. Cf. the commercial term peser ort, to weigh 

Burguy I. 253 : 

car en la boe et en I'ordure 
et en la borbe de luxure, 
Tavomcs nos tot prov6 pris. 

619 adanture] * for the foal hardly forgets what he 
learns when he is being broken in'; domare is the 
special word in Ital. and Pg. for breaking in a 
horse, &c., hence domitare, dompter, O. F. danter, 
our 'daunt'. 

— pulein] Lat. *pullus*, already used in Pliny, 
* pullini dentcs ', of the teeth of a young coit, 

618 k'1 is this for ke or ki? So far as the sense goes, 
it might DC either; and if the former, cither the nominal, 
or causal. There are thus possible three translations : 
I, = kif [referring to an antecedent vus, to betaken out 
of 'zw» maus', 617], 'I spoke to him about you, who 
have always been &c.* \ 2 ^ ke causal, *for you have 
&c.* ; l^ ke nominal, 'I told him, t?iat you have, &c.* 
I have entered it in Gloss, in the last of these three, and 
for this reason : ki is hardly ever* in Aub, elided save 
before *en\ *est\ or '4'. 

620 bruit] It. bruire, Pr. brugirsecm to point to Lat. 
rngire with prefixed b ; but I prefer supposing a \Tilgar 
Latin brugirecocnate with/3pi'»x-> fipvyiioc, &c., because 
we have in all the Rom., an unaltered derivative from 
rugire, M. F. rugir (in O. F. ruir, whence subst. ruit, 
our rut, from the noise which the deer make) ; and 
besides, as It. also has both bruire and rttggire [though 
the former is I believe used exclusively of tne rumbling 
of wind in the bowels, whereas It. ruggito, Sp. and 
Pg. ruido, are used of all sorts of noises in general] ; 
it is improbable that both Fr. and It. would have com- 
mitted the solecism of prefixing an imnecessary b to 
the Lat. rugire, 

621 quant] O. F. often has the temporal particle 

instead of the abstract que with which M. F. intnxlaces 
accessoiy clauses after substantives c^time ; cf. Moliire, 
rEtourdi IV. 9 ii I'heure que je paiie, with Aub. an 
jur quant feste funt. Still more characteristic is the 
omission altogether of any particle ; compare ChatcN- 
briand, 'un temps viendra que tous les hommes se con- 
duiront, &c.', with Aub. 1821, uncore vendra le jar, la 
cstoire ert tnmslat^. But the modem way also ocean 
in Aub., cf. 858, au jur. . . . ki ne urent beii (if indeed ii' 
be here onlv an error for ke, but v. note). 

622 ke] the non-elision of the etk ke^s accus. of the 
rel. pron., is very frequent in Aub. before a following il 
(where alone the non-elision occurs) ; cf. 
Mas. sg. 422 ii un Jesu fiz Deu ke il aiira 

S^zke il ad de sun maistre retenn par amar 
622 k Fcbun, deu d'solail ie ii aormnt 
910 le rcgne ii recever keilmd ben mcni 

1099 ke il par martire en tene ben men 

Mas. pi. 1396 ke il avant urent en despit eft 

Fern. sg. 1 1 85 veez ci la croiz Auban ke UtM moiiant 
The coUocation only occurs in the beginning of the boe 
or immediately after the caesura, and the two sylUUa 
arc invariably pronounced. Elsewhere the ke u elided 
before a vowel, except in 830, Ii solailz ke aiimm, wboe 
cudently it ought to be ended, because it cannot be 
pronounced, even for the metre. Of conne, the ke 

527. 557, 9i9» 932, 953, 967. 976,99i, 1048, "16, IM4, 
1388, 1528, 1579, 1630, 171 1, 1738, 1793, 1815; 

elided 1S2, 315, 373, 430, 449, 561. 744, 958, uio, 1581, 
1772, 1803.] 

623 ouirel cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2140: 

and as the gyse was in his contr6, 
ful heye upon a char of gold stood he. 

624 un' image] as image is fern., the MS. wn is etthff 
a mistake, or is intended for un* ; the only other instance 
where the indef. art. fern, comes berore a vowd is 
found in 765, where it is une ewe. 

— ^ it is not easy to see the government of all the 
words m this long loose parenthesis. Apparently «e 
must take the three clausules containing currt^ nAi, 
and image, as so many co-ordinate descriptive rdatin 
clauses : '* it was by chance on the day when they make 
a festival to the Sun-god, whom they propofe to hos- 
our, [and who is represented by]] an image of barnidied 
gold standing in a chariot, holomg a round nby. 

* The following analysis will convey a more defmite idea of the facts. As I am only referring to the nominative, 
there are four series possible, the masc. and fem. sg. and pL, the last of which, however, does not occur. Of the 
rest, in Masc. Sg., we have k' for ki before dr, 458, 478, 741, 1357 ;^ad 511 ;—en 61, 66, 100^ 362, 452, 484, ^ 

608, 659, 1199, 1255, 1259, 1398, 1447, 1508, 1798 ;~-£st 87s, 930, 942 (ert), 953, 1029 ; also before Adam 

655 ; Auban I iCo ; avant 1544. I may note the circumstance that the elision before est only takes place between 
875 and 1029, while the otherwise common elision before en never occurs between 659 and 1199, conseqnentlj 
the same inter>'al, in which also is contained the passion of St. Aracle. (These and other minute details go to 



ll image llicy will all assemble, and pay their 

m uiiiual vows and devotions". 
4 limililllliliii Mill] Lat. limol gives simulare, to make 
. imitate, prclcnd. Sic, whence It. sembrare, 0. Sp. 
MiMir, O. F. sembtct-. giving biilh to It. sembianle, 
Sp. Pg. sembianle, Aab. B17 semblant, likeness, coun- 
lauDC^ (and 598 semblance, eountetieil) ; the com- 
poand assembler stiil lias the piimitive meaning of 
jimKi, as in en-srmi/i, vii., to come together, wMe 
the double comp. laisembler has followed tbe course 
of sembl<Dt,snd ii our 'resemble'. The use of simulare 
fiuthcT in a bad sense, led to the formation of a verb 
fri>ni liMilii, ■ni., II. somigliarc. So. semejar, Fg. 
seme Itar, in ihc sense of ' making like , &c. 

635 sondnintl tf. lUe Roman insctipiion,V.S.L.M., 
= 'vifSum ifl/i'ifubensioerito'. Froto solvere = solfv)re, 
soldrc, soudre. we have a prcs, ist sg. sol, of whicn the 
Picanl. variation iaU gives us our at-toU, (as in O. F. 
je Tous assail de-ioos les pechies que vous oncques 
febtes;) tariooslyused in Q. E., to ossoil ariddle, pain, 
cnor, &c., cT. Spenser's Dapbnaida, 41)6 ; 
md jt, poor ptlgrimes 1 that with restlesse toyle 

Kc triat (" whom) they wili lacrifice', darldy hinting 
at Auban himsell' as the victim. 

830 t»iBant] the subatt. F. train. It, Iraine, Sp. 
trajin, ate eiidently from Lat. traherc, but the I13I. and 
Span, totms would seem to imply a suiSi -itm, and as 
tlus is pot appended (0 verbal stems, Dicz prefeti to 
regard the Ilal. and Span, as loan-words bom Fr. train 
Ua traim a irahim &om Lat. trahinun; cf. nourrain, 
O. F. noorrin, from nottimen, and ^iR [in regain] 
compared vilh It. guaimt for guadimt, [deriv. of 
guadar, from O. H. G. wddo, v. gaionnr 1141]. 
Against Dicz, there is this to be said : the suifii -imm 
which is rare in the other Romance langg., is of quite 
cooamoD nsage in Wallachian : now there ia no trag-im*, 
•o ^ as I know, bat there is a verb Itagana, corres- 
ponding to Ital, tiainare. Sp. tr^jioar. 

S31 dunmt] dis-nunperc; cf. Monloiglon's 
R«cacil, p. 104, li uns sache, li aotres tijci la toilc 
destont et despitce; Kell. Romv. 104. 15, les drss 
trait desions et dessirSs; Alexis 78, ad ambcs mains 
d f lu npt sa blanc« barbe. 

68S aB^ainiUttt] L,it,impiiigcre; soenfreindre [iiifi), 
iM. infnogere; leinte (laoi), teindre, J 
poiment (j6j), poindie, Lat. jjungere ; pl< 
ut. plaosere ; cf. Rom. de Tr. 371 19; 
ficrt et caple, bote et eopeint, 
lot detrenche quant qu'it atelnt. 

6U lUdlt] M. F. n&nt. It. niente, from Lat. ntc 
ttu. Tllis ens, now only known as a philosophieal 
vord, RMUt have existed as a popular word, as it hai 
eJTcn birth to the common absent and prsesens. We 
have the camp, anentir in 1 142, 1454. 

68fi-M3] •■»owland,makeabtidgcofice. [cf.Aris- 
- '. Vesp. 180. XlOof Iijxic, IXtyir: Lady of the 
!, IIL, 18, he who itims a stream with sand, &c. ; 

and see an Exquisite love-song in Legrand's Chansons 
Grecqaes, p. C36, for a list of difficulties to be overcome 
before either lover will yield ;] do anything that is im- 

Sossible, but sooner shall the sea dry up, and the rivers 
ow backwards (ofu roraiioi), than I shall forget 
Jesus for a ship-load of gold, uor for all the men ill the 
world. Nobody, — neighbour, or relative, or fiieod, of 
any sort, can ever do anything, which shall induce me 
to worship devils." 

eS6 graVBle] prob. from a Kj-mric root; cf, Welsh 
gro, as a collective, ■= pebbles, coarse sand. Diex gives 
gni,p\. graveiif) ; Schuchardt (l. lS9,n.) proposes Lat. 
glarta as the origin, thus glarea a ~'~ 1 . :. 

gra-v-ia, grtve; also suggesting a con 
gUra = glarea. We have preserved : 
meaning of the O. F. word, which M. F. has to; , 
gravele is now met onlv as a medical term, though 
gravtUux, gritty, is stiu in use. It wat common 
enough in O. F., cf. Fl. et Blancef., p. 74 r 
au rui^scl dc la foutanele, 
donl de tin or est la gravele ; 
and for the idea, cf. Rom. dc la Violelle, p. ij : 
cil ont en gravde leml 
oil semance ne pent reprendre. 

— Semmet] Ilal. preserresm and n, ieminare, (O.) Fr. 
asBimilates. semmer, Porlug. syncopates the », semcar, 
Span. Iiansforms the final n into r, and then inserts b, 
scrabrar; just so It. nominare, F. nommer, Pg. 
nomear, Sp. nombrar, and cf. the Romance modihca- 
lions of Lat. homijus, — It. uomini, Fr. hemmu, Pg, 
hemtns, Sp. hombres. 

eaBalns,— kel' sooner,— than', with snbj., cf. M5t». 
Altfr. 17.10 : 

taut k'auiai amie, 

mescueii, i'ilrecroieja 
de faire ta coumaadie. 

— raisHQ] dimin. ofO. F. ru, rin, Lat, rirus; in- 
stead of rivulus, the Romance preferred the accented 
-ctllus, so rivicellos, riu-cellas, mi-ssel. The Ital. ru- 
scelio is prob. borrowed from the French ; cf. ru-scello 
with vas-cello from vas-culum, and ramoscclto from 
ramuscnlus, where Ita!. ic= Lat. ic. 

63S dnimimd] from t(iiit»iv, 'genus navicellae velo- 
cissimae' ; DC. quotes from IVocop. : " Ipi^uva^ ta\- 
tiat ri irXora rauro. rXdv jip fitrd rdxof tirayrai 
fiaXiara," hence in Alii. 55,3, par mern'aeocoranl nul 
dromont si isnel; common enough in O.E, dri>mim, 
Mort. Dart. v. 3. 

640 brun] O. H. G. brOn. hence the verb It. bm- 
nire, O. F. Bnmir, bumir (Aub. 47J, 614), oar burnish. 

— btund] a word of uncertain origin : the neatest ap- 
proach seems the A.-Sai. bhnden/eax •> 'mixed hair', 
common in Beovulf.(i59; blondenfeaze gomete,)iuan 
epithet of an old man. Perhaps this mixture of colour 
came to imply the red and while of a/air complexion, 
the roses and lilies of a blonde, as opposed to the 
monotone of a brunette. The phrase was in very com- 
mon use, cf. Barlsch. Rom. u. Past. 175, 39 : 



quant sui en ma chemise, 
je ne truis blont ne noir, Sec, 

643 pere, fast] with these must be supplied de from 
metal : " evil befal such gods as arc of stone, of wood, 
or of metal, for stone perishes and falls to pieces, 
wood bums, and metal melts". 

644 depeoe] this neuter usage (Aub. 254, 652) is 
very common in O. F., cf. Rom. de Brut, 2527 : 

une tormente grans leva ; 

li ciel noirci, li mer troubla. 

li mers enfla, ondc levdrent ; 

wage crurent ct reversirent ; 

nef commencent i p6rillier, 

bort et kidvilles ii (roissier, 

rompent closture et bort froissent, 

voUe d^pidcent et mast croissent. 
645-663] in this rime-band it is evident from respiit 
649, cheriit 655, and delit 662, that the s before the 
final t in the other words was not pronounced ; perhaps 
the iotacism in despiist, respiit, and cheriit, is simply to 
denote the long vowel. The final / was in all probabi- 
lity pronoimced, for we have no case of a pure vowel 
ending being rimed with a /-dosed syllable, and tUit't 
of 662 is our O. E. d^lit, {delyt^ delUe, &c.) 

646 despiist] our despite, Lat. despicere, O. F. de- 
spire ; M. F. has adopted instead m&pfisery preferring 
to depreciate^ rather than merely to look down on, an un- 
worthy object ; but the looking down is apt to degene- 
rate into tne curtailed sfite. The 3rd sing, nere, (cf. 230 
despit, where it certainly is pret.») is perhaps pret., 
but I have given it in Gloss, as prcs., because in Aub. 
the two forms are usually distinguished, thus dire 
(= dicere), has alwavs dit (= dicit), and dist (= dixit). 
The necessities of tne rime have apparently troubled 
the forms; thus in 651 batist, obeist are not pret., 
(which is bati 234, obei^, and batist would be a curious 
present; enpeinst ougnt to be pret. I have given 
obeist, enpemst, and batist in Gloss, as impf^. subj. 
forms, but enpeinst in that case should be enpeinsist ; 
anl perhaps tnc^ arc all present. 

649 lores] this is the only line [except 1203 Amphi- 
bal lors gettc,] in which lores, lors, does not stand at 
the beginning of the line and clause, and even here it 
is immediately after the csesural pause. 

— respiit] our respite from respectus, very commonly 
used in M. L. to denote 'delay' ; DC. ouotes : ' si in- 
veniri non poterant, mensis et unius diei respectum 
habcbant act cum inveniendum *. 

651 pens] pi. of pel (1606, peel 1600, 1603,) ^ni 
Lat. palus, preserved in M. F. supplice du pal^ our 
im-paUt and the deriw. pal-is, pal-isser, pal-issade. 
From the diphthongated piel, Diez and Scheter explain 
the ordinary M. F. word for stake, pole, viz., pieu, but 
I think it is preferable to derive /{Wi from a formpicu' 
lus, lUpicckio; then vieu: veclus = pieu : pidus ; 
it is true that the i in picus is kept in all Romance 
deriw., but then we have splculum, espieu, 6pieu, which 
is exactly the same. 

— bastnxis] prob. from a popular Latin word dastum, 
pack-saddle, (connected with jSaffraf, Paffr^litv, to 
carry, support ; we have bastagia in the early codes. 

and cf. bastema, sedan-chair, of Am. MaiQelfimis, Atk 
cy.), hence It. basto, M. F. bdt; with siiff.-«i, U. 
bastone, F. bastmi, b&ton, stick, as a support; with 
sufT.-afuf, bastard, fils de b&t, ' child over ue hatck*. 
The same root has given It. bastire, F. bAtir, and tbe 
deriw. bastion, bastule. 

[Other deriw. such as Ital. bastare, to suffice, M. F. 
bdier, our baste, to take long stiches, (amd the wd 
baste, employed in cooking meat, or cod^dfing a fie^ 
son,) seem too far removed from the ndicil "»***M''«g 
to bear this reference.^ 

657 fbrflst] Lat. fons fado, to oatleap the boirads of 
right conduct, F. forfiuze, pp. for-lait, which has eivcB 
our forfdt ; for the meanine, cf. tnms-gredior, and abo 
Goth. /rs'tfaiirkfan. The une is to be taken as ptren- 
thetic : " He who loved Adam so mnch that He made 
him like Himself, (thonrii still Adam went astny 
through the treachety of ue serpent,) sent down froai 
heaven His Son." As 'forfaixe "snn fief' mesas 
to forfeit one's fief, we might render here, 'he fot^ 
feitcd his privileges in the divine resemblance', &c 

659] the line as it stands in the MS. cannot be rigjht: 
du is quite impossible; grammar and xhythm seem 
restored by reading d'ufu for dm, and jatAdaf it to 
the words *k'en terre char', so that the fine would nm: 
<sun fiuz k'en terre char d'nne pncele prist.' 

661 poisanti] It. possente, M. F. pninant, finned 
from a barbarous ptcpial fonnpassens, possentis, on the 
analogy of ens, entis. Span, and Poring, hsfc fixmed 
their adj. from the inf., poder-oso^ [thoogfa Fg. (not 
Sp.) has also an adj. possanie, from a verb /Mjisr oat of 
the siibst, posse ;"] so Wallach. hsA putgr^niCt ^rith its 
peculiar suff. ^nic, borrowed from Slavooian. 

664 espldter] from espleit ='LAt. expjjdtnm ; eiplicare 
is found with the sense * to complete', Q'liny, 'depwqoo- 
que felidter explicui', and cf. the M. JL. 'ezplkit' atthe 
end of MSS. to denote the completicm,) hence b to eie- 
cute, achieve, (a military exploit ; in jnaidnl pioc e dui c, 
a writ, — cf. *signifier un exploit', 'to serve a writ';) snd 
so generally to 'succeed*. Fhmi this root, Fortng. hai 
its espreitar, to spy, watch ; cf. also the M. F. cilai- 
sion of usage, exploiter (une mine, des bois, &c) 

— par tantl not e M. F. *ponrtant, howeicr', 
though it would make good sense here, aiiid is so vsed 
in O. F., but rather a thereby, by all those eflbrts ; d. 


1562, where it could not mean 

666 ohaesnes] for the inserted s, (enchaesnca 670^ and 
M. F. chalne,) v. note on 375 ; diaene » Lat catcns, 
Sp. cadena. From a dimin. caielbts (*■ catonhs), 
we have cadel, cadeau, prop. writing*floiirisli, hcBoe 
ornament, accessory, ana so ^ift, nsed pecnliaiiy ia 
Molidre's time, «■ * cmer en partie de campagne, dont on 
r6gale quelqu'un'. By sufF. -^ we get chda-OB, 
chaignon, chignon, 

667 ponssej this is not the nsnal finm of the pNs. 
subj., which has generally t before the s, JpoisKtt), 
puist, puisse] ; in Aub. we have oS (here)^ m (p^san 
1 299), and »f (puissez iu6). 

668 seat] in this word, and in dent 589, Teat 1239, 
we have eu = el (d) with vocalised ^(solet, dolet); 
but in puetf [always so written in Anb.j, ii# is for^ 



with fwit^ttf^ final dental of the root, as is well seen in 
Ibe J pi. Tolcnt (i6s6), but po£nt (664). 

9W pot] prob. a more mutake tarpuet, [unless /»j/ 
(672) were possible;] 'angoish which can soon pass 
away ' ; s'en passer » s'en aller. 

— tost] It. tosto, Old Sp. tost, toste. Old Portng:. 

' tosto, M. F. tdt, (bientdt, tantdt, plutdt, anssitdt) . 
seems inclined rather to the deriv. from tot-dto 
[totofl dtns], comparing tont-ft-rheore, but the difficul- 
tiei in the wav 01 the phonetic [to-st ^ to^t)c*to,] are 
kmdlj icmovea by the example ra It. amifta for amiri- 
taa, mlesa all the langg. bonowed the word from Ital., 
which IS improbable. 1 prefer the natural deriv. from 
tostaip P^- ^ torreo; cf. torrens, ■ rushing, rapid, 
(hmdlj ever used in the sense of A«a/). For the transfer 
of meanof, cf. Ital. fntta^ « haste, with om friction^ 
If. F. fioCter, firOler [« frotler], from Lat. fricare, 
(bktwj torab. 

§71 Mtonoel onr distress, M. F. d^tresse, Proy. 
detntsMt l uba faonn formed from districtisre (v. note 
on 56), from stringere ; for the idea, cf. an^oisse from 
^' tigh tn ess. The termination -^sce, is not from 
1 aaflb, (ItaL has dis-i^iV-esza,^ nor is it to be 
as de^rict-ia, for the suff. -in is not added to 


— giholwl from^u«£r (gaol), deriv. by suff. "Ola from 
pmaa, M. F. ca|v, for which It. has gaMfia, Prov. 
,— with the sn&x. It. gabbtuob, Portug. gaiola. 
0d to regard the O. F. gaole, jaiole, &c., 
for (ca)jeole, [cf. roogeole from rubeola, and 
scfcsM, a. cenele (1267^ for Lat. coc-cihella,] 
in cafoUr^ whereas tnjdler is from the short 
iarm jMr, which was borrowed b^ Span, as jaula^ 
mfmmmr, (b«t POrtng. engaioUr). in Aub., this inser- 
tion of A in the ga-h?oler does not occur elsewhere, nor 
the diphthong 00, except in aorer, 694. 

6Ti lit] Lat. adjntns, It. ainto, Sp. ayuda, O. F. 
Ch. de R. ainde 13^, atue 2303 ; but there grew up 
* » a not her form with omitted v. It. alta, O. F. aide, 
nir. In the modem langg., Ital. aititaneand Wal- 
u mfmia lune jnesaw e d the tenuis: the others have 

ifSohlrtn] Lat. career, Ital. Portug. carcerc. Span. 
PkOT. ctfcer ; Ibrlr • Lat. cr iu F. chartre, cf. 

I (1148) • Lat. irinc(e)re. 
§77 YiMil] fem. fbnn of O. F. vaissel, our vessel. 

F. vaisMan, It. vascello, Sp. bajel, Portug. baixel, 
LnL irascrllnm ■• vasculum, where Wallach. has 
m LiC Tasc4olinn, but Uie simple xhu is also 
•ndcnote 'ship*, and the pi. vtue ■ M. F. vaisselle. 
— bvtoUtar] omr butler, but Chaucer still has the 
tffisyllabfe, cC Cant. T. 16220: his biker ind his 
b6lclfr ab6. It is a deriv. of butuille, our bottle, It. 
Sp. botija, from M. L. ImtiaUa, by dimin. 
a foot boit, widely spread in the signification 
of aoaalWng roonded, cask, nask, &c., cf. Gr. 0o6rtc, 
wnlcn-Jnil^ and the group boai; our boitie of hay is 
O. F. hoed, botcan, from Lat. boieiius, dimin. of botu- 
hi, aanaafe. whence also boS, bowel, M. F. boyau ; 
[and ptihapa kBdHtms, (cf. Ital. hMome,) bodinus, bou- 

red by Europe.] 

678 yiandes] from Lat. vivenda in the sense 'things 
to be lived on', eatables, [cf. the words reliable, 
dependable, laughable]. As the Ital. vivonda, Sp. Pg. 
Prov. vi/xnda, lave the vowel a, they prob. took the 
word from Fr. 

— ] after this line should come, I think, 1. 6S3, 
which seems quite out of place ; then we should have 
the parallel clauses : 

!ne beit mais des bons vins gisantz en sun celer, 
n^a mais ddiciuses viandes i manger : 
fcim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner. 
i plume ne i cotun ne i pailles d'utre mer, 
n'a coiltes pointes de soie, rCa mais lit au chucher : 
pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
[The text in 682 is not what it ought to be : I have 
corrected as above.] 

680 manioleB] 'manacles', manicula, from Lat. ma- 
nica, a hand-cuffs, Virgil's 'manicisque jaccntem 
occupat '. M. F. manicle [better manimie'X still has a 
technical existence, of a cobbler's hanaleather, but It. 
manecchia is only used by the country people to denote 
the handle of the plougn. In the sense of 'fetters', 
however, all the Rom. have adopted other deriw., F. 
menottes. It. manette, Sp. Pg. maniota. From mani- 
care, comes F. manier, to handle, (3 Germ, handha^ 
ben) ; cf. the adj. manier, handy, from manu-arius [for 
manvier, as Janvier from januarius,] whence the lioun 
maniire, manere (47^, our manner. 

— buies] Kayn. Lex. Rom. II. 232, ouotcs 'jubet 
compedibus costringi quos mstica lingua ooias vocat '. 
Plautus has it in a pun, Capt. IV. 2, 109 : quoius erat tune 
nationis ? Siculus. At nunc Siculus non est : Boius 
est ; Boiam tent. DC. in Diss. (Na xix. St. Louis^ on 
punishments, treats of these buies. In Diefenbach it it 
glossed 'compes', 'pedica', 'torquisdamnatorum', 'fusi 
j-sen der fancknysz', in which special sense, as foot- 
fetters, it is to be taken here, in connexion with mani- 
des, the hand-shackles. It was a familiar word to the 
trouv^res, cf. an interesting passage in Eschenbach, 
Pardval ($6.17 Lachm^ : 

der zweier vatr hiez Mazadln. 
den fuort em fete m Feimurgdn; m [Fata Morgana] 
diu hiez TerMauhoye : [» Terre de la joie] 
er was ir herzen boye. 
The word has been handed down to us with altered 
form and meaning, in M. F. bom^, our bttoiy, m a floating 
piece of wood, &c., fastened by a chain. For its meaning 
m the general sense of fetteis, cf. Jonrdains, 1 188 : 
se fl noz prennent, nos serons mort i gUive, 
et noz metront en buies et en chartre. 
Chfon. des dues de Norm. 29,^50 : 
en la chartre de C. 
le tint en buies ferliez. 
Conquest of Ireland, 2570 : 

ki sun enemi unt pris 
en b9ies et en avans mis. 
Cf. Scheler in Lemcke's Jahrb. VII. i. p. 71, No. 
10, ** in quorum detrudantur compediti (gl. embuet) in 
roanicis (gl. manides) ferreis positi." Ph. Moiiik. 
8360 en karkans I'ont mis et embuies, which the editor 
has strangely misunderstood, translating embui^ by 

O 2 



it should 

enlace, and Eivirg imbutus as ils derivati 
be in buies, as in Jootdaios quoted above. 
— boas] cT. Vic de St. Thorn. 71. ^4 : 
li prelat dcivent estie li plas cspirilal, 
ne deiveat cbanccler pur rieo de lar esta^. 
cil qui laissent le maot e se tlenent el val, 
boos d'or en gniing de pore sunt ; 
[are ' jewels or gold in a swine's snout ', Chaucer's ■ gold 
lyng in a sowe's nose,' Cant. T. 6367.] 

The word bom is Mplained in Chron. des dues de 
Norm. 7418 : 

aes armiHes, qa'om bDUS apelc. 
is O.H.G. pouc, A.-Sai. beig, O. Norse baugr, 
nGoth. --- ■-- - * ' ' 

ring, aimlet, liiim 
S81 pailleB] the 

Ealea, II. paelia, Sp. 
iss --- ^ - ■'^- 

DailleB] the oiisin of (he M. F. failU is La(. 
II. paelia, Sp. paja, Gtraw, whence als " - ' 
'-- ^ - "-- O.F. word paille, pailt 

whence also F. pail- 
paille, paile, is con- 
nected with Lat. fiallium; cf. O.F. tiglaCan, from 
cyclas, cyclad-it, woman's slaXt-rebt, which came lo 
mean [he j'fHjf of which it was made ; so paille ma; be 
rendered generally slufT, cloth, especially as connected 
with iTutre mtr, rich stuff from beyond (he sea. The 
quilt was commonly of paille, cf. Rom. de Ti. 1543 : 

col(e i ot grant, qui lu de paille, 

one meillor n'en ot en Tesaaille ; 

el lincels blans dolgifs de EeJe, 

ne ijuit que mei nus mcitlors veie. 
For the tnntcnal used, cf. Mar. de Fr. I. 61 : 

d'un drap d'Aufriaae > or tissu 

est la coute qui deoens fii. 
MoDtaigloQ, Recueil, p. 65: 


d'un riche dmp qui fu de sole. 
and Alb. 16S. 25 : 

sour une korte points fourie d'auquelon. 
Teii 'quilt' was 'puncta, pointe' ; LiBiausDesc. 345: 
au descuneu font le lit 

Smques niu horn plus bel vi(,) 
c kuites^oinMt tt mcUet. 
ViedeSt. Tbom. 101. 14: 

li lii esteit apareJUiei 

desru un chaelit qm tut esleit quiriez 

d'une cuille furpointc, d'un poi d'estrain jonchiez, 

e de chiets linges dtai e blancs e deliez. 

682 ooiltes] Lit. culcita, Sp. colcha, O.F. culte, eolte, 
keulte (F. Meyer, Man. de Lang. p. 3S4), caille (our 
"qnilt'), coite, coute, whence M. F. cont-il, 'duck.' 
There was another form culcitra, whence O, Pg., cul- 
citra, O. Sp. culcedra, It. by transposition coltriee, also 
colira, O. F. cotre, and so transformed into O. '£., 
counter-point, our counter-pane, M. F. courU- pointe. 
The denv. culcit-innrn has given M. F. conssm. It. 
cuseino, Sp. coiin, our cushion, Genn. kussen. [v. note 
on 67S for tbe proposed emendation of the teit.J 

684 adST] M.L. acisrium, from acies (ferri), used in 
Pliny = steel, ll. aeciajo, O. Pg. aceiro, Sp. acero. 

693 lltstriMilt] aderiv.lromthevlj.fle5trc(=raded), 
from a fotm Jtaccajter, Lat. flaccus. 

— blet] M.L. bladum. Malum, point to the deriv. 
from Lat. alrtatum 'that which is carried off as the pro- 
duct', It. biado; cf. Germ, getreide, corn, from tragen. 

to carry. From the M. L. bladare, M. F. has em-Ua- 

v-er, [cf. gravir from gradire ;] to sow land with wheal. 
and aJbtayer, to clear away rubbish. 

— Tergar] IjI- Tiridarium ; cf. Alii. 55.11: 
lout si com li vregicr vcrdoient et li pri, 
et ensi com les vigoes Qoiiient et U lile. 
893 IWiB] Il.bosco, Sp. bosquE, M.L. buscn»,prob. 
from Teatonic root bauen, to bnild, Ihrongh O. H. G. 
buTDtic, building (materials). From base- by suffiiH, 
" bonqu-et [for bousquel], It. boicJietlo, 
' " " '--■■- the deriv. em biisqner, 
□1-aie, M. F. hi 
er (785), from cnami 
iare &om JknuZ-on 



where It. has bruciare, I 
Prov. bruiar. 

897 bur] It. badate, M. F. bayer ; DC. qnoin 
badaie from the Isidor. glosses '^ to gape, yawn, lad 
Diez thinks the origin may be the natural n[Ilable h. 
expressive of the opening of the mouth. Thence the 
word came to mean to wait for, be on the watch (ti, 
stare a bada). desiie eameslly. Here plainly it mmu 
opening the mouth wide for breath. As denv. we hare 
It. bad-igliare. O. ¥. baailler, M. F. biiller to javn, 
so also badaud, badin. 

Ss in M. F. pant-eler). If from Kymric 
iez suggests, it can hardly be from ilie met 

pressioQ,' because the Welsh word paMu simply roeins 
concavity, hollow, dimple; it may Bnaply meu ifi( 
opening of ihe mouth, in yawuiog. putting, in wkicb 
case a conneiion with Lai. pand.o, might be saspe^itd. 
Schelar gives Willacii. faxtaixar [?], which stemi 
against the Keltic origin. 

eee fa doel b1 cf, our O. Z. usage. Chauc. Cant. T. 
2880, therwilh he weep that pity was lo hear; 4818 
wonder is ■-■-"- " t^ A (. . . . ;_ ;. 

be weep that pity was lo hear : i^A 
:11; Specs. F. Q. 11. I. 14. great pity ii 

.however, has its ^'d/^ rather from O.H i< 
£!«-, mu -ydlow', M, H, G. gitb. This Lai_ eu:"-- 
•itats has its < usudly lengthened in Romance ^ but \. 
short t is preserved, as here, when the mot syQ. !sii< ' 

-- CDi«.Gr.II.3i4), 

■ anient] Lat. (al 
3ded to the fei „ - , 

noticed that WaUach. has in altminte its one idt 
ciample of an adv. formed in this manner. 

— mie] It, mica, Sp. miga, Portug. mig-aOu, p:<- 
ticle strengthening the negative, from Lat. mica, t: 
Catullus 86, J.nullaintammagnoeilcorpote micasil ' 

7ie n en droitx k'] I take this 1 be an enor for ' » 
tit droili, surety it is right that they should omci^ A. 
"'" " prob. from Lat. agrcslis with intcnio- 

ltural(v.--' ' - .... 

Irong, anogant, cf Vie di 

humbles deit esttc 1 1 

ren Dului, ne en^ra : 




lUr.dcF.n.34S- , 

qui for le leii metreit bun mestre, 

qi ' 1 doctrioAst pur fore prestre, 

lereit fl tax jars loos cruex, 

/W it tmgroy lais et hidex. 

— QVpilj I^ orgoglio. Sp. orgollo, O. Sp. Mf^euUo-so ; 

ten O. H. G. ur^ttali, loftmess, A.-Sax. or^gei, pride. 

725 im] like mien, tuen, only nsed with the def. 

ait. ; meom : mien b snom : suen a tuom : tuen. M. 

F. has ailtp*^ the othen to the analogy of mien, be- 

ndca limiting theme of all three to the emptic construe- 

lioowithoat the noon. 

796 It piw] <>B^7 here so nsed ; it seems a kind of 

momL nevtr. 

TM liagiir] cf. Chanc. Cant. T. 15893 : 

oC the erl Hugilin of Pise the ujigour 

ther may no tonge telle for pit6. 

789 «b] cf. Lat. * orbns Inminis' (Oy. Met. lU. 518), 

— ai jjicimed with the dimin. snff. -//, in M. F. in the 

worafaooL) onr-et, kind of serpent, ^cf. blind-wonn). 

79ij conmoa proverb, cf. Vie de St. Thorn. 75.30: 

icii, *fliief se chastie qni d'antmi se chastie ', 

cele parole as tn en plnsnrs lius oie. 

7SftM0hl0H] It. cacdare, Sp. cazar, from a Lat. 

; DC. gives capita from a charter A.D. 1163, 

cntib Tolncmm et beluamm' ; for the form, cf. 

^ ItTnociare, F. sneer; tractns, It. tracdare, Sp. 

r, F. tiacer (y. 56). 


TiOWjaiWtoj in the sense of onr 'well-connected', 
Chrest. 27 j. 33, where it is explained : 
s'or trovoie lame bien n6e 
qni fnst d'amis emparent6e, 
qni east ondes et antains 
ct frcres et cousins germains. Sec, 

pn^] ' * convicted thief ; common in 

O. F. and Vtow,, dl ni a negnn qu'ien no b fasa tost 
mdre com layro prorat. 

74S Hit] the soDJ. scesu awkward, in connexion 
Willi tltt ai# of pieccaing Ihie, bnt this line expresses the 
■» ' a man who is a common enemy, but not a 
idoB, always provided he be wdl-bom and 
hKlcd, &c.' 
7f7 |M] M. L., It pacare, Sp. pagar, M.F. payer, to 
Mdiy* satisly, hence to content, please; so Chauc. 
CaaL T. 1 1853 and be je siker he was well apayd. 

TSl l^iit] for vmtdtt from vidusae, vidaus, with 
tnmpoKd m; dL the cpd. divider, to wind off, empty 

Upnil M. F. techigner, fitnn adi. r^che, 

with Germ. rvurA/, hanh, rough, nence to 

f. Mail, growl ; prob. best rendmd here by 

the iMtk'; df. Pg. rechino, the shrill soand 

igi nbbcd sharplj together. 

Til hit] "dqiart ( cacmy ot our [nacj seems to be a mere 
for flMs] dCy-fods' ; as given in thembric 36 rect., 
fil gal m CMttiasc foa! cf. Bartsch, Chrest. 336. 5 : 
)• ■ ' ai eve de ta lavele ; 
va t 'en, b Ion de ma chapele. 
1] M.L./nMffttfbfoandvery early in the 
p i e paw d, It. Sp. presto, M. F. pr£t. 

756 deUd] from Lat. dilatnm, hence O. F. dilayer, 
delayer, to put off, borrowed in ItaL dilajare. 

757 kidajQW^ dcriv. of O. F. laidange, insult, bnt 
the origin of this suffix -ange, (cf. mdlange, vidange, 
louangc,) is not clear; [Scheler suggests the Germanic 
'in^ of English and Dutch, bnt ?] 

768 les] if this be correct, the verb encliner must be 
used B to salute, and govern Us in accus; Rayn. XL 416 
quotes * li vilains Ten a enclind*. 

761 an qnen chief] cf. Montaiglon, Recucil, p. 100 : 
or dites donques dcrechief, fct-ele, se vous Tosez 9tre, k 
quel chief vous en volez tr^re ; cf. Spens. F. Q. 1. 53 : 
the commune hall 

where earcly waite many a gazing eye, 
to wcet what end to stranger knights may faD. 

768 enyii] Lat. invitus, O. Sp. ambidos, amidos. 
The expression seems curious : why should they be 
enviz ? a sort of antithetic hyperbole. 

766 ne] if this first ne were here taken as the con- 
j unction, it would be the onfy case, where besides the 
disjunct, conj. the verb has not also the negative. 
Therefore the first n£ I take as an adv. to unt tniv6, 
and divide thus : ne . . . batel ne nief, unt tmv£. Thb 
may seem harsh, but the absence of Uie negative with 
the prindpal verb b unprecedented. 

7*70 a Yolente] seems to mean * at ease, with comfort* ; 
volentrifs of next line b perhaps a *of their own accord, 
without being bidden '. 

772* parfimd] thb masc. form with etoe, b note- 
worthy here and 765 ; in 788 we have pariunde. 

772 trehaohe] Sp. Pg. trabucar, from btic, the trunk 
of the body, hence prop., to fling the body out of its 
proper direction, (ct It. trambustare from busto in a 
similar sense). Sender's suggestion of a derivation from 
trabs,trab-uca, b far-fetched and unnecessary. 

— en] *du pund en Tewe* b an extension of the 
predicate in the relative clause, in which the en [ablative 
not partitive,] b pleonastic : < both classes, both those 
who fell from the bridge into the water, and those who 
set themselves to swim, are drowned '. 

773 noer] Lat. nJtare, perhaps vulg. Lat. mHare, as It. 
has notarc, Wallach. innota, O. F. noer; but Sp. 
Portug. nadar, 

— nee] Lat. necare, spedalized into death by 
drowning. It. (an)negare, Sp. Pp. anegar, from M. L. 
e-necare, used bv Greg, of Tours in this sense. 

779 debonnerete] de bon aire, found in our old dt^ 
bonair, good-natured, good-tempered; cf. Chauc. 
Melib., * swete wordcs multiplien and encrescen frendes, 
and maken schrewes to ben debonaire and meke*; 
in 3284. 6357, the meaning is vaguer, becoming a mere 
epithet in Spenser's • lady debonair VF. Q. II. 6. 38). 

784 Btmdee] from Lat. (nnmmns) scOidus [M. F. sou] 
comes M. L. solidare, F. solder, whence subst. solde, 
pay, and the deriv. satuUer, [« soldicare]; the adj. 
soudarius gives O. F. soldier, whence our word, 
cf. Bartsch. Rom. u. Past. 381. 76 : 

de haut idgneur hant guerredoo 

s ' atendez, 

ja certes n'i perderes 

en si bon seignenr s^vir. 


78( tantl either the predicale witli Ihe adverbial 
;tcnsion 'de valor/ cf. SpenK. F.Q. I. 3. 43, herpray- 
s noiighl prcvaile, liis rage is more of migat ; or as on 

en noiighl prevaile, liis rage is more of migat 
attrib. adj.qualiTjing valur. 

78S nrads] Borguy (ir. 333 n.)Ul[es this lobe from 
rabitlus talber tban lapidos, because Sp, hai rauda, 
where u = b. £ut Lai. p also » Sp. u (cf. bautizar for 
baplUBTC.) and tapidos suits the meaning belter; for 
Lat. ^ =Fr. if, cf. jor^ for sapidus, liMc, Lat. tcpidus, 
even^( = i/,in malade formal'aptns. The lA/ of raedde 
occurs nowhere eUe. 

— bli&nt] only beie and 1 1 53 bnlanl, of fiat ; it ii a 
common attrib. of riverE, cf. B. du Guesc. 1699; 
s'en deroit repairier oultre la mer bnuant. 

Baitsch, Rom. n. Past. p. 38 : 

chevancbai lez le rivagc 

789 retiaitsl if « be here an error 
have two preaicalM for I'ewe of ; 
might also be taken as pp. fcm., we I 


'e three possible 

(a) (I'ewe) retiaite, c snn clianel va si apetiiant, 

(b) I'ewe retraile en lun cbanel, va li apetizani, 

(c) I'ewe, (retraiteensnn chanel.) va si apetizant; 
(a) does not alter the text, but 1 have no example of 

retraiter used as a neater verb in O, F. 

790 batelj dimin. of M.L. balus, from A.-Sai. Ml, 
boat, O. Norm. bStr, [only Scandioavian and Low- 

_ Dhalant] DC. Vll. 351 b, "ies Grecs se servoient 
pout eel usage [as fireships with Greet fire] de cette 
■orte de vaisieaux <]u'ils nommoient ^iXavJia, d'oCi 
nous avons emprunlf le mot de chatand, qui est 1c nom 
que I'on donne aui bateaux qui sont snr lea riviSres de 
Seine el de Loire". Diei suggests viXwJ'poc as the 
origin of the Greek word: improbably, I think. 

792 nis] Ibis adv. seems formed from ipsum with 
prefixednc^t., so Prov. neis. neys, &c., whence the It. 
ncss-nno, uiss-uno, (Aub. 13SS n'ont ntrun), ori^nally 
with negative, then gener^ly as a strengthening par- 
ticle, even of alhrmatioQ ; cf. in the opposite direction 
the use of the particle fas, as in pas un. 

7flfi oum] only here used without ji, (cf. 1543, 1621), 
but the omission was common, as also in O. E., thus 
Chanc. Cant. T. : 

199 and eek bis face, as Athadde be anoynt. 

638 thanne woldehcspekeandcrye, ashc were wood. 
Z53 1 arayed right as be were god in trone. 
cf. 1580, 3445, 6370. &c. i so Speas. F.Q.IL 7. 43, the 
rowme was large and wydc, as it some temple were ; 
IL 9. 1 1 that with the noise it shook as it would fall ; 
II. 3. JO and made the forest ring as it would rive in 
Iwam. Cf. even Lady of the Lake, iv. 18; 
she told her love with such a sigh 
of deep and hopeless agony, 
as death had n^aled her Malcolm's doom 
and she sat sorrowing on his lomb. 
So in Latin veiul for velut »i : the use of vl atone, for 
(anqusm si is very rare. v. Uunio's notes on Luct. \\. 
[2J2. and the extra By-leaf, 

708 pQlerJ from Lac. podium, we have It. poggio, 

0. F. pui, M. F, poy ; hence the verb puier, to tsixti 
a hill : here, however, ptiitr must be simply a aitnL, 
meaning slope, 'who went dragging A. to martyrJom 
towards the slope of the ball ' ; cf. a similar pasun la 
AUx. 88.3*: 

el liert un Tirien, i V monltr d' un prnJant, 

fie le teste Ii toll 1 1'espec tnln^ant. 
with this whole Mooe may be comparcJ ilic 
nun's tale in Chaucer, Cant. T. 13*99-11:;; 
where Maximlus behave* as Ancle in Aaban. 

803 sabelua} Lat. sabulo, It. sabbionc, Sp. tabloi 
"he seesthe resuscitated men walldfieoB the laudvL' : 
□r the river, where never maa hnd w^ed before.* 

801 olliet] this is, of courtc, the Lat. cadil, b«t ibc 
I is purely phonelie, and may be compared withciud 
{caput), chicr (cams). It is known thai in O, F, ttiit 
lolacism or insertion of the vowel i after eonsomoo 
(which is pretty common) takes place in two wivv 

1, alter sibiknts or liquta* (ooiullCs), e. gr. &a.Ki. 
ehevakAier, chancer, enseifflier, >\>aniiliet ; i, In » ■ 
of attraction after a root ending in d. n. r. s. is. !.:■ ■ 
ceded by an i(vowel or diphthong), e. gr. vatrfi'et, drr.; - 
niet.eopiWcr,envoiri'er, loitrJer, aCaifier. [Thilseenu i,. 
be Lhe case also in wotds Uke citiC, uniiie, rooiiic, ii. 
Muasafia's note in Lemcke's jahrb. for Rom. Lit, 
VLHft-I.p. 116)]. In both classes of *«ibs it ii to 
be noted Uiat lhe (em. of the past plop, it dlhei io IM. 
01 It [rhyming with vie. agrAfit, tec.) 

SOS ke] "during vihichtimei have not cemed Urn", 
or -'in ihai I have not, &c."; I prefer taking Jtfbcn 

late, I becon 

mais la summe 1 quel munte, 
e esclarcir le dit Aedward 
avCrd ke fu, mcs Ice i tard, 
(v. also note oo 1 1 14.) 

814-816] "the wacetwhich is obedient to tbee. then 
proves thy worth, and that which taen arc denying. 1 
very element defends as tme, furnishing teitimoDi '" 
that it u-ails on Ibee." 

819 Tervagant] for this usual eonoexioa with Ui- 
hornet, cf. Speos. F. Q. VI. 7.47 : 

so did the sqinre (rage) 

anil fume in his dadainefull mynd the more, 

and oftentimes by Tunnagial and M^ound iwn*. 
Tlic pair have been transferred into the Saga titentsN 
of Iceland in the tr^mslation of some of tke AnliD- 
cycle, thus Cleasby sub 'klsma' quotes "Uasdt 
nijiik Maumel ok Terrogant." Cf. Ph. Moosk. 6tll. 
B. du Guesc. 151574. They are well knoWB ikol* 
llal,, Macon e Tiivigante. In our ■ temiagimil ' «l 
have substituted m for the cdder [?] *, but I do M 
know what Itrvagant means, nor [o what gpd, if Mf, 
it is intended to apply. 

6S4 k'] ^juam antea habebanl iram, nunc eiB 

sifl n] soinMS., butifit itright, it is the only cm 
ia the poem where it is so used to express appanntly * 
definite point of time, = 'just then'. Butit may nerdf 

lie the capital l<»cr of the neit word uni, by a mis- 
i&ke nf the icnbe. 

831 k'llmnVBngMlt] thPinlecedcntof faisliiolaai, 
" ihe son whom we arc about to avenge, sees the iiuull 
affci^ by him (Auban)". 

834 ploiBrI DC. plicaie vadinm = pignori poncre; 
the tiidium bang the 'res ipsa in pignus data', cf. 
"obligari me et meos berraes, meo vadia plicalo 
Kfundum moreiD pslriae, ad omnia obEervanda". 
[From thii vadinm comei M. L. gua^um, gage, the 
■8*8*"p''B*' of tJi< Noiroan Costmnicr.] Here the 
m ipsa in pignns data is itself named, and ploicr Ic 
gant t$ jmt plicare vadium. 

— gkitt] M. 1,. vantus, II. gnuito ; prob. from a 
Tcnlonic root, found only in O. Noise vSltr (for va/itrj 
glare, displaced in Mod. Icel. by the dimin. ift-lingr, 

KaODt-let. [Our g'—- " '"-■'- "'" *" 

palm of Uie band, 

:idapt«d by thePortng. as luim, im inc cuinnimi wuru, 
whci«as gimtlt Gi manopla means only an iron gaunt- 

Sit gmiinB] Lat. gingiva. It. gengiva, Pr, angiva. 
Sp. encia, with omitted initial to avoid the repetition of 

— dertnt] for this adverbial usage, cf. Alii. 31. iS : 
ti grant cop li dona qae le fait clinei sor son arfon 

835 danohslit] in M. F. means to fling down from a 
njck, but in O.F. it means ■ to stone ; in both, the 
dair. b plainly from loc, roche, &c., the origin of 
wbicb ii oncFTtain; perhaps from a Keltic source, 
(cf. Vt'tlih rAs'g, iomelhing projectingj. Diei prefers 
ddivuig It. rocaa, F. roche, from l^t. rapes, or ralhcr 
■dj. ripea, ibongh the persistency of o in all the 
Romance U against any connexion with Lai. », and 
F. r« ii not thereby ciplained. 

839 toiWDt] Prov. brisar. alio debriscr 935, M. F. 
d^bm: of unceruun origin, [Laidly to be connected 
witii tj. F. bniiiei, bniisc, though the meaning it very 
bduUt). Cteostn «ab voc. ' bijAia' shows that DC. 
Kcords a Latin-S|iaiuih brilart = dcstruere, and sug- 
eetti MS intrvdnction bio S^ain by the Goths; 1/ 
ihia root frrt/ erer existed in ttotliic, it mighl perhaps 
hare given tni/r, cf. jaiiir, O. H. G, sai-jan. Pos- 
sibly, however, even the brilart of DC. is a mere 
mis-reading, and never existed at all. Diez's bristan is 
Improbable, though he quotes liiiir* from O. H. G. 
Ifau (Gt. 1. 191), 05. an instance of this change; but 
bci« we have other dcrivv. with st, as listean, liston, 
&C. Scheler prefers Lat. briia, ' the reliiEe grapes after 
ptEiiing'. (as sliU in Spin. = sidn of pressed grapes), 
wbich secnis to me very unlikely. The root is 
piob. Keltic, (where brii is the regular word for break,) 
ibe more so as the word is only found in FT. and Prov, 

— bnu] Lat. brachium. It. tiiiurdo, Sp. brazo, O. F. 
also bmtr, whence the dcriv. bracelet ; from tbe pi. 
btachia bc hare brtute, fathom, [cf. tcdse from leise, 
lEimu. ] bratide, armful, tmbnuier. 

— gunbM] form Kill used in viole de gambe, and in 
gambade, gambadcr, which, however, ate probably 
ncre borrQwittgs liom Ital. gomba, gombata. As all 

the Romance have gamba, the word wis perbaps already 
used in Vulg. Lat. camba. as in O. Span.; cf. Pg. 
eambaii, which means koock-knecd. crook-leg, and 
eamba = felly of a wheel. The root is caw, crooked, 
Lat. cameius, connected with which is O. H. G. /latnma, 
our Mam. so that ham = F.jamb-on, from jumbe; cf. 
also our door-jami, &c. 

848 ne tent ne qOMltJ often with first m omitted, in 
negative sentences, (asm 1 139), cf. B. duGnesc. : 

3706 car ainf ois que la psiz fust faite taut ne quant, 
ot moult h dues ft faire, (o tronvons nous. 
ibid. J576 terre ne doit tenir chevalier tant ne quant, 

qui ne la veult dtfendre i I'espCe trenchant, 
Kell. Romv. 316. ig: 

desQS son elme Ii donne nn cop si grant 
que li palais en va retentissant ; 
bons fu li hiaumes, n ' enpira (ant neqnant. 
But also, as here, with ne; cf. Roro. de Tr. 183 ; 
apres orreiz les prophetics, 
qui pas ne voldrcnt estre oies, 
ne crues, ne tant ne quant. 

843 pil] Lat. pectus, Prov. peiu, It. petto, Sp. pecho. 
Pg. peito ; but M. F, has adopted poitriiu (peitrine 
Aub. 1611) from a Lat. peclor-ina, (cf. rac-ine for 
radic-ina. fromtadic-). 

844 dBfOleitt] from this/u^, we have our O. 'E.foil, 

whom he did all to peeces breake, and^c^^ 
in filthy dart, and left so in the loathely soyle. 

Lat. Va&fuUo, a fuller, but tbe Rom. langg. have a verb 
fuUare, to full, to beat, M. F. to trample down ; and 

so, (cf. Ital. calca, crowd, from calcare, to tread,) It. Sp. 

folia, F. foulc, crowd. 

cam-, hence prob. by dissimilation for cam -onea; it is 
to be noted that ivr-egni is the only instance however 
in Fr. of this termination, Lat. -cneus. It. ogno, Sp. 
ucBo, Pg. onho, [vergogne, Bourgogne being, ol course, 
quite different, — *ere-(U)i>fi'ir, Burgimdia,] 

861 h*ub«W«] O. F. also halberc, Prov. ausbcrc. It. 
ustwrgo, from O. H, G. hals-berc, neck-protectpr, with 
meaning extended to "shirt of mail' , (cf. Germ. koUer, 
a doublet, from Lai. coil-art necktie.) From baubcrc, 
by dimin. suff. comes o\xi haubtrg-ton, 

— buoleni] our ' buckler', from berU, the umbo of 
a shield, hence bncler eicu, meant a bossed shield ; 
cf. Burg. U. 1X^ : 

gniiz coLt se donent es escus de qtiartier 
desox les boudes les font fraindre ct brisjer. 
Rom. de Tr. 2473 ; 

parmi les boucles dci escuz, 
en foot passer les fen igua ; 
where bouclc, bncklc, from M. L. bucula, bocca, de- 
notes any round projection, hence = orabo, cnri in hair, 
ring of metal, &c. 

853 glsumM] used by Wace for the big Saxon 
battle-axes, O. E. gysam, gysami. Prov. gazarma, It. 
giusartna, O. F. also guitaime, wisarmc ; but tbe ori- 
gin is diBpuleil. Hardly from bis-armt, doubU-tdgtd 



axe ; perhaps gacs-arma, from Gallic gaesum, javelin, 
by some confusion with anna. But we have gieser (in 
Ch. de Rol. 2075,) which implies a M. L. gesarum, 

854 oailloi] the 'Ou term, (the same as in genou, 
verrou,) = -uculum, the radical syll. caUX- is from Lat. 
calculus = calclus, and "with transvection of the voca- 
lized guttural (c = i), caille. 

855 oharduiLB] Sp. Prov. cardon demand a Lat. cardo, 
onis, but It. Pg. have cardo directly from carduus. 

858 Id ne nrentl " (great thirst nave the people had,) 
who had not drunk an}'thing the livelong day." 

859 breent] for this verb braire, M. L. bragure, cf. O. F. 
muire from mugire ; but whether this root hrag^ has 
any connexion Mdth Kymric brag-al, to vociferate, bra- 
galdian, to babble, prate, (cf. our brag,) or whether it is 
not simply = ragire, (raire), with prosthetic ^, as possibly 
also in bruire a ru&:ire (v. 620), is uncertain. M. F. 
braire, our * bray', is a specialisation of the meaning to 
cry, scream, shout, &c. 

862 reorea] DC. VII. 356 **recreUf aui n'cn pouvoit 
plus, et qui se confessoit vaincu ; c * est la force an mot, 
qui est tir6 de T usage des duels." Mort ou recreant 
(recreu), was the usualaltcmative to which a champion 
wished to reduce his opponent. Here the word s < qui 
n ' en pouvoit plus * ; cf. Ger. de V. 1920 : 

se conbatirent ensamble maintenant 
tant ke tuit furent recreut et sanglant. 
Both terms recreu and recreant (ptcpp. of M. L. recre- 
dere^ are used to express the two ideas, of incapability 
and cowardice. They are preserved in M.F. recru^ 
recruit, (one incapable of the full toil), and our recreant ^ 
[*<hang a calf's skin on these recreant limbs"]. How 
opprobrious the term was, may be seen from Joinvillc's 
*j'amais mieulx estre poulain (v. note 1841) que che- 
valier recreu comme ilz estoicnt*. 

863 fremissent] Lat. fremcre, only used in Aub. 
with the Lat. meaning of rage^ *quare fremuerunt 
gcntes', not in its M. F. acceptation. 

874 tat n'eit] "it is thy creature al-though it has 
not acknowledged thee as God". We have still a 
remnant of this idiom in the phrase albeit^ but in our 
older writers its usage was not limited to the auxiliaries; 
cf. Chaqc. Cant. T. 736 al speke he never so rudely ; 
12774 ^ couthe he letterure or couthe he noon ; 12789 
al loke he never so rowe ; 13627 all wolde he from his 
purpos not converte; [1173. 1842. 2477. 2705. 3174. 
7081.7232. 11642. 12767. 15349- 15356 al he; 2711. 
1 1439. 13864. 15759 alwere; 746. 4392 al have ; 6768. 
13786 al hadde;] Spens. F. Q. I. 12. 23 : 

her own deare loved knight, 
all were she daily with himselfe in place 
did wonder mucn at her celestial sight. 
Ibid. II. 2. 12; 34, &c. 

889 oum fidt la] this usage of faire to avoid the 
repetition of the verb is very common in O. F., cf. Fl. et 
Blancef. p. 222 : 

si soef porte le danzel 
com /ait li lox porter I'aigniel; 
[where the Editor (M. du M6ril) suggests sail for /ait]. 
Of coarse, faire is not necessary, cf. B. du Guesc. 4702 
plus dru les abatoient que li leux le mouton. 

891 fbooilB] no doubt, ^Jiccxaa, but I have not 
tured to alter it, as I am not sure that the / was not 
transposed and then omitted, [flocon a fokon ■ £0000, 
cf. note on caiUoz, 854,] though I have no note of hafiiis 
met it so elsewhere. For flocon inM. F., cf. Ilitepiifle 
Gautier, Bmaux et Cam6es, p. 3^ : 

I'autre a, sur un con tuanc qui ploie 

coup6 par deni^re nn flocon, 

retors et fin comme la sole 

que r on divide dn cocon. 
The origin is Lat. /loccus^ our ' flock ', (whence abo Yi. 
floCy ¥,/roc, a monk's frock, of woolhrstaflf). 

— GrOBpi^ Lat. crispos ; cf. Ph. Moosk. 9194 : 

atant s'ahierst par les ceviaos, 

au'il avoit ciespis, blons et bums. 
(. II. 3. 30 : 
her yellow lockes^ crisped like eolden wyie 
about her shoulders weien loosely shed. 

892 grandille] by dimm. soff.-^ from grun^, 
(cf. gandiller from gandir;) Lat. gninnire, ofiAiA 
the grammarian Nonius has handed down an older 
form grund-ire ; [cf. cri-aill-er, gnmd-411-cry guosill- 
er, B Lat. -acul-, -icol-, -ncnl-.] 

— de ren] <at all'; even of affiimation, ct B.di 
Gruesc. 7739 se de riens vos m' amea ; but genoaHy ia 
negative clauses, R. de Tr. 1919 : 

sor lo pecoie son es^^ 
sans CO que de riens I'ait plai^ 
898 masoa] M.F. se mnsser, apparently from a 
Germ, root ; Diez suggests M.H.(jr. sick m^am, to 
moult, hence retire into obscurity; cL Manlbu^iaDf 
Recueilj p. 206 : 

et sires Jehans est mndes 
souz le de^ et esconssea. 
901 esmirables] <= ez-muabflis, the Rjomanoe pRfeis 
ex to e, before /, m, and n (Dies Gr. H. 398). 

903 esmeie] from ex-merare, as M. F. Sparer from 
ex-purare; very commonly used of tlie refining of 
metals, esp. of gold, cf. Vie de St. Hiom. 109 mieals 
s'est ui esmerez del'or set feis rtcuU; O. Spi. on 
esmerado, (P. del Cid 115}; [in Portng. csm eiiM C 
means to exert one's self to be accarate, perfiect in any 
accomplishment, to strive to excel ;] bnt also ofsOvcr, 
cf. Fl. et Blancef. p. 108 : 

li dent sont petit et ser6 

et plus blanc d* argent esm£r6. 

904 Jaspes] an opaque coloued quartz, tkrooi^ Gr. 
caairicy Lat. jaspis, from Oriental ,yaxA^, id., hence oar 
jasper; also through O. F. diasprt^ our diiptr^ '1 
dIm', &c. [Scheler's conjecture, ^i^oropepi 

— esmeraades] It. smeraldo, from Lat. 

Gr. a/Aopay^docy Prov. (quoted bv Rayn.) 'l 

robi, sabr, jaspi', cf. sumer (128^ from «"""»*, ILF. 
somme, « saume. It. salma, from sagma, 9dy/m i DC 
quotes from Isidor. (Orig. 20. 16): "sagma, fMsr 
comipte vulgo salma didtur." 

908 ftriyesj ' to bring to port' ; for the actxfe ose, ct 
Joinville, 104, dl qui nous conduisoient en la galie, 
nous ariv^rent devant une herberge ; Rom. de Xr. 4241 
I'isle ofx il anivirent lor nef; 2^5 i mal'vet port ks 



nme ; FL et BUmcef. p. 243 il les mena, tant 
ber les ariva ; p. 48 : 
son estnunan [pOot] a moult proii 
qpie k eel port rarivera 
n DieQ puust, cnm pins tost porra. 
in Lemcke's Jahrb. ti. 2 Hit. (p. 170} : 

par foi ! Tehaimot, Dez t'a aidi6! 

et t'aiboo port arivf. 

Q. IL I. J a weatherbeaten ship anyr'd on 

I Lat. 'lassos', weary, bnt nsed as a term of 
* wretch', cLU laseU doknt of 260, 'the 
wretches • 

lis] cf. Chanc. Cant. T. 5091, and both his 
out of his lace. 
IIM] cf. Mar. de F. U. 2jfi: 
les pennes an poon [pavoj s'atome 
restttt sun cors bien s*en aorae. 
. Thorn. 88. 3 iere de sens poi anmez ; Scheler 
;'s Jahrb. viii. p. 89 (thalamom) dlido omatom 

it • has] a common formula, cf. Vie de St. 
. 26 (Dens t'a esht) 90 dient e li haut e li bas. 
tfr. 2^ 28 says the phrase is nsed in the 
'^Mtial nmrersality ', = 'everywhere'; it 
mr eipression ' high and low' a • everybody', 
it] Lat. cubitns, Ital. cubtto, [also ^omi/o from . 
LjU. auwitns,] Sp. cado, O. Sp. cobdo, 
vada, (only « a cnbit*s length, bnt elbow is 
Prov. coide, Wallach. cot, M. F. conde. 
«] ace. to Diex, from Lat. Umu torus^ with 
ment of accent as in trijie from trifolium. 
ppoits this dertration by a comparison with 
^•c; atill the analogy of F. trifands from 
^iMiwoold lead to a very different form ; (/n- 
not a parallel case). 

anf] "for be has desired to wt at least Utit 
« " ; I take suvaus to be the same as sivaus 

386, though I had read at first snvans for 
t in that case we could not hare had suvawj, 

1 sib. would have been s, as in tiranz, chantz, 
md besides, voer would be left without an 
or the position of kar in the line, cf. 134 
nmpatnnie kar ne vout espruvcr. 

I can hardly be other than * to see', though 
rhete (761. 781. 943) always ver^ and the 
or is rare in A., [cf. the infinitives encroer, loer, 
I wehaveouivr (685)eanated with qu/r (i277\ 
ord must oe mooocyllabic. It is frequently 
in li Livres de Justice ; p. 57, or convicnt 
msaui lont i autoor, p. 228, 255, &c. 
bvl M. L. dextrarins, the charger which the 
oo Uie right-hand of the koight, till needed 
ttle, &c. ; hence war-horse, 
(abo hue,) from O. H. G. huh, {belly and) 
in O. Norse Mir means chiefly *the head- 
', so it is bete used only of decapitated bodies, 
01 3j. 

•] deirr. of ccmp^ stroke, blow, from Lat. 

c^X^f ), M. L. colapua, colpus. It. colpo, 

Ihe ircrb coupcr tnus means to ttrike. 

^taL colpireX and has been modified into * to m/'. 
But either O. H. G. kolpo, (Mod. Germ. Jtolben), or 
even Kymric colp, pointed spar, coip-ts pointed wedge, 
would ramish a satisfactory origin. 

953 depesoe] M. L. petium. It. pezzo, M. F. piece. 
The origin of this petium is disputed, but the 
analogy of ItaL picciolo^ little, and picdudlo, petiole, 
inclines me to accept Schder's connexion of this 
petium with Lat. petiolus. 

955 fkillir] common in O. F. (with a dative) ^M. L. 
fallere aUcui, in the sense of ' to lafl in rendering service 
to one's liegeman '. 

— a aaii^iir] cf. Mar. de F. II. 123 i segnur lo 
volmnt aveir; and with predic. adj. as in 557, cf. Nout. 
Rec. de Fab. U. 188 : 

i fol et i manves s'ezcuse 
qui ceste requeste refuse. 

956 emUe] Prov. embur, M. L. imbulare for Lat. 
involare, ' to fly off with', to steal, (Catullus 25. 6 pal« 
Hum meum quod involasti). M. F. has preserved this 
verb in the adv. d*embUe, 'at the first attack', but has 
replaced the old emblerhy the simple voUrfiom invdarg. 

962 wne] M. F. has sensd from F. sens, Lat. sensus, 
while the O. F. sen£ is from O. F. sen. It. senno, with the 
same meaning, bnt derived from O. H. G. sin, m sense. 
From this old adj. M. F. has its forcen^, which should 
htfar-^eni, sense-less, mad. It. for-sennato; cf. Mon« 
taiglon, Recucil, p. 52 : 

or n ai-je pas dit one x^yi/s, 
ainz sui Cullis ei/arsenet. 
967 Tli] Sp. hoy. It. oggi, in M. F. only used in the 
comp. aujoud'Aifi, Ital. al giomo d'ogn, from Lat. 
hodie ; cf. puy, ap-pui, Ital. poggio, from Lat. podium. 
973 tochflr J It. toccare, Sp. tocar, ace. to Diez, from 
O. H. G. zuchdn, to seize ; for the relations of touching 
and seixing, cf. Goth. ' teh-an\ to touch, with our ' to 
taJte\ But as this root is common in Wallach. also, 
toe, it seems preferable to refer the origin to Lat. toe for 
toe, as in tac-tus, tango. 
976 dellTTM] cf. Chanc. Cant. T. 84 : 

of his stature he m-as of evene lengthe, 
and wondcrlv delyver and gret of strengthe. 
16902 this cok braic from his mouth delyveriy. 
981 enfolape] O. Sp. volopar, M. F. en-velopper, 
Ital. in-viluppare, from the subst. It viluppo, ' contused 
skein of silk , the origin of which is unknown ; Lat. ' volup* 
correfiponds with the form, but not with the meaning. 

989 orl the only place where this particle is written 
without the final / ; that thu e was not propoonccd is 
plain from the following instances :— 

344 ore vus | pri e | sumoin. 
552 ore croiz | ke va J prccbant. 
554 e tffv I s ' en est I oinnez. 
561 mais ben | Tad ore \ pruv€. 
872 ore re | quor ta I franchise. 
1088 ore pert ] ben k^il | ne fn. 
1219 ore vus | requer I e pri. 
1658 ore Cai I ke te I oirai. 
1796 kar ore \ sunt en I enfer. 
In aD these cases ore is monosyllabic, though followed 
by an initial consonant of the ioUowing word. 



— seint] there can be little doubt that this is a mere 
error for sein, but as 'seint' is intelligible, I have not 
altered the MS. reading. 

992 eshauoe] from a Lat. form ex-altiare, = to heighten , 
magnify, whence M. F. ex-hausser^ to raise, under the 
form ex-aucer^ to hear (a prayer). 

996 harat] Ital. barafto, with the meaning of fraud- 
ulent conduct, trickery (in trade), cf. our barrator, of a 
fraudulent ship-master, &c. ; from the subst., O. F. has 
its barater, bareter, (Montaiglon, Recueil, p. 155 nous 
le bareteriens au vostre,) whence our barter. Of the 
origin of the word nothing certain is established ; Diez 
suggests irpdrritv, which is far from satisfactory. 
897 nigromanoie] Rom. de Tr. 1209 : 
es arz ot tant s' entente mise, 
que trop par ert sage et aprise[; 
astronomic et nigromance 
sot tote par cuer de s*enfancc. 
Cf. Mort. Dart. I. 2, and there she learned so much that 
she was a great derk of nigromancy; Alix. 7. 7 un 
Gnus qui cuidoit estre fors de maintes sapiences et de 
sortisseours, de Tart d'ingremance. 

1005 OSturs] It. astore, O.Sp. adtor, aztor, Prov. austor, 
M. F. autour ; probably from a Lat. astur^ius, (cf. M.F. 
vautour. It. avoltore, from vultur-ius ;) but Diez prefers 
the derivation from acceptor, as a popular form of * acci- 
piter',(v. Schuch. Vulg. Lat. I. 38.) 

1006 oaraotes] in Prov. occurs the word caracta = 
mark, sign, from Lat. character, which was used in * 
M.L. = magic arts ; DC. quotes *divinationes, sortilegia, 
sive in votis, quas brevia seu caracteres vocant * ; 
'Judaci cessent ab usuris, sortiUgiis et caracteribus, 
B Gall, sors et caraz^; cf. Chron. des dues de N. 709 : 

1 ' aveit issi aparilliez, 
d' arz enchants e primseignez, 
e sur lui tant caractes fait, 
que ja d'armes n*en fust sane trait. 
We have also the forms caraie, charroie, caraude, con- 
nected with M.L. carauda, all of which were used pre- 
cisely as in the last lines quoted, viz., of some magic 
charm which made the wearer invulnerable ; (an en- 
chanter was named in M.L. caragus, caragius, carajus). 
These forms, charrate, encharrauder, Diez connects with 
charme, as = charm* rate, but if we compare encharauder 
witli the form encarater, a connexion with character 
may not seem improbable ; thus from the rootcarac(-ter), 
is possible a form carag-ius, (or -us),caraga, caraie. 

1008 espemn] Ital sperone, sprone, Portug. esporao, 
Sp. espolon, from O. H. G. (accus.) sporon. Mod. 
G. spom ; from the O. H. G. nom. form sporo, we 
have besides Portug. espora, Sp. espuela. 

— roille] the subst. rouille, Prov. roilha, corres- 
ponds to a M.L. rucula, but of what word precisely this 
is a dimin., is not quite certain : Ital. ruggine comes 
from Lat. aerugo, but Sp. robin is Lat. robigo; Scheler 
posits a form rubigula, I should prefer {ae)ru(gy 

1020atitle] titulus in M.L. was used ' de facultatibus 
sine quibus ad sacerdotium non admittitur', hence 
titulare came to mean 'ad titulum velecclesiam promo- 
vere' ; DC. quotes 'dilectum nostrum Odonem presby- 

terum ad presentationem ecclesiae de B. attitnlaTmrai 
et de cura investimus animarum' ; ' to induct', here to 
enrol in the troop of A. 

1081 nnmhie] " of the citizens there are a thoonnd 
or more, well told, and those too the richest and 
noblest, who have given themselves up to God". 

1086 ja tant ne] " however much they may be tor> 
mented ; cf. Montaiglon, Recueil, p. 183 : 

k paine porroit 1 ' en choisir 
fame qui se puisse tenir 
k son seignor tant seolement, 
^k tant ne ranra bel et gent 
ibid. p. 176 jd tant ne vous sanrex haster, 
que je n' i soie avant de tqqs. 
ibid. p. 289 et en jura un serement 

qu ' eie le fera men9ongier, 
jd tant ne s' i saura goeter. 
1086 dunt] "[and this determination of theinb pro- 
duced] b)r the nughty miracles, (of which they fed qiile 
sure^, which God deigned to show". 
1()48] saouiable] cf. Wace, Nicholas 332: 
qui tant est partout sucnrabley 
et qui en mer est tant aidable. 
Still used in M. F. in the active sense, <hdp<iil*, ct 
T6l6maque vii. Phdniciens, si seconrables i toata ki 
nations, &c. ; Lafont. Fab. Yll. 3 : 

qui d6sign6-je & Totre avis 
par ce rat si peu secoiinble ? 
Moliire, TEtourdiii. 7: 

mais si jamais mon bien te fat considftable, 
r6pare ce malheur, et me sens seconrahk. 
1047 roi esperitahle] cf. Vie de St. Thom., p. 102 : 
n ' aveit cure k 6ii de chancun tu dtfdbU 
ne nul altre chose, s'ele ne fust verable. 
mielz ameit ^ olr del rei esperitabU 
e guarder as escriz qui exesA parmemabU, 
We have it again (x6i^ in the form < esperital', cf. B. 
du Ghiesc. 4278 il en a Deu loi, le pire eaperitaL 

1049 meroiahle] does not mean * tbanJcwoithy', bot 
'merciful', cf. Chauc. Cant. X. 1S099: 

pray eek for us, we synfnl fcuk imstable^ 
that of his mercy God so merdaUe 
on us his grete mercy multipUe. 
1 1348 Lord Phoebus ! cast thy meraable eye 

on wrecche Aurilius, which that am forione! 
And for the whole passage, cf. the end of Mdibai: 
'* he is so free and merdaUe, that he will fomvens one 
gultes, and bringe us to the blisse that never hath cade." 
This 'dble termination of adjj. in rime is commoa n 
Chaucer, who even in the Cant. T. has the fiJknriBf * 
abominable, acceptable, charitable, changeiMe, com* 
parable, corrumpaDle, dampnable, delitable, detev uUd 
nonurable, importable, incurable, merciable, mesmaUe, 
notable, profytable, reprovable, reasonable, semblabkir 
servysable, stable, sufTrable. 

1()61 ki flamhoiel this relative danse, just as in 601,11 
equivalent to a ptcp., and may be translated *Mi- 
ing* : a heaven-descended, gleaming lay of a firetkil 
was brighter than the noon-day sun, rested on A.'t 
tomb; cf. 961 [there arises] an nnbeani>le hcstfroai 
the blazing sun, which was so hot and bright. 



1070 MfUli] Irom cipanir for espandir, cspandre, 
Lat. cspuidcre: but M. F. ipan-cu-ir has probably 
foOowca the analogy of Cvan-Mf-ir, [from esvaD-ir » Lat. 
ci-vaDCMere, wbere the perf. eran-w-i ftccms lo have 
deCcraiiaed Um form of the whde verb.] 
1074 taastra] cf. Rom. de Mah. 1334: 

i I'm, qui ert de eens eslites 

ct bonerBdc ion 

amends ct des antres plus la^et, 

avQicnt bailli^ la 

ct proi£ qnc por ans parole. 
1007 MfmiJ coDp. of earer, Ptor. garar, from 
O. H. G. warte. to take heed ; from garer wc hare Ux 
intcfj. and nbst. garr, and the dcrir. gamne, ^yrfA*. Va 
fjKt'^mt,') vhcaec ow * warren*. 

— iM] Sp. Pg. abrigo. Pror. abric. bst ItaJ. ha% 
■o genafinc reptncntative of the word, hence Iji^t 
obfCCtB to its derivation from Lai. aprim.:, ai fvri<er 
An mcaaiiig docs not cmiefpu od, mbri Aeaniag tha-l?. 
iUtar, and anricns sonny, open ; be propcitet ai \ut 
origiB* an O. iL G. fa'*riA-«Jv, toovrcr, wzin prc£zei4 «. 
er an att ahcnuttbc the verb berg-an, pre*, ktrfu. h'SX 
I picfcj the derivation from mpri^us ; » the hv'.-h'.raM, 
pfano are sktUertd from cold, hence tibe a^Acazi &j|^t 

ION mtntt] WtakingawaT of *Jie wmcr rrfm tv 
the diminut ion of the river '7S«> br tix ^?«7i '/ A : 

to Ln ;^-nrw Ui': titi': u^-bn 

1008 amtnt] we have the simple ester in the fonns 

(U (1330), ester (1657. 1705), cstant (623) ; of this 
comp. nd-re-stare, tncre are in O.F. also a regular pret. 
mnest&i' and a pp. arest/, neither of which occurs in A., 
bnt only the irreg. forms, pret. arestut^ and pp. aresttn 
(98). This 'U termination in past ptcpp. is very common, 
even occurring with verbs m ir^ thus wc have in A. 
hissn <876), fern (894), vestn (850) ; it was the ordinary 
O. F. representative of Lat -itus, cf. cuneiiz (22), i 

— flohi] this must be a pp. of ficher ffichier), It. > 
fiocare, (prob. from a Lat. 6g-ic-are,^ but tne termina- 
tion is anomalous, as it should be &chi« ; perhaps, as 
the Icm. of the ptcp. ends often in //, (tranchie, 
Ice.), this irregular masc. ^hi may have arisen by 
aaatey; cf. cr/niii^'(i54i). 

lOM kl ditQlot] m the parallel passage (224), we 
have U ceb u desdot e uvn ; as ki here tiuces the place 
of the M of 334, it is plain that j^ is not omitted by in- 
advertence ; V. also 353. 

1007 tnehaill] cf. Rom. Stud. Hft. i, p. 413, 1. 66 : 

ja n'a il jone ne chenu 

en ceste terre qui ne sache, &c. 

Vie de St. Thom. p. 38, asez i ad trov£ e joevenes e 

cfaanna : this is the usual spelling, (from Lat. canutus, 

M. F. cbennX the final -1 being possibly owing to the 

itam to 

1100 iifl] It. 

. M L. a 


which DC. defines, << proprle est a fide, quam (iui« aticui 
debet, aut pollicitus ent, i^er littcrait aut cpintulum drii- 
ccrc'\ to renounce allrgianrc. 

1102 daxu] uscfl an a prefix to pr. nn., l.ut. dominuv, 
(lomnuK, Jt. flonno, Sp. don, Pg. iloni, Wall, tlninii; 
F. changes the vowrl into <i, as in <*r hnui iltmuUii*, 
and cf. <). V. damoisrlr (niir daniHid), hoirowcd in ll«il. 
damigella [3 Lat. ddniinicillal, with Wall, dmiiniii-l, 
Sp. donccl. With this <). V. uiagr of fArMs, if. ihe 
Mfxl. Sp. Pg. lion, I>om, frm. Donna, Doftii, uml ths 
Prov. use of A/i or N, (for <loni-#'/i) and A«i, (loi doni- 
no) before proper nameH, e. gr., niu*. I%n Sa\uiii*, 
N Arman, fern. Na Joliana, Na Vcnii«. 

1109 plerl] as in our law term *rr-plcvv', pioli. fiiiMi 
\j2X, praebere (fidem) ; \\\yxs plfif»f, our •plrdj'r*, •- l.ut. 
praebiunty while the Prov. foiin pteviud i% pirciM-ly thv 
praebitio of Varro and the < odci. 

1118 acn] pp. ofaerdre, from adhaeifre •« adhri'iii, 
and uHth inteq^jlatrd </, a-erdrr; it. ftonidie tioni 
surf^ere etur're, tordre ftom lorqii^ie •- loi'ir. 

1114 raniit] Lat. manere liak |;ivrn I wo foinik lo 
O. F., manoir ftrr), and maindte ih\r) \ Ihr piel. hUo 
ba« two terminations, -ui and -fei, lhu« { kj;. Ik mtiuut 
and m€it, [for manuUttxA manut,\ 01 m/i/, irinUI, mi 
I sg. remis, I4^^ 

— mM k0j *'ih«-y ar'' a thoukand, [or wonht tic| hut 
that *,ne remained lichiud feiLk " ; cf. Mi/itUlgU»ii, 
Kecueil, p. 2'/* : 

y*i»uk w/nt ff>rk & 'At l^niiie 
t'Aite la uoMe /.omti^i|;fii«', 
inaik que II. <.h«-vali#Y, qui jiii'fil 
au lit tf*/r '«: que \t\ft U Um nl. 
ibid. 315 et fAl dii l/aihK ne m- irrnuf, 

rttiih qij'ii dft : *Miirn ^ifutuA/, hr\ otifc." 
Often u*ed wiih w, ff Pom. Siud. Uh. j, |» i,»» 
U «^'iMUh f;>nt S^riJi/ifi in* ft It, 
mai uMt de *^l qui fii rv l.^pjki vU, 
Mr titiiu que ',, qui ru 1ui»: vrtti tl^^•. 
Betides thj» Ukc '4* n^k lue', - 'rtJi^A limi ', uiM Oi«t i,u 
HlO, - *n€n ifufu/rh', i**r»« 1% a third, *A t^uiu dilf««i|«l 
n«ea-'-J'''SJ. * pr*ntded thnt* ; *\. \^ '!u ^•^yt%» . * Ji*l 
f/hM^ «> f.\if/M *At «aiii '4 tfnt'rtiulr, 
q"i! f. 'a/y.'^jt* »»j* y^-t** turr «^/««u »• vi«, 
mat: ju' i\ f'j»**-»i« V.U'/\'f./. 'J* »' •>«*»* |/4f<u, 
wrt yi'dX *i*^ i*m^ ^^z**' L.r/» *s»%*rt th I/*/**/ Urtf ; 
»*t'y kii^sM h^^tU^i*, iM'/'*ifU4 I***-; *«■«« li.jjlJ»*j". 

ff.«jt «. ^. VA 'Jj' U' ' tt mt.t l/l^/M 
lf.« I 'ju'tf'l k^/«* '^ "^ «« Vf e C»|/U^ 

h 2 



1116 enyai] M. F. has envahir, but Lat. invehere is 
not to be thought of; the Prov. envatir demonstrates 
the origin of the word to be Lat. invaderey cf. M. F. 
trahir from tradere. 

1118 repeira] iluec is to be taken with langui, not 
with repeira, ** there he languished, till Apl. returned 
home** ; Prov. repairar, from Lat. repatriare, whence 
subst. O. F. rei^aire, home, abode, only used in M. F. 
of the den or lair of animals. 

1125 menant] ptcp. of manoir, ' one who remains on 
the soil, peasant^, a word which in M. F. (manant) 
means coarse, rude, boor, but which in O. F. denoted 
one who cultivated his own ground, and so = wealthy, 
cf. Rom. de Tr. 2253 (where Peleus says, "if we take 
Troy,) toz jors en serons m^s manant ; Montaiglon, 
Rccueil, p. 297 : 

chascuns en fu manans et riches, 
se il ne fu trop fox ou nices. 

1182 nn sun bien yoillant] I have preferred keeping 
bien and voillant separate, and translating the phrase 
*by one wishing his advantage' ; cf. 1763 servant e ami 
e vostre bien voillant, where if vostre were adj. to bien 
voillant, it should have preceded servant. 

1184 brnidee] in 1212 we have the form ehruusdie^ 
with the s of O. Sp. broslar (for brosdar), M. L. 
hrosdusy from O. H. G. ga-prorton, O. N. broddr, im- 
plying a Goth, bruzd' , spike ; but perhaps bruiderj our 
*broider' , M. F. broder, Sp. bordar, is merely a modi- 
fication of F. border^ our * border*, in the sense of 
enclosing, from O. H. G. bort^ edge, &c. 

Cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 105 1 : hire yolwe heer was 
browdid in a tress; 3238 whit was hir smok, and 
browdid al byfore of cole-blak silk; 2500 so riche 
wrought and wel, of goldsmithry, of browdyng and 
of steel; cf. also 90: 

embrowdid was he, as it were a mede 
al ful of freshe flourcs, white and reede. 

15955 of rubies, saphers and of perles white 

were alle his clothes embrowdid up and down. 

1187 le OYie] here may be noted the masc. gender, as 
in 1 58 1 cest ovre ; in M. F. the word is both masc. and 
fem., (with a difference of meaning, however,) the two 
forms being probably owing to a felt difference of 
origin, the one being the Lat. fem. sg. opera, while the 
other is Lat. ntr. pi. opera, from opus. 

— ne] the absence of any separate form, such as 
M. F. «i, for the negative conj., with the looser structure 
in O. F., makes the distinction between the adv. and the 
conj. somewhat difficult in particular cases. As a rule, I 
do not quote n^ as a conj., except after a preceding nega- 
tive, though in many instances what would by this rule 
be the adv., has really the force of a conj., thus here, 
« he well recognized the work, and did not hide, &c.* 

1188 en nn tenant] a common adv. = uninterruptedly; 
cf. Ph. Mousk. Vol. II. p. 701, App. : 

il se fit ravaler x fois en un tenant 
c'onqnes ne resorty pour nul homme vivant. 
B. du Guesc. 3960 : 

bien pourveu furent ens ou tamps de devant, 
de pain, de char sal6e et de bon vin friant, 
pour vivrc zv mois ou plus en un tenant. 

In this phrase, the word ' tenant* is to be regarded is t 
substantivized participle, of which we have an ezainpfe 
with the def. art. in au muriant (li8c); so that in a 
similar expression 'en un acordant' (ii8^), however 
natural it might seem to render, '* harmonizing in one 
point", the ptcp. is really an abstract noun, and the 
phrase is to be rendered, 'in a harmonions-frtme-o^ 
mind* ; in *men escient' (1560), the phrase still in use 
* i bon escient' shows the nominal character of the 
ptcp., and cf. mun viant (808), le remenant (838); 

Eerhaps also se drescent en seant (793) may be raemd 
ere, (M. F. en sun s&mt,) unless we res^ thiiis t 
case of the gerundive participle of modality, [as c^n'aki- 
vus demurant {818), &c.,] *se drescent* expressing the 
activity, and the gmd. 'en seant', the special cfai^ 
racter or direction of the activity. 

1141 gainnnrl deriv. of O.F. gaaigner. It. gnadac- 
nare, from O. H. G. weidanjan^ to hunt, to pasture; 
hence applied to agriculture, (as even still we findlL F. 
gagnage for pasture-land,) so that gainnnr mem 
farmer ; thence to the profits of fannmg, and fr^ 
generally, in M. F. gagner, to gain. From the O.T. 
gaaing, gain, comes M.F. rt^gain^ the second crop, 

1147 raed] M. F. roide, raide, from Lat. mdiis. 

— aimant] Prov. adiman, Sp. Pg. iman, from Lat 
adamas, adamant, [corrupted into diamant, • diamcnd', 
as Diez conjectures, by tne influence of diafimc] The 
meaning of ' magnet ' is found even in M. L., as now ia 
all the Romance. 

1157 es le vna leleyanti as it stands, the panagemut 
refer to Auban : " behola, even as he was rising tai 
his knees (cf. 775), the blood was dried ly;**^ it u poi- 
sible however that le should be Us, and refer to the re- 
suscitated (cf. 794): "behold the drowned arisoft 
and the flood dried up". 

1169 hardil ptcp. of O. F. hardir, M.F. en-hanfar, 
It. ardire, to be bold, daring, from O. H. G. haH-jaM, 
to strengthen, deriv. of hart, 

1162 prisa] from Lat. pretium, come It. nezziH Sp. 
precio, M. F. prix, O. F. pris, our 'price* ; from p«<i- 
are, It. prezzare, pregiare, O.F. priser, proisier,o« 
' praise'. 

1168 mes fkna onntniYant] "some said, but tb^ 
lied, (falsum tamen fingentes,) that it was the power of 
the radiant sun, who thus comforted us who were fooc 
to avenge him of his enemies that spoke against hnal; 
the use of the ptcpp. cuntruvant and cuntiedisaBt a 
place of finite ven>s is no doubt owing to the rime. 

Cf. KelL Romv. 691. 33 : 

afin qu' on se puist delivrer 
de ces faulz menteurs mesdisans 
qui one ne furent voir disans. 

1173 apbruaen] M. F. arbrisseau, for L»^.***; 
icellus; cf. ruisseau, rivicellus; vermisseau, vennicelteJ 
so damoiseau, lionceau, &c. 

1174 yantant] has nothing to do with Lat ventoii 
it is M. L. vanitare from vanns. 



aiime] from Lat. prope, propius, we have 
oded into proch-ain, » a Lat. propi-anus, 
I, loint-ain 715 = longit-anus,] as in the 
lier, from appropiare, already in the Vulgate. 

lUBint] tnere are 6ve possible construe- 
ix., I, (radius) coeli lucens, 2, coeli lucentis, 

lucens. A, de coelo descendens, 5, de coelo 
refer the last, < a ray coming down from the 
of. £dw. Conf. 6^ : 
vis li est k*il veit un ber 
du eel venant lusant e der. 
llint] M. F. ^-couler, Lat. colare, to filter, 
d of flu€r€y in the sense of * glide, flow * ; 
ise, porte-coulisse, port-cullis, from a form 
HciOy a sliding gate. 

d • Joimt] d*. Alix. 58. 13 veisciesles G. 
joians; B. da Guesc. 13874 et dl furent de 
, et joiant. These two-membered structures 
mtly in A., of. ^6 devise e dresce, mun aiere 
lin ; 68 di e devm ; 366 lez e esjoi ; 276 certz 
-esent e don ; 987 guerpi e less^ (* gurpire 

of the O. Franlash laws) ; 1 109 entrejurez 
or fot plevi ; 1845 d finis et tennin ; even 

795 legers, enters e scins ; 1543 enters, 
; v. Grimm, Kechtsalt. p. 22. 
taoant] in Gloss. I have given this as agreeing 
', bat it is better to make manayant and 
of next line equivalent to abridged relative 
I translate : "ndther for one who threatens 
or one who promises fleeting riches. " 
rttst] there are two verbs 'sortir', which 
tingoisbed : the first is of the regular conju- 
sorto, M. F* jc *on,) and means * to go oat, 
land oat*, the origin being prob. a Lat. 

from surrect-as; cf. O. F. qoatir from 
ipertir from e ap enect«as. The other is of 
jve (->Ko) comagation. It. sortisco, F. je 
)et, [cf. tne M.F. legal expresuon 'cette 
lira SOD i>lein effet',] and is to be connected 
kxtifi As a comp. of the fir^t, we have 

to go oat again, to spring oat, whence 
icing, eUstidty ; of the second, reuortir, to 
le to a tribanal where one may obtain one's 
loe F. ressort, extent of jaiisdictioo, place of 
•ei of appeal; thus O. F. resftortir came to 
p> for soelter, proccction' , hence to retire, 
a here, to flinch, swerve; cf. 1497; Ahx. 
Ton vcnir arant et raatxe 

here be imperii as Lat. decel, oportet, 
~ doablj, me dot me urtrmt: 
oaght to icmcmber', bat *I 


pMnatl the fcnmdrve pCcp. tt ern y*x 
ued in M. F. in appofition wiih t^ r^yxx 
le, [in place of tne leiatrre onizr^t^va, 
le voyais, fad u lavait',^ **w^^ ^aA^;:jtA. 
le, as I pawed by ktm". 
\ constraction with the neja^rrn, wiaci 
rard, win be tacB to be rrsseuancal 'jj 
tkt twohoBMbu* U ' 

line : il m vout, enfreindre nt guerpir, fauserif# flecchir, 
ne pur prisun, fu pur sun corsTivrer. 

1218 pnr sim oon livror] for this use of the infm. as 
an abstract noun, but still governing another (precc<ling) 
noun, cf. (123d) pur Ics testes duncr, and v. note on 
234 ; cf. Jourcioins 2395. 3801 : 

nel lairoic por les mcmbres tranchier. 
Ger. de V. 2015 ; 

je ne laroie por les manbrcs co))er 
ne por avoir k'en me seust doner. 
And for this use of the prep, pur with infin., cf. 
Chauc. Cant. T. 1135 : 

(swore) rxtvcT for to deyen in thi ptynt 

neythcr of us m love to hynder other, 
a < pur rourir en la peine' ; ibid. 14548 : 
ne schal I never, for to go to hcllc, 
bewreve word of thing that ye me telle. 
1228 sans fin a resorUrl 1 do not know what this 
means : sanz fin is no douiit ■ * without end*, and this 
seems to demand for resortir the fintt of the meanings 
given on 1200, which 1 cannot think iH>s«il>le, |(|iiaiil, 
which never ceases nor runs outijVX on the other hand, if 
resortir meaning * to flinch', as I believe it must, then 
*sanz fin' is not very intelligible tome; |>erha|)ft wt 
might paraphrase thus : ** that God may grant me to 
attain a post in your company, a jKMt which 1 will keep 
for ever, and from which 1 will never retire". 

1233 oil] Lat. hoc was early used as a particle of 
aflirmation, Prov. oc^ pronounced o North of the I^iire ; 
to it was appended -t/, from Lat. iUud, so that the form 
became o-il [hoc illud], ou-U, M. F. ou{. The |»resem:« 
or absence of the termiiutifin •!/ wa« so characlrristlc 
and prominent in the two languages French afwl I'ro* 
venfal, as even to famish a name to distinguish I hem, 
viz., langue d* ail and langu4 d' oc, just as l>ant« can 
define Italy as the country dove iJ si [Lat. sk I suona* 
cf. Bl. of6xf.5i3: 

et uijL ! ai'je son malvais gr4 
^oant je ne le servi k pi, 
je qaic c'r^l. 

— Mas rmntir] cf. Mitz. AJtf, s»vi. sj : 
dair«r, prenge v/ai« pai^ 
de tmA ki apa/alJi4s 
SOI p^>or V//US %tMhim lang//urs 
ct y^ faun vo plai»ir 
de vraj cuer %mu% rr|^tif ir, 
1294 M larrom^ hamm is k^tc uvd afi«olNiJi|y 1 in 
ii'>7 It IS UAyrmtA \tj tU with int., rm Unum *U ktm, 
at m l2;o, (>at alto with sa>/j,, f.1. KMt. Htntt, p/j. 7 . 
)« ne iaif'^M p^/r k% nwrn)^** tmnf hl«r 
de fan de v/s a^ m^. d//M; v«m|^r. 
CL Ash, f f/; ne Urr^m kn kfAum tUMun^g, ' w« will 
t^A let f^u^h»:% be tititt^4 Mwsf\ 

\2>A nttt, frfm O f f . O ttkmn i/# 4«< Um, %» Jbn/fW' 
VAZT', fr'^W* ir;*Kft «J«^/ 'n,9*0^^ O H l> ^ifth /; 

j^^'fwtr, if Sp jtfu tr, u, gj>« ii|,, %u*fw iK« Uh»\ 
3CV"Vil,{rA*ui A*j^,iu<9 U «^'ji^f^fhir,toHHmhUtH^'9 
v/ '/'AT. ;a O f )*'h'ir, g'hlr, to»fmUm, ^* 




celar, [which Rayn. Lex. III. 215 strangely places under 
estela, steila], though Prov. has also sintilla, as It. scin- 
tilla, Sp. centella, Pg. centelha. 

1244 priYez] Lat. privatus, which in M. L. took the 
meaning 'famuiaris, amicus*, (cf. the line *qui nimisest 
privatus, eum vitare necesse',) hence the meaning con- 
fidant, prh'v councillor, &c. There appear to have 
been two cferiw. of M.L. privus, i, privalisy whence 
M. F. privaut6, and 2, priveitsis^ whence O.F. privois, 
M. F. ap-privoiser, to tame, cf. mansuctus. 

1246 hesille] from O. F. besily Prov. hecilh (Rayn. 
Lex. II. 205 trouble, renversement,) M. L. besilium, 
besilamcntum ; the meaning ace. to DC. is 'maiming*, 
&c., but the line quoted in DC. fromO.F., *il ne poront 
durer, ains se besilleront*, and the passage in Aub. 
certainly denote some synonym of chanceler, I do 
not know what the root is : cf. Ital. bos-ire^ to die, to 
faint away, from Keltic bds, death, and so bas-iUer ? 

— ohanoele] Lat. cancellare, used early m the middle 
ages = to cancel writing by lines drawn lattice-fashion 
across the letters; afterwards (cf. the verse * in cruce 
cancellat pro nobis brachia Christus*,) used in the sense 

* to cross the arms, or hands * : * utantur cucullis, cum 
manicis, usque circa genua longis ad cancellandum more 
ordinis sedendo et inclinando', 'flexis poplitibus et 
manibus cancellatis' ; and so perhaps from tliis crossed 
position of the legs, the unsteadiness of one * chancelant ' . 

1247 sautele] by dimin. suff. -i/lare from Lat. saltare, 
we have It. salt-ellare, O. F. saut-eler. M. F. has prob. 
borrowed from Ital. the subst. saut-^r-elle, as it Yiis the 
inserted -er- peculiar to Ital., with this suflSx ~ella, 
cf. acqu-er-ella, salt-er-ella. 

— avolez] M. L. advolt; DC. gives : * advenae, qui 
aliunde vcnerunt, advolarunt' ; * gens advolez, qui 
n'avoient mesnaige, feu, ne lieu*; from Froissart, 

* ceuxqui estoient ainsi bannis, les appelloit on avolez*. 

1248 depanez] from Lat. pannus, cloth, whence M. L. 
depanare, of tearing clothes, &c. DC. cjuotes * detonsi 
et delavati, cum drappis et calciamentis depannatis*. 
[From O. F. pan in the sense of * fragment*, and so 

* piece given m pledge*, we have our * pawn*.] 

— gnnele] dimin. of O. F. gone, gune, our * gown', 
but the root is unknown, for the Welsh ^tc^w is probably 
itself a loan-word. 

1260 feyre ki martele] this comparison of the fami- 
liarity of workmen with their tools, to express the 
mastery over any art, is very common in O. F., cf. Alix. 

91. 28 : 

mais li dus fet venir le mire [= doctor], 
qui plus savoit dc plaies que fevres de marteL 
Ph. Mousk. 9288 : 

et si dist-on en un provierbe, 
que dd fier sont mestre li fevre. 

G. de V. 1495 : 

li dus Rollan est vaillant chevalier 
ct vassaus nobles por ses armes bailier. 
pluis en est duiz ke maistres charpantiers 
n*est de sa barde ferir et chaploier, 
kant il veut faire saule ou maison dressier. 

AUx. 161, 38 : 

savoit il mult plus d*annes qu*esmerius en gibier. 

— maitele] from martel, (Chas. Martd,) dhnm. of 
M.L. marius, (Lat. martulus, *maDenspnsilliis*, Isidor.) 

— feyre] IjaX.fabery still preserved mM.F.^f^/Svn^ 
and in family names, as Lefivre. 

— tanallles] Lat. tenacula, Prov. tenalha, bnt ItaL, 
like Fr., has tanaglia, with the favourite substitutioo of 
a in an unaccented initial syllable, in place of orig. ror 
i; cf. Sp. galardon. ItaL maraviglia, Fr. poreae, 
(pigritia,) &c. Fortnis word, Span, has tenataisaBX 
Lat. tenacia, tenax ; Portug. both tenaz and tenaih^ 

1258 trafle] our * trifle*, (v. note on 254); Diez thinb 
the word may be trufie, meaning truffle, which he taka 
to be the Lat. tuber, [pi. tubera,] with revected r, [imbe^ 
trufTel. This word, m combination with term, * teme 
tuber [= tar-trufo] has given birUi to F. tartmjft, It 
tartufo, Venetian tartufola, whence the Mod. Genu 
kartoffel, tartoffel. 

— fibhle a rote n Tiele] cf. Mar. de Fr. 1. 112 : 

de cest cunte k*o1 avez 
fu Gugemer le lai trovez, 
qu'hum dist en harpe e en rote. 
Montaiglon, Recueil, p. 8 : 

ge sui iougleres de vide ; 
si sai de muse et de frestde, 
et de harpe et de chifonie, 
de la gigue, de I'armonie, 
et el salteire et en la rote 
sai-je bien chanter une note. 

— lote] the rote denoted in O. F. two instnuneoti, 
the ?iarp, and the violin. The word is Kdtic ; cf. ckrUti. 
Britanna which is mentioned by Fortonatns (7tk 
cy.) in conjunction with the Roman lyra and the Bam- 
nan harpa; hence Wdsh crwth, Gaelic crwti; both of 
which mean violin, (harp,) the idea bdng probibiT 
from the bulging out of the instrument, ai the Wdu 
word means besides anything swelling out, belly, &c, 
and GaeUc croit = a hump, [cf. the Mod. Irish expiei* 
sion, * to put a critt on himsdP, to assume a hnrnpf 
attitude.] This chrotu probably passed into O.H.Gr. 
as krota, whence O. Fr. has rote. 

^ — Ylelel the name of some musical instnmient ip- 
cially 6ttea for dancing and gaiety ; it was played wA 
a bow, and had 3-6 strings. The origin is prob. M.L 
vitula, (whence Germ. Jiedel, our fidiUe,)(wm vihikri, 
to gambol like a calf (vitulus), hence PkOT. vitUa, It 
Sp. viola, 

1259 an vent] cf. B. du Guesc. 8160 : 

3uant Henry vint k eulx tenir son pailemeiit^ 
z ne firent de lui compte nte que da tcuL 

1263 enfinmder] prob. an error for enfimdrer.coimBaa 
enough in the sense * destroy, to knock the bottom oat', 
from Lat. fundus ; Diez supposes that the rin effoodivr 
is a variation of /, as in It. sfondo/kre ; cf. It. stcBt- 
olare from ventus, Lat. eventilare, O. F. Tenteler, 
(Aub. 1529) where M. F. hfenterhsa omitted the dim. 
suff. ; for the change, and the revection of the fiqoid, 
cf. M. F. esc/andre for scanda/um. 

1264 d6 oi k*a Burdele] a common terminus ad quern 
in compaiisons ; cf. Ph. Mousk. 2525 j : 

pour ses dis et pour ses boms cos 
n*ot td gilleur jusqu' i Bordide. 



19M «sWii 1»mflT] cf. Alii. 14.13 ■■ 
dcTinl lui araen^TCDt Bucifol le legier; 
Alixandres i moDtc, etlner n't vol balllicr. 
— Utrin] Prov. ntiiub, Sp. estiibo, O. F. also cslrif, 
whence eitriv-ier, (M.F. Ctriviere), conlracled estrier, 
M, F. ^tricr. The origia is pei^ps 1 Genu, striefx, 
leather- Lhong, as the tirst stiirups were made of leather ; 
or from tiniiui, to lean heavily on, v. note 173. 
126? canslej so Chauc. Cant. T. 6240 ; 

but al for nought : I settc nought an have 
of his proverbe, ne of his olde save. 
rh. Mooik. 7405; 

poiLnl, esliier, certgles ne ^iles, 
□e lor Taloient 11. ceniUes. 
FiDin Lai. (cocjciaella, dimin. ofcoccinus.fiom coccum. 
1283 UrgMJ from lardarc, M. F. has liirder, but O.F. 
had aiio larger from tard-ic-are ; cf. juger from judicare. 
1285 OSt] even in the earliest W. L., hoilis had ac- 
quired the meaning of • army ', probably from the plirase 
' ire in hosleiu ', to go againtl the foe, which means to 
go to the army. It is curious that the word sbould be 
mostly of the fcmin. gender in Romance ; Gregory has 
'hastetn coUcctum', but we have 'hostem nostrum' in 
1 chuler of 1 143, and it is mostly so found in M. L. 

1288 ptUlUtOelj dimin. of peoon, It. pennonc, where 
Sp, has pendon ; the root however is not pendcrt, but 
penaa.asii. meant the long /I'li/AfrK streamer attached to 
ihc point of the lance, and then generally Bag, 'pennant'. 
IS89 si] Lat. at-iud; in Prov. al was used as an adj. 
with F«, ' ni 11/ rei no m fai viure', or even as a subsl. 
■ici que tot I'ali qa'om fai abayas' ; so used also in 
0. Poiiug. as an acj., ■ qaercr ai btn, for se non vos ', 
though generally in O. ^p. and O. Fg. it is an indecl. 
proa. Qti. is in U.F., where it is very common, as^jand 
ai ; cf , Moutiigton, Kecueil, p. 239 : 
li pieudom ne sot I'alire, 
ct D*! entcndoit el que bien. 
ibiil. p. tot : 

cl la dame, qui fu potquise 

dc SI grant hontc et de son mal, 

li disi : " biaus sire, il n'i s al." 

IS07 qniUs] from Lat. gutttui, and a short fomi 

fuiMj, we have F. mi, 'coy', It. chclo, 'quiet', but 

also F. quitle, Sp. quito, ' quit*, in the sense of freed 

ftotn obJzalion, thus M. L. 'sit quietus' ^'sitabso- 

latu*; heoct alto our adv. 'guitt'. 

Un ki fODt] the analysis on p. 94 (last line ofnote) 
Btaim it Drobable (bat the i'i sunt given in text is 
VTong, ana shouM be ii sunt. 

1300 trantl] It. Iravaglio, Sp. trabajo, Pg. Irabalho, 
wilb a uinilar deve'oprocnl in meaning as labor ; 
ftlhnpt Uam Lat. Oaii, whence tiabare, F. tn-lnevtr, to 
tbow stumbling-biocks in the way. and so (through 
Irab-Mulare] the verb Iravaillrr, and subst. trtivail ; 
ovr 'irartl ia the same word, and means labour in 
vaiking, preciwly ax in the Bavarian dialect, the Germ. 
*rMl4n • to labour' may meao ■ to walk'. 

ISO* ttU lelWilBrj 'irrevocably', so r36s stm 
jjUnMU tcluner; cf. Md-.z. Allfr. uv. 33 : 
trcs cbe qiw jou i'esgardai, 
fui je pris saus reveoir. 

130S tenoer] M.F. Cancer; C-om a form tentiare, 
deriv. of tentuG, tenerc, to maiutain, hold one's opim'on, 
hence to contest, (cf. the O. F. sui>;t. unfaa.) to scold, 
&c. : cf. Rom. de Tr. 1096 : 

lede cho<e est dc icanacicr. 
se ne vieng pas i vos lencier. 

130fl k'uni est] this k' cunnot be the icl, form. masc. 
nom., for the reason asbigncd 00 bi8 note atd • ; it is 
the eonj. causal: "you know very lillie of the man yon 
treat so contemptuously, which you ceitainiy would 
not do if you knew him, for he is the fiiend of the God 
who made us, as you may probably team before evening 
by his performance of some miracle". 

— kl pint] V. note on 1631. 

13U enrepniTer] (v. note on 141 ;) cf.Rom. Stud. 
Hlt.3, p, 413: 

quej'ol dire en reprower, 
' qui mercie crie, aura pardon'. 
Kell. Rom. 207. 23 : 

— dist se fert kl ne veit] this particular proverb is to 
be found among the proverbs of Master Serlo, as given 
by M. Paul Meyer in his Documents Manuscrits, Rap- 
port, p. 170: 

" si firi ki ni veit." 
" sic Qli feriunt qui cassi lumine fiunt. 
sic scit percutere quem sdmus luce carere. 
sic facimuB scire sic cecum cito fetirc." 
1321 paroeneT] deriv. of O.F. parfoa, from Lat. 
fiartitio,M,L. fartio ; DC. gives: ' partionatii appcllari 
videntuT ii negotialores quoi inter socictas est, sio 
dicti qtiod jacturam simul et lucrum parlicipent'. 

1328 d'OOiie] this seems a loose way of expressing • 
purpose, '■ they draw their swords, in order to kill " ; 
cf. 1419 sumuns d'envair, summoned for the purpose of 
atlackingi 1517 se purofri de miuir, went forward to 

1334 tut] this cannot be the adv., so it is prob, a 
mistake for tuit, as the nom. pi. masc. always takes 
ui in Anb. ; the same spelling occurs in two appa- 

1359 tut unt rettf il lui cesC mortcl encutnbrer; 

1407 tut retleot Amphibal le clerc orienlel; 
where lui is seemingly a nom. pi., but in both is simply 
the adv. = wholly, altogether. 

— saimonerl M. F. has its verb ' sennonRer ' used 
as subst. in Aub. ib5>, from Lnt. sermonari, of which 
Aul. Gell. (17. 2) says: 'rusticius videtur, sed reclius* ; 
the noun is from a type ' sermonarius ' , preacher. I 
translate: "all this is l^ the magic arli ofthe preacher", 
but if this is correct, it is the tmly passage in which the 
governing noun is without the article, and goremed 
itself by a prepos. : perhapsitmight be better to explain 
■fo est au sarmuner par soriz', 'the preacher has this 
power by means of magic'. 

1336 ft tun tiJe&tJ the Romance use of Ibis word - 

tndination, wLsh, tiaturally went into O. E., cf. Chauc. : 

thcrffore have they counselled yow ratber 

to youre talent than to youre profyt. 

This was its natural meaning, from Gr. nUavrnv, 

balance, hence inclining, piopeimly; DC. quotei 



from a will : ' si venerit ad aliquam de meas filias in 
talentum Deo scrvire*, if they take a fancy to serve God. 

— rebimdir] in Prov. and O. F. the verb denotes to 
resoundf perhaps from Lat. bombitare, to buzz ; for the 
change of conjugation, Diez compares retentzV from 
Lat. tmnitare. The word would then appear to have 
taken on a secondary meaning to re-echo^ and so to 
leap back, to rebound; cf. Spens. F. Q. T. 6. 7 the far 
rebownded noyce. 

1344 11 ourt sure] a not infrequent use of the adv. 
instead of the prep. (Diez, Gr. III. 300) ; cf. Vie de 
St. Thorn, p. 361 jo ne li cur sure ; p. 107 tuit li 
curent sure ; Rom. de Tr. 1943, 8412 : 
en eslepas sc corent sure, 
entrocis se sunt en poi d*ore. 

— esmanker] from Lat. mancus, M. L. mancare, to 
maim, dismember ; DC. quotes < si quis alteri brachium 
cum spata aut cum fuste fregerit, et non mancat, solvat 
solidos sex' ; *qui cum redimi se multo rogarent, imperat 
cos emancari: mancos autem pugnos referentes mtus 
sociis remitti*. M. F. has adopted the word in the 
general sense, manquer = to be wanting. 

1347 senterj properly an adj., * chemin sentier', = 
'semitarius', from Lat. semita, O. F. sente, Sp. senda; 
whence It. sentiero, Sp. sendero, path, [Portug. sen- 
deiro, hack-horse, (quasi roadster ?)\ 

1360 dulnser] this word occurs frequently in O. F. as 
verb and subst. abstr., even in Aub. (1628), but it must 
be an adj. here, = * afflicted', although I have never 
met it so elsewhere. The case is not much different in 
(1357) devurcr; cf. also (1392) raveinncr, with similar 

1367 lion] cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 2632 : 

ne in Belmary ther is no fel lyoun 
that hunted is, or is for hunger wood, 
ne of his prey desireth so the blood, 
as Palamon to sle his foo Arcite. 

1869 rette] O. Sp. reptar, from M. L. reputare ; 
Diez quotes * si quis alteri reputaverit', shall have laid 
to the charge of another, &c. DC. wrongly refers 
M.L. reptare, retare, to rectare : I think it not impro- 
bable that rectare arose by mistake from rettare^ Lat. 
reputare, which already in the 2nd cy. meant to 
charge to anybody's account, ' reputaturus patri quod 
praestiterit' (Papias). 

Chauc. Cant. T. 2731 : 

it was aretted him no vylonye. 

Spens. F. Q. II. 8. 8 : 

the charge which God doth unto me arett 
of his deare safety, I to thee commend. 

1362 disner] It. desinare, from Lat. de^enare^ 
desnare, (cf. F. cygne, O. F. cisne from M. L. cecinus ;\ 
similarly, we have O. F. reciner from re-cenarey ana 
It. pU'Signo is just posUcenium, Magalotti says : 
** pusignare non si piglia mai in un altro senso che di 
mangiar dopo cena*\ 

1376 ohexnise] It. camicia, Sp. camisa, is the M. L. 
camisiay a word used even bv Terome ; Zeuss, Gram. 
Celt.* p. 787, thinks it is an Old Gallic word, Kjinric 
camse^ O. Insh coimmse, and so Diez explains as from 
a stem cdmis with adj. suMx* -m; for the termination 

"isiuSt cf. the nn. pr. Par-isii, Bel-isia, Car-isnis, Cca- 
isius, [Moift Cenis;] but cdmis is postulated by another 
and simpler form of the word, viz. It. CMice^O.Y. 
chainse, priest's white surplice, (whence the (kriv. 
cheins-d (1720), cf. M. F. cout-il from O. F. coate.) 

— gimn] prop, flap or lappet of a dnss, mdi 
could be gathered into folos (sinus); DC. quotes 
' anteriora frocd sui in gremium ita attnhit, Qt pedo 
possint videri; girones quoque coUigit ntrimqiie, at 
non sparsim jaceant in terra*. This folded part vis 
called in M. H. G. gSre, which implies an O. H. G. gtn^ 
ace. gerun, whence the It. gherone, F. giron, wenDor* 
rowed. The root seems to be gir^ a javelin, and ve 
have still in English a deriv. in the wotd *gon\t 
hcLstaU insertion in a dress, cf. M.L. pUum ve tt i mtu H. 
In M,H.G. giren were applied as ornaments, md cme 
to mean the entire lappet of the coat, &c., so tint 
girun de chemise is really a shirt-tail. 

— manoe] sleeve, from Lat. manica, id., and so feoLt 
but the masc. manche^ hand-le. It. manico, is fron 
manus by deriv. suflf. -icus, cf. le pordie from poit^CBL 

1379 maens] M. F. moyen, from Lat. meifariii, 
used in M.L. to express * mediae magmtndims', &c 

— queiu] all those adjj. aueus, iovies, &c, aie pnb. 
in the mas. sg. nom., thougn I snould pcefer to ttb 
them as ace. pi. in apposition with Us in 1377. 

1383 ki oist] this cannot be rig^t ; I read, tmt doobt- 
fully, ke ci*st, * (juod hie est' ; « they do not doubt ikti, 
if any believes in him, there is the ri|^t belief." Un- 
fortunately the metre here does not determine ididlier 
a syllable may have not been omitted. 

1388 entame] Prov. entamenar, from a Lat in- 
taminare, to touch, (tamen « tag-men, tango ;] cf.lLF. 
semer from seminare. In M.F., entamer means 'to 
begin', which is illustrated by our word begiHf of 
wluch the simple verb 'ginnen meant < to cot' (meat, 
&c.,) the first stage towards beginning to eaL 

1391 ne saiil ne pea] ** such a marvel wasneverbefoR 
seen as this of the wolf of the forest, wOkotU ktmg 
either full or fed, and the naturally-ravenous cs^le^ 
which by Christ's power have become goardiant of 
dead bodies". The ki of 1391, is for it^ after t» 


— saul] M. F. soai. It. satollo, Wallach. sitnl d^ 
stul, Prov. sadol, from Lat. satuUus. (dimin. of Jcte^ 

— pen] pp. of paistre, still used in M. F. in the 
comp. repu, * satiated ', and sbst. repue^ Villon's 'icpoes 
franches' , ' free feeds * ; from the same root rt-fviiUt 
we have repast, M. F. repas; cf. idso M. F. tfp^ 
appas, now employed difierently, but realW thie hbK 
word, viz., O. F. appast. Cf. Mar. de Ft*. L 76 : 

quant lur mangiers al vespres vint, 

la pucele tant en retint, 

dunt li chevaliers out asses, 

bien fu p^uz et abevrez. 
1393 mortiolnej Lat. morticinus, defined by Flipias: 
" non occisorum, sed mortnorum aniftmlfnim estmorhida 
caro" ; so It. morticino, came morticina, means the fleilk 
of animals that have died a natural dc«Uh ; the bodies 
of the martyrs lay as if they had died by natnial deadu 
without injury or wound. 



liOO nuirMl Lat. sndarium, cf. St. John xi. 44 et 
Ijcws illius sudario erat ligata ; DC. quotes from a regu- 
lation as to the burial of a dead monk, ' abluto corporc, 
indnatur dlicio et cuculla usque ad talos; sudarium 
taper cncuIUm ponatur*. 

— enciun] pp. of cousdre, M. F. coudre, from Lat. 
ccm-snere >= cons* re, cousre ; but It. cucire, Sp. cusir, 
point to a M.L. custrc, which is found in Isidorus. 
1^ Isonoal] cf. Chauc. Cant T. 2628 : 
ther nas no tvgyr in the vale of G., 
whan that hir whelp is stole, when it is lite, 
so cmel on the hunt, as is Arcite. 

1410 Jni* lOP gZftnti detlfll Virgirs * siderajurare* ; so 
in M. r.p the prep, may oe omitted after verbs of 
■vearing, promising, cf. Lafontaine, Fab. viii. 6, la 
femme promit ses grands dieux de sc tairc. In 1 736 
ve have }m€ eiiient^r lur deus. 

1411 pA&6l] M.L. panellum, DC. < instragulum, 
cphippii genus', 'un cneval bast6 d'un pennel'; still 
nscd in saddlery, our ' panel*. 

1412 dhuiMiJ elsewhere the final radical is ch, thus 201, 
683 chncb-er, 223 chuch-ez ; its initial also is always 
^A, except 1056 cuch-ez. The root is Lat. collocare^ It. 
cokare, COTcare, Prov. colgar, Wallach. culca; [but 
Sp. Pg. colgar, keeps nearer to the original sense, and 
only means Mo hang up'.] 

1414 I'aTVimt niAne] this is a very characteristic 
usage in O. F., of si (with futures in protasis and 
apodosb) m nntU ; cf. Alix. 61. 21 ja ne m'en tomerai, 
s sera dcsiertes ; B. du Guesc. 14052 : 

car je ne finerai jam^s en mon Wvant 
s'aiai le rov Henry mis ainsi que devant; 
[it oocnrs frequently in B. du Guesc. ; cf. 475. 11 16. 1900. 

«154- S®!*- 5395- 8092. 16526. 16597. 17395. 18094. 
18237. I0247. 19701. 20390. 20421. 21682. 32669;] 
FL et Blanccf. p. 135 : 

ne la verra mais en sa ne, 
s*en aura eu grant doulor. 
Fr equently d* is prefixed, thus Alix. 8f. 35 ja n'cn 
tomcTa, dc li ^u'il I'ara prise ; [cf. ibid. 79. 1 7 : 
notie droit signor hge ne dc%*ons nus guerpir, 
de si qne il nus vint desficr a trair.] 
{Also Willi condit.,) Fl. et Blanccf. p. a7 : 
jamais ses cors repos n'aroit, 
de si que il Taroit trov£c. 
1418 ce&bel] from Lat. cymbalum^ through a dimin. 
iymtbfiimm, toe bell mhich summoned the monks to 
meals ; it Uius came to denote any x^sembty for amuse- 
ment, np. for tournaments, and so the tournament 
h«elf. licnce it was used c^-en for real war, for the 
tlnck of the fray, where the standard is, and so finaUy 
can mean even the standard ; as prob. here, * summoned 
lo the standard '. [In Sp. cimbel. It. ximbcllo, (as also 
in O. F..) it means 'decoy-pigeon'; cf. Prov. ccm- 
bdar ■• to entke.] 

1419 OSt arei] I do not sec any other wav ofcxplaininij 
this than by reading ost a rfi\ cf. Rom. Jc Tr. 7985 : 
issi nrmd com til d rci 
s'cn issircnt fors au tomei. 

Fab. et Cant. anc. iv. 155 sez tu (juc soies fille droi. 
B. du Guesc. 51.S0 Tost h Charlc. 
There is not much ditTiculty in the construction, which 
is common enough, but the meaning does not suit well 
here ; at least it would seem more natural to translate 
Mike as if summoned to the standard* (= to arms, or 
* by martial music, trumpets, c>Tnbals', &c.) * in order 
to attack an arrayed host, or a city or fort.* But I have 
never met such a ptcp. aret]. The omission of the fern, 
ending e is of no consecjucnce, as we have ost bani 
1 285 ; (qy. ost masc. ?) 

1421 nmcin] Chaucer's *rouncy', (Cant. T. 302;) in 
O.F. also without the intcrj)olated, rotuifty as 
M. F. roussin, Portu-j. rossim, Sp. r(K*in, tvcin-ante 
(I<.ozinante), the meaning in all being *a sorr\- horse'. 
The existence of an It. rozza hinders Diez from con- 
necting O.F. roncin^ &c., with the Germ, ross ; which 
yet I think is the ori};;in of these words. The nasal has 
been preser>'ed in Walloon, ronsin, a stallion, and has 
even gone over into Welsh, rhwnsi, rough-coated 

— ignel] O. F. also isnel, inel, Pr. isnel. It. snello, 
from O. JI. G. snel^ warlike, fiery, whence might come 
esnelf syaH ; but the initial / (instead of ^') is a dilliculty. 
Diez admits the possibility of a Lat. ignitellus as the 
ori^n of O. F. ignel, [not of isnel ;'\ and certainly a con- 
fusion with Ignis is posi>ible. 

1425 ahuent] from O.F. hu^ a natural shout of 
mockery or alarm, preserved in our * htu and cry*, M.F. 
huer, chat-AiM/f/, screech owl ; from a deriv. with /, 
hu't-ery we have our hoot. As there is a I'rov. ucar, 
M. F. hucher, M. L. hucciare, Scheler takes F. hui'r to 
be merely a \'ariation of hucher, which is referred liy 
Diez to Lat. huCf as a cry, hither! comparing the 
Norman cry haroy from O. II. G. hara, harot, meaning 
here^ come here. 

1426 cntel] for cultcl, It. coltello, from Lat. cultellu^, 
dimin. of cultcr; from cutel, we have our cut!er^ M. V. 
coutel-ier, while our cutlass is F. coutel-as, It. roltcll. 
accio, [u-ith augmentative sufT. -aceus^ It. -/iiV/<*, V. .«r, 
"tLsse^-ache^ -acty as in coutel-as, cuir-asse, pan-a<.l)c[ 

1427 deflhnel] O. F. has many spell in;;s of tliin word, 
huel; it occurs as iurl, ynel^ iwcl, iuuiul, [in Glms! 
to ♦U li\Tcs de Justice*, the Kd. quotes an f xpLiiMtuin 
of cquinoxial, as ha\ing * le jour ct la nuit luwiuh ;\ 
ewal, (cf. our ater m^ aquarii^ M. K. ai;niif rr ;} lii m.|i\ 
the forms with media, as i^tf/,,* 11. 1^20, M |. 
6gal. For this form (h;uel, tf. Schchr in \a im li, •.', 
Jahrb. vil. i. p. 68, n. 12, cjuiparctur gl. wyt en-tut-/ 
cqualitatem gl. huel'ti, ' 

• TTbe form pttn by Roanefort/i/^, (G^ou. Rom.) can hardly be other than a f.,r uu-.^l il.. . „t. 

J**^^'^**" ?f ,1^ ".r^"'. . r^ ^"^^ ^-^^^ ^^- g"^^°^ * ^"^ " • matter of fact, the Piii.H.I .n l', . | ( /i 
an mcompauble m the word, for we have two scries, one with only the labial v or i/.tLc Jilar V i llJ » ' 
ooly, g; i. e. cither cial, or e^. ' ' ^ *'"*^' ^"" "**= i:"»tui..l 




— ohemins ferrez] the viae feiratae are thus described 
by DC. : " itinera a Romanis in provinciis exstructa et 
confecta, ita a posteris appellata propter eonim duritttm^ 
vcl quod ex silicibus subnigris com pacta, ferri color em 
referant" ; the first explanation is no cfoubt correct, 
' the hard highroad ' ; cf. B. du Guesc. : 

4345 le grand chemin fcrr6 s'en va esperonnant. 

14900 ^ la voie s'est mis, Ics grans chemins ferrez, 
nil. lieues et plus s*en est courant alez. 

1480 veins] I suppose this = Lat. vanus, but in that 
case I do not know in what sense the brain is said to 
be veins ; light-headed (with pain) ? 

1439 rate] a word which we have preserved in our 
routy (borrowed in M.F. rout, raout,) from M.L. nipta, 
fraction, division, hence assemblage, crowd. 

1440 oria] It. grido, Sp. grilo, Prov. crit, from Lat. 
quirit-are^ f= crit-are,) used by Quintilian of an orator, 
to shriek, &c. The nnal z in Aub. testifies to the ori- 
ginal fmal t; v. app. 

1443 fOPbie] It. forbire, from O. H. G. furban, to 
clean, wipe ; whence It. furbo, M. F. fourbe, a rogue, 
*who makes a clean sweep'; for the connexion of 
meaning, cf. Sp. limpiar^ which means both to clean 
and to steal. 

1445 esolarde] in the Rom. treatment of the verbs 
with inchoative affix -jf, (Lat. ^escere)^ Span, and 
Portug. keep fairly close to Lat., Ilal. and Wallach. 
drop the -j^, save in the present, [i. e. save in cases where 
the stcm-syll. would without the increment be ac- 
cented ;] Fr. and Prov. in the verbs where they do keep 
the -sc, actually add another ^sc in their pres. forms. 
The variations may be shown thus : — 

Lat. (inf.)clar -esc -£rc, (pres. isg.)clar -esc-o. 








clar -ezc-o. 
(pad -e^-o). 
cniar -isc-o. 
chier -esc. 
(nigr -ez-^^). 
clar -c-esc. 
clair -c-is. 

( Sp<in. „ clar -ec -er, 
\ Portug. „ (pad -ec -er), 

Ital. „ cniar - -ire. 

Wall. „ chier - -1, 

I*rov. „ (nigr - ez -ir), 
„ „ clar - c -ir, 

Fr. „ clair - c -ir. 
This double formation is avoided however in Fr. by the 
adoption of the mixed conjugation as in Ital. ; thus F. 
avil-iKy (where Prov. has avu-z-ir,) = It. chiar-ire, and 
avil-AT ss It. c\ii2i'isco. Among the few exceptions to 
this general weakening by omission, may be noted this 
verb iclaircir^ noircir, (Aub. 1103), dur-cir, (1495) ; of 
new verbs with this deriv. affix, we have stUl accourcir, 
r6tr6cir ^re-strict-escere), enforcir, obscurcir. 

1465 kemens] M. F. crdn-eau, O. F. cren-el, cran-el, 
M. L. craneUus, quamellus, dimin. of cran^ [still in 
^L F., = notch,] the origin of which is supposed by 
Dicz to be a Lat. crena^ occurring only in Pliny [Hist. 
Nat., if the reading be genuine, (al. renii) ]. Besides 
the technical terms, crenelle, crcnclate, &c., we have 
our * cranny* , a nook, from the O. F. cranel. 

1466 jieusj I have translated this afresh' in Gloss., 
as I supi>ose it must be really the same word as joius 
and thus would be a " M. L. gaudi-osus, though it 
hardly seems an appropriate epithet. The termination 
•cus — Lat. ostis, is found in piteus 821, but the root syll. 
ji' is obscure, lijieus were taken i:>x ju-cus^ one might 

hazard a connexion with a Lat. jugaUis^ in the sense 
of ' well-watered ', but I have no example of this word. 
1468 aventsdlles] M. F. ^ventail, It. ventaglio, Sp. 
ventalle, mean *fan*, but It. has also the fem. Tcntagna 
as O. F. a-ventaille, in this sense 'visor of the hdmet'; 
the visor, M. F. visiire, is the place for seeing HbsfinA^ 
the vent-aille, for breathing tnrough, from ventus, [d 
soupirail (v. 55) ;] Chaucer calls it the adventi^le{fJsL 
T. 9080). Besides ventail, M. F. has a fonn vontail b 

— henmesl It. elmo, Sp. yclmo, from Goth. kHms^ 
O. Norse hjalmr ; with suffix '•ettus, O. F. heahn-et, 
imitated in Sp. a//»ete, (forelmete,) whence perhaps F. 
annet, * head-piece *. 

— ohapeiisj dimin. of chape, F. cape. It. cappa, 
perhaps vulg. Lat. ; Isidor. gives * capa, quia quasi 
totum capiat hominem' ; and S. O.H.G. gi-£uig, dress, 
from f&han, to take. Whatever be the origin, it has 
many deriw., F. capot, capuchon, chaperon, &c.; 
from chap-el of 161 7, we have chapel-et, chaplet, like 
bracel-et, cors-1-et, &c. 

1470 frois] It. fresco, M.F. fiais, friafche, fromOJI.G. 
frisCt A.-Sax. yjfrjj, out fresh; Roquefort gives aa 
O. Y,frisqtu^ whence oxj frisky frisky, &c. 

147^ pnr Dens] the relative clause in foDg. lioe, 
shows that the meaning here most be, <* yoo worship 
devils instead of God, who made ns in his likeness'*; 
the more natural way (cf. 59^) would be to render *' yo« 
invoke them as gods*\ but tnis would leave the ii of 
147A with no antecedent. 

1477 debonaires] Diez discusses Lat. atrium and 
agrum as the possible origin of the word aire, but it 
seems unnecessary to go past o^r, or rather the adj. 
aeria. It. aria ; the meanings i* air, and 2* disposition, 
race, family, are scarcely more incongruous than in the 
case of Lat. spiritus b i" breathing, 20 courage, han^ti- 

1480 azigre] the usual nam, pi. is angerei/)^ for the 
ohU pi. cases we have angles^ as also in obi. sg., and the 
adj. anglin ; angre is a later form, and is perha^ the im» 
mediate parent of M. F. ange ; cf. however M.F. temper 
O. F. temple, from Lat. tempora, where we haie pie- 
scrved the /, temp/(f, ang^/. 

1490 asoti] cf. Mort Dart. nr. i <how Mexlin vti 
assotted, and doted on one of the ladies of the lake*. 
Of the origin of the word sot^ nothing u certain : Dies 
accepts the old derivation from Hebr. shotek^ foolish, 
which seems to me very improbable. Lat. itoltai 
makes O. F. estot, estout, but the derivatian of aa 
initial F. s from a Lat. st is not nnivenally accepted. 
M. L. sottus was in use as early as Chariemagne in the 
sense of Lat. stultus, and perhaps soUus-mv^ aU along a 
vulgar Lat. word for stultus; Scnuchardt (L 32, 11.49^ 
found stulto riming with mutto, and there may hsfe 
been a form suUus as welL 

1505 gisez] It. giacere, Sp. yacer, Pg. jazer, from 
Lat. jaccrc, in O. F. gesir, cf. plaisir fixnn placcR; 
hence the M. F. defective forms, d-^t, gtte (• gisteX 
giscmcnt, and the (inf. g^ir, and its) deriv. gi«^ 

1514 derami] It. diramare, M. L. deramare, to this 



the boaghs, to pull off the fruits, &c., and so, generally, 
to strip off. 

1580 u nlaies bender] for this construction, v. note 
on 214 ; omy one other mstance occurs of its use with 
plural nouns, 1548 as cors garder. 

— bender] deriv. of O. F. bende, It. benda, Sp. 
venda, from O. H. G. binda ; connected with this root 
is our bund'U, in O. F. bioundel, [Roquefort quotes 
' boundel de ravTrhe ' = fasciculus myrrhac.] 

1536 ja srmi aonni]^] this is the only exception to 
the rule in A., that ja only precedes the auxd. estre^ 
when the tense is future ; (it never precedes aver as an 
auxil.) ; here too, it is used in the amrmative ; e. gr. 
389 Ja ne vus ert voiez. 
451 ja pur lignage ne serra espami. 
102 1 ja n'ert termind. 
1035 ja tant ne en serrunt requis. 
1536 ja sunt acumpli. 
So also future in 1^31 where ja precedes estre; 
1 33 1 saisiz ja en serrez. 
In 548 ne fuLssez citoien, jas fuissez ^ mort livrez, we 
may trace the same principle, for jas fuissez livrez 
stands by attraction for jas seriet hvrez ' you would 
already have been given up to death '. 
1541 nrive ne estrangij cf. Amis et Amil. 3250 : 

a la cort voisent et estrainge et priv^ 
et povre et riche, n'en i ait nus remez. 
This form estrangi only occurs here, and is prob. owing 
to the rime ; estrange, our strange. It. stranio, is the 
Lat. extraneus. 

1544 enbUnohi] I take this as intrans., ' the blood 
grew whiter than milk\ rather than trans., *the blood 
whitened them, more than milk would*. 

1545 onntasmee] the interpolation of J is no doubt 
owing to the analogy of the 2 pi., cunt-artes, where the 
X is organic, Lat. am-artis = am-avistis. 

1546 uxement] Lat. atramentum, Prov. airamen ; 
only Sp. seems to have preserved this word in any 
shape, m its antiquated adj. atramentoso, which dyes 
black. In its stead Sp. Pg. have tinta, from Lat. tincta, 
borrowed also early in O.H.G. tincta ; but M.F. energy 
(O. F. enquc, whence our ink^) is Ital. inchiostro, 
Old Milanese incostro, Prov. encaut, from iyKavarpof, 
the red pigment which the Greek emperors used for 
their sign manual. 

— enbrerer] M. L. inbrcviare, *in breves redigere*, 
the 'brevis' being = 'chartula continens indicem, scu 
sommariam rei cujuspiam dcscriptionem * ; from this 
brevis, breve, in the sense of an oflicial document, came 
the subst. brcf, (whence Germ, brief, letter,) and the 
dimin. breu-tt, brevet rank, given by royal warrant. 

1549 blesmi] with inorganic x, M.F. bl^mir, our 
blemish, firom the O. F. adj. bleme, blesme, very pale ; 
the root is Teutonic bid, dark blue ; cf. O. Norse blar 
5em Hel, black as death, bldtnan the livid colour of a 
bruise ; thus blemir would mean orig. to beat ' black 
and bhie', and so * to damage*. 

1554 noes] Lat. opus. It. uopo, O. Sp. huevos, 
huebos, [P. del Cid, 83, 125, 212, &c.] Prov. ohs, in 
O. F. also oeps^ cf. P. Meyer, Man. de Langage, p. 383, 
* pour acheter des danr6es ^ Toeps de mon signeur* ; 

though generally without the labial, cf. Rom. Stud. 

Hft. 3, p. 424 : 

ases i trovent pain et el, 

char sal6e, formache et oes, [oeufs] 

et quanque i pelerin est oes. 

1560 men esoient] v. note on 1 138 ; cf. Kell. Romv. 

336. 7 : 

qui le bien voit et le mal prent, 

it est fol ^ son escient. 
R. de Tr. 1497 gie cuit, au mien escient ; 
used uith other prepp. also, thus B. du Guesc. has selon 
mon escient, 3699, 4153, &c., where indeed it is not 
uncommon as a simple noun, thus 4332 oez mon escient, 
hear my opinion. In Rom. de Tr. (1298) we have it 
even dcvelop>ed into an adj., de parler fu escientose {\) 
In this phrase, men is of course for mietiy or mun^ but 
it is not impossible that the poet may have himself con- 
nected it (wrongly) with nCen^ quasi * me sciente *. 

1561 mesoinenient] mecine » medicina, from Lat. 
medicus, O. F. micge ; there was also a form medicien, 
M. F. medccin, from a deriv. medic-ianus, but the com- 
monest expression in O. F. was tnire^ which is prob. 
mcdic-arius : as gramma/irarrVz, made gramma/r^, so 
viedicarius could make vieire^ mire. 

1670 mais] ** who listens to these messengers** ; cf. 
Ph. Mousk. 9585 par son m6s savoir li feroit ; Rom. de 
Tr. 4605 li m5s s'est tost mis ^ restr6e. The form in 
A. is prob. owing to the license in the matter of mats 
[= magis] and mis ; this word should be mes. It. 
messo, M. L. missus = legatus ; so M. F. messager, our 
messenger, from F. message, M. L. missaticum. 

1674 fous] It. folle, O. F. fol, our 'fool*, from Lat. 
follis, bellows, i. e., a wind-bag. 

1577 toleit] from a barbarous Lat. tollcctum, which 
may be inferred from It. toUetto, cf. Dante, Par. v. 33 ; 
(in Inf. xi. 36, * toilette dannose' has a var. lect. collette ;) 
so in O. Portug. we have tolheito for the mod. tolhido, 
(cf. Mussafia, in Sitz.-Ber. der Wien. Akad. XLVi. p. 
233). The verb is rich in forms, thus the perf. is 
tolui^ toUy [and tols\ so impf. subj. tolt/sse, tol/sse, 
toli-z'sse ; the pp. is tolu and toloit (toleit). For the 
construction, cf; B. du Guesc. 9846 : 

assez m*nnt fait d'ennuy et tolu ma conti6c. 

1579 de puteire] I have edited as separate \i'ords, as 
we have de putagc (289), and de puslin (1841); but 
dcbonaire (811. 1477) I give as one word on account of 
the deriw. debonnere-t6 (778), and -mcnt, (121 1). 

1581 oonpere! Lat. parare has assumed the meaning 
protect, ward off, in F. parer, oiu* parr)* ; cf. It. para- 
petto, * parapet*, breast-guard, It. para-sole, para- 
vento, and so by imitation, F. para-pluic. In cpd. we 
have It. riparare, F. rcparer, to * repair * ; Sp. Pg. em- 
parar, F. s'cmparcr, to seize, (while It. imparare = to 
leani,) further compounded into remparer, to fortify, 
whence O.P. rempar^ M.F. rempar/ ; but It. compcrarc, 
Sp. Pg. comprar, Wallach. cimipera, O. F. cumjircr, 
mean to buy. 

1591 blasmez] It. biasimare, M. L. blasfemare, in the 
sense of blame, reproach, condemn. There is another 
common deriv. from blasfemare, exhibiting the rare 
change of y into ^, blastemare. It. biastemmia, bestem- 

Q 3 



mia, O.F. blastcnge, Wallach. blSstSm, cursing, and 
by aphaercsis, Sp. Pg. lastima, pity, lastimar, to 

1592 adrescement] DC. sub adrateria quotes : * pour 
ce qu'ilz virent qu ilz ne Ic pourroient attaindre, il 
li \'inrent audevant par une adresce en un bois * ; * pour 
abrcgier tout chcmin, comme est il necessity aux denr6es 
pour ctre plutost ct plus frcschement apport6es 4 vent, 
lis vont tant par voyes publiques, comme par adrcces ' ; 
*il savoit bien les adrcsses et les refuges du pays'. 

159i a sermun entent] I do not see any other way 
of translating entendre here than * to engage the atten- 
tion*, as it must govern cresticns of 1595 ; but I have 
no other example of precisely similar usage. 

1605 estal] it. stallo, M. L. stallum, from O. H. G. 
staly = statio, locus, hence here * prendre estal*, to stop 
for rest ; it remains in M. F. ital^ (butcher's) stall, shop, 
whence italer, to expose as goods for sale; further, in 
italon^ our stallion, M.L. *ecjuus ad stallum*. 

1606 a ohemin jumal] this seems to mean ' as if for 
a day's journey* ; it is an odd exj^rcssion, but it can 
hardly be anything else ; jum6e is just the space tra- 
velled in a day, and the phrase probably denotes the 
distance the mart>T was compelled to travel in his 

1607 bastim poinnal] It. pugnale, Sp. puilal, [M.F. 
by another suff. poign-ard,] prob. from Lat. pugnus, a 
weapon just large enough for the hand, hence dagger ; 
DC. quotes "icellui tira un coustel qu*il portait 
appell6 poignal**. The connexion with lances, and 
cuteus seems to demand the meaning * pointed ' as 
given in Gloss., but perhaps it means simply * big 
sticks' ; cf. Alix. 65. 23 : 

gietent, lancent et traient, et font grant batistal : 
mult cil i ont ru6 mainte pi^re poingnal. 
1609 entrail] from Lat. interaneum, we have It. 
entragno, Sp. cntrafias, O. F. also entraigne ; instead 
of the termination -anea^ F. adopted, perhaps through 
the influence of trip-aille^ a form with collective suffix 
'ailU\ entr-ailles, Prov. intralias, and this -ail/e was easily 
interchanged with -a/7, the -aculum suffix (v. 55) ; our 
word has preser\'ed the O. F. form, entrail. 

1611 oursall M.L. cursalis, used of dogs, and of 
ships, = cursanus, our corsair. It. corsale, corsare, Sp. 
corsaris, Sj). Portug. corcel, M. F. coursier. 

1612 flauno] M. L. flanchus. It. fianco, prob. from 
Lat. y/otYWj, with inserted nasal before guttural (v. iij, 
* the weak part of the body*, just as in M. H. G. krenke 
from kranc, weak, and in Mod. Germ, weiche^ the weak 

— dos] It. dosso, Sp. dorso, from Lat. dorsum ; our 
old endoss comes to us through O. F. endossir, whOe 
the modem i/idorse reverts to tlie Latin. 

1613 li martlrs] a nomin. pendens; for in the 
lengthy relative clause to this antecedent, the poet has 
completely forgotten the latter ; perhaps he connected 
it momentarily with liiir se Icssa of 1615, (which evi- 
dently refers only to ki of 16 14). 

1616 piler] from Lat. pilarium, deriv. of pila = column, 
M. F. pilier, our pillar. Germ, pfeiler. 
1623] the construction in tnis line is plain enough, 

but it is not very intelli|:ible : '' the pagans were only 
angry, and saw in his patient endurance nothing miia- 

1626 pazodre] v. note on 89; a good example of die 
force oipar in verbs, «= outright, cf. Rom. de Tr. 11687: 

qui navrez est, 90 \tparhu; 

ne li puet mires faire alne. 
Cf. Spcns. F. Q. II. 7. 58 : 
the whiles he ster\''d with hunger and with drontli, 
he daily dyde, yet never throughly dyen couth. 

1627 felej this form of the fern, only occnn here, 
elsewhere it is teu, tel : it is perhaps owing to the (bl- 
lo^ing word est, 

1628 dulnser] used transitively (as here, but in a 
different sense) in Alexis 119 : 

qucr toit en ont lor voiz si atempredes 
que toit le plainstrent et toit le doloserent : 
eel jom i ont cent mil lairmes ploredes. 

1630] m this line are two mist^ces, whidi is my 
unusual in the MS., viz. tenc instead of tent^ and tm for 

1631 ke Dens plus sanver] another error, for Den 
must be wrong, (cf. 1 221 dunt Den te plut seisir, IJ09 
ki (ji) nus plut tuz crier,) as plaire is only used with 
the dative, and impersonally, [with infin. following,] 
(save in 1281 mut me plest ost voler). 

1635 refasnin] It. rifusare, Sp. rehnsar, Prov. Pg. 
refusar, show that they in this word has made good its 
hold very widely in the Rom., but it can hardly he 
other than a modification of Lat. recnsare, by the 
influence of L. re/utare, [from which Brachet woaM 
derive it, by a supposed reliit-iare, but this -uirv is only 
added to past ptcpp., and a few adjj. in -/twx,and besklei 
should have maae Ital. riftissare, and F. lefMser, cf 
from minutus, It. minuzzare, F. mcnuiser ; from acirtus, 
It. aguzzare, F. aiguiser]. From Lat. recosaie, O.F. 
has also a verb reuser, ruser, whence M. F. rust^ pnp. 
referring to the tricks of wild ftnimflU to take awa^ the 
scent from the hounds. 

1650 langetter] It. linguettaie, to stammer, ton 
lingua, with dimm. verbal suffix -ettarf, cf. O.F. gtn* 
beter, It. gambettare, from gamba. 

1652 aoheisnn] in 538. 829 we have the word radt 
ach^un, but acheisun gives the transvected i of Lat 

1655 recnveier] our recover, from Lat. itcnpersre; 
cf. Kell. Rom. 210. 12 : 

mors sui sans recouvrier. 
1. 32 mort sunt ti fU andui de ta monillier; 
tes nies les a ocis sans recoaviier. 
Matz. Altfr. 26. 20 : 

car mon cuer, mon cors tot entir 
ai mis en li sans recomTer, 
et s*onques de riens li fausai, 
ja n*i puisse jou rccouvrer. 

1656 esohiaper] It. scappare, Wallach. sdipa, M. F. 
6chapp>er, from ex and cappa, (v. 1468,) prop, to get out 
of the cape, mantel, to get rid of one's cloak to £idhtate 
flight, and so generally * to escape*. 

1658 86 ferez] an error for si s sic ; ' now do idut I 
shall tell you, and you will behave wisely*. 


1663 omtEirBr] the word wriiJnlr mcai 
bol 1 do not know iis origin ; tbcie is a c 

scarcelj be Ihe same us the verb in Aub.,a: 

1671 ^lenter] deriv. of O. F. aiglent, Prov. aguilen, 
formed t^ sufEx -fnf. fnua P. aiguille ^ Lat. acucula, 
so thai Cj;lanticr, (Pt. aguilancier,) wonld correspond 
CO a Lai. acncul-ent-aiins, with tlie ~icr (^ atius) tcrmi- 
nauon usual in naming trees, cr. pomm-ier, loa-ier, 
pron-ier, prua-ell-ier. Sic 

1B7& puis] Lat.putens, adopted by all the Romance, 
It. poiio, Sp. pozo, Portog, po^o, Pr. poti, Wallach. 
patz ; (bonowed even in Germ, pfiitze ;) M. F. 
re-inserled the (, in pails, bul preserved the old form in 
Ihe \rih puis-er, ipiiiser, to ci-haust. 

1679 ODTendra] the usual construction with cuvcnir, 
is the dat., and this apparent accus., licstuz ecus, is 
only here used, but the accus. also occurs fiequcDOy 
euoogh in O. F., cf. Rom. de Tr. 1330 : 
s'atiierc Tolent Tctorner, 
par nos Us coviendia passer, 
Kell Romv. igg. i; : 

tout liD amant pueent doutcr 
qui DC les conviegne pcrit. 
s'amoui^ en ma dame assamblcr 
ne Tail pitit. 

^nant seur moi touroent H uo (ais 
SI vatr ocil dcr, 

les miens convicnt gcnchir et aTuglcr. 
ISSO naUTOil] or uncertain origin ; it looks like a 
compound, or nu/ and some Didmown root. It. mal- 
vagio, and the transvceted i in F. maavais, demand a 
vord ending in -ji, i, e. vdii; now in Golb. there is a 
tabst. batfoviiii, wickedness, which would infer an 
■dj. balravesi, and a corresponding O. H. G. balvdsi ; 
lli» bal-vlsi vai perhaps Iranslbiined into mal-visi, 
through the analogy of malus. 

169fi pnrraier] 1 have entered this in Gloss, as if it 
were &I. F. ponrvoir, to provide, take precautions, but 
this takm no account of the term -er; we have indeed 
Toei in 941, (v. note,] but this is not parallel, and 
besides, is itself anomalous. fThere is a word voicr 
f-vetare] in 389, with which lllis pur-voier agrees per- 
hctly as to the fom, bnt I have no example nor autho- 
rity for such a word as pro-vrlart,'] On the other 
hand, the analogies of Ilil. P. pourrca, as of our convey, 
(convoy, envoy.) and purvey, suggest a connexion with 
a pio-iiare, like con-Tiare, m-viare, and so it is not im- 
: --iibLe jhat pur-veier, pro-viderc, has become mixed 
.:~'i fonns of a pro-viare. 

I'i97 enTinis] 'en Timn*, in a drcle, where vinm is 
■ =.1. from verb vintr, which Diei derives from O. F. 
. ■ f I J riogi, ■ Lai. vsriae, found in Pliny, who gives it 
as a Ccllibcrian word, armlet, bracelet. This viria is 
ibiu pdltaps a fordgn word, though the verb virart is 
old: it i« (onndin MSS.Dflhe Lex Alamann., [where 
DC note* that other MSS. read 'giVm/conlentionem', 
n. de qoo lis est, inspicere cum judidbas' ; 
' not however the same word, (ot viret ctuinot 

be for Lat gyiarc, because Lat. gi does not become 
F. -niA 

noO aEraTBntentl DC. quotes a 1-al. gloss. ' obrucre 
= agraventer' ; cf. thron. de Jord. Fant. 1244: 
la pierre de la tunde i peine revcrsa 
e nn de Inrs chevaliers i terre agraventa. 
More usually written, a-traventer, from crevcr, Lat. 
crepare, Prov. crcbani-at, and with projected r, Sp. Pg. 
quebrantar ; the f is perhaps owing to some confusion 
with grief, as agrevcr, &c. 

— laohe] DC. gives zoca, and zoccns = slipes, 
truncus 1 the commoner fonn is soccns, whence M. F. 
souche, &c., and thus soccus is perhaps of Germ, origin, 
viz. sloct : as to the possible change of 1/ inj, (v. notes 
on 1491 and 231). 

— pernm] it. pietrone, where the suMx -one is aug- 
mentative; bul in F. it is usually diminutive, (v. note on 
47;i; Roquefort pves/lrrTOncas thepole ofa plough (?) 

1703 talon] It. tollone, Sp. talon, from Lat. talus, 
with a similar alteration as in chardun (855) from Lat. 

1712 U LamLdl I have no parallel instance of this 

use of mund by ilsclf with li, as in M. F. li-bas, O. F. 

fa-jus (Aub. 127]. thongh i mon, amonl is common 

enough ; cf. Ger. de V. 3041 : 

dex Ic vos mondc de son del !ai amon. 

Perhaps this is a combioation of U omunt ; the MS. 

divides plainly la muiui, but as the metre is iambic, 

and the casura must be after mund, it would be prob. 

bellcr to read simply amunt. 

1720 ootun] 'whiler than cotton', a very cominoD 

comparison in O. F., cf. B. du Gucsc. 14694 ; 
li chevaux roi dam Pietre est de telle bfon, 
qu'il ol les iiii. pici ausi blans que colon, 
el s'ol la teste noire en tour el environ, 
el !cs yeni ot pins rouges que n'est feu de charbon, 
et s'ot le cois plus jaune que n'est or ne lailon. 

— Oheinsll] (v. note on 1376,) cf. Mar. de Fr. J. 76 : 

fl un bel drap de cheisil blanc 
li osterenl d entur le sane. 

17S2 ahunpiim] in it L. campus, besides the ordi- 
nary Lat. meaning of baltle-tjeld. had assumed Ihe sig- 
nification of 'daellum', a judicial battle between two 
in an inclosed space, whence by deriv. sufT. -ione [cf. 
Lat. lud-ib from ludus,] It, campione, F. champion, 
Ihe knight who fought for another in such a duel. 
From campus, O. H. G. borrowed its iamf, (Mod. 
kampf,) whence the verb kampf-^an, O. F. champier, It. 
campeggiare, Sp. campear with its deriv. ' el Cid Cam- 

1724 nabytel from O. F. hail, pleasure, we find Ihe 
dcriw. O. F. dehait, distress, and M. F. son-hail, secret 
desire, wish; its origin is O. Norse hcit, solemn promise, 
[cf.Lat.voIum ^ I, vow, 3,wish:] hence haitier, abailier, 
to encourage, stimulate, and re-ahaiter, to arouse, 
hdghlcn, enthusiasm, &c. 

— antimoiim] this word seems to me to be an 
error for cnlfnciun, as I have never seen 'enlundun' 
elsewhere; I have translated in Gloas. ' cnthusiastn ', 
because 'entencian' is employed by the langue d'oil 
'pour eiprimer toute cspice d'opdiation de Tesprit ',as 



'Gachet says, and the sense seemS to demand this mean- 
inj^ here. 

1727 garde n'a] cf. Kell. Romv. 236. 31 : 
dist Tuns d I'autre : " d'o vient cist anemis, 

3ui tos nos a afol^s et hounis ? 
c tous nos homes n'avons que c. de vis [= vifs,] 
de nos n'a mais garde li rois Ouris." 

1728 eflfreent] deriv. of Lat. frigcre, to be cold with 
fear, whence Pro v. cs-freyar, O. F. cffroier, (our ptcp. 
afraid, = rt/>av-ed), M. F. sbst. cffroi. 

1730 de randun] Sp. de rendon, Pg. de rondaa, our 
*at random* ; deriv. of randa, (cf. It. a randa a randa, 
(Dante, Inf. xiv. 12), from a Teutonic rand^ border, 
edge, hence extremity, and so Prov. a randa = imme- 
diately, (quasi, end to end, wiih no gaps, cf. Icelandic 

• leggja saman randir\ to lay shield close against 
shield, used of a hard stniggle). 

1737] these three deities, Phoebus, Mahomet, and 
Term.igant, are the three Saracen gods * par excellence * 
in the French chansons de geste. 

1743 si le purvit duno] the difficulty of gi%'ing to the 
particle si its exact force here is heightened by the im- 
possibility of determining the precise meaning of dune. 
As tliis latter is almost exclusively used as a temj)oral 
adv. (v. 152^)), we may perhaps best translate si by 

• yet', 'still * : " and yet, in spite of their eagerness, God 
arranged that thev should perjure themselves.'* 

1747 de macesl I prefer to take this as adverbial to 
the verbs in 1748, rather than as dependent on estur 
pcsantof 1746, (Spenser's 'heaviestowre', F.Q.1. 10.40). 

1750 ke] is not elsewhere used = while, but it may be 
connected with atant oi 1748: ** in the meantime the 
(jhristian takes away the body, Xi'/r//<? the pagans arc 
not h)oking," cf. 808. I do not think it could be taken 
as the relative with cars as its antecedent. 

1751 si fu grant nepurquant] " the pagans did not 
sec him, yet the crowd was verv* great hoivcver^'' ; cf. 
15 )0. and supra, 1743. 

1755 SUZ bleste] a word still common in Jersey patois, 

• souos la bliestc', * under the sod'; DC. sub ''blesta\ 
" eo nf)mine videtur ap])ellata (paaens fascis ex pluribus 
partibus composita, unde glebam bleste et bhiistre dixe- 
runt'' ; under the same word, DC. quotes as equivalent 
Mcite, bloche, bloustre, bloute. Diez gives blostreas a 
deriv. of Dutch bluyster, our ' blister' ; I think it un- 
likely that bleste and blostre are the same word, but I 
am ignorant of the origin of this M. L. blesta. 

1760 s'il ne estoient] '* the martyrs are already in 
glory, but the j)agans were fated to go to hell, if they 
did not truly repent in the succeeding part of their 
lives". This construction of si with the imperf. indie, 
occurs nowhere eNe. 

-— el siecle puis] * afterwards during their lifetime'; 
for this u-iC of [>ui^ at the caesura, cf. also 147, [where 
pui^ seems sui-^erllr.ous with the phrase ' apres pou de 
tens', but the reinainiler of the line itself is not very in- 
te]li;^ible, and perhaps it mi^'lit be better to translate 
a^ if puis ke preceded pou de tens, to be governed by 
out nn\, ■ 

1761 1765] the pronouns are in considerable con- 
fusion in this passage^ which ends this loosely-written, 

unsatisfactory rime-band : <<glorioiis martyr! Ibegaod 
ask of you that we^ — (viz. those who honour yoa here, 
and are your servants, friends and well-wishers, to them 
be a shield and protection against the devil ! — ) that ve 
may be safe, and so may all say Amen". 

1769 on des merveilles] as merveille is fern., an and 
recunt^ must both be wrong : the latter could not be 
altered, for the rime, as indeed the article, even if mm^ 
must still be monosyllabic. 

1774 mahainnel this O. F. word is the origin of our 
' maim \ (old legal mayhem^ but its own origin is onite 
uncertain; Ital. has magagna, in North It. dialects 
ma/xgagna, and the M.L. forms are nnmeroos, maha- 
mium, mehagnium, mahaignium, but the root is un- 

1777 esloisse] from Lat. luxare, and is not the same 
as 6locher, eslochier, comp. of locher to shake, iron 
M. H. G. liickc, loose. 

1788 al oil] " those who hear it spoken of, (go and) 
see it with their own eyes, after whicn they gi^'e thanb 
with one accord to God'* ; cf. Chauc. Cant. T. |0l8 
this maistow understand and see cUye. 

1792 mailez] Lat. malleus. It. maglio, Wallad. 
main, our fnall^ (cf. the Mall, as the place where the 
game was played,) and maid ; cf. Gcr. de V. 1736: 
li escuier en sont es murs al6, 
fierent de maux et de piz acer£. 

1801 ylrgne] our * virgin', from the obi. case of Lat 
virgo, but the M. F. vierge is from the nom. virgo, with 
irregular diphthong i>, probably as a distinction from 
verge = Lat. virga ; O. F. however has virge. 

1809 al apostoille] DC. sub apostoUcus: 'venm 
• sicut Papae appcllatio, quae episcopis omnibus com* 
munis primo fuit, postmodum soli summo Pontifid 
adscripta legitur, ita et Apostolici, qua quidem scrip- 
tores medii aevi saepe Papam indigitant'; cf. Rom. 
Stud. Hfl. 3, p. 417 : 

Renart, aler t'estuct i Rome. 
si parleras ^ Tapostoi/e 
et li conteras cestc estoire 
et te feras k lui confes. 

1820 parohemin] variation from the older paromm, 
with an unusual substitution of the tenuis, where I^or. 
has the correcter media, as perjniamena, ItaL parga- 
mena, Portug. pergaminho, from Lat. pergameBiUDf 
charta pergamena, paper from Pergamus; d*. bcsant, 
(1149), coin from Bvzantium. 

1821 imoore vendxa] cf. Vie de St. Thorn. 165. 19* 
vus di pur veu*, uncor vendra li juis. 

B. du Guesc. 12467 : 

mais de telz en y ot qui pas ne vont riant, 
en (lisant tout basset et en murmurant, * 
qu'encor vendra un jur, ens eu tamps d avant 
que le commun ira ce meffait amendant. 
1827 burdun] It. bordone, pilgrim's staff, from Lat 
burdo^ viule, \burdonem pnxiucit equus coDJunctos 
asellae, procreat et mulum junctus ascllus equae,] espe* 
cially used for carrnng litters, the staff being re- 
garded as the mule or burden-bearer of the pilgrim ; 
cf. DC. ' a burdonibus, sen semimulis quos inequitabant, 
et insidebant, qui peregre proficiscebantnr, nomci 


1 1 

t longtasculis bacnlis qnos gestare solebant pere- 
nostri, aaibas cquitaturae loco quodammodo 
; similarly, muleta in Span, and Portug. means 
nuU and crutch. It is not impossible further that 
bourdon' trumpet borrowed its name from this 
, - long staff, to which it bore some resemblance, 
should have the scries, i* mule, 2* staft", 3" orjjan- 
uid finaUy, 4* the burden of a song, complaint. 
(kWlli&l from Lat. frsxinus we have It. frassino, 
^es>no, M. F. frSnc, but O. F. fresne, whence the 
'€sn-in ; cf. Alix. 40. 30 anste ot roide de frasnc ; 
1 1 3. 21 li fust fraisnin. 

8 ohaiioeim] cf. the name of our poet Chaucer ; 
of O. F. cluuce, chaussc. It. calzo, from Lat. 
s; from chausse, M. F. has chausson, but M. F. 
•n is borrowed from It. calzone. 
OOrdiVOn] a kind of tanned goat -skin prepared by 
oofs in Spain, and chiefly at Cordova. Schelcr 
nckc's Jahrb. VI. p. 296, no. 25 : dicitur cordevan, 
iodo cordubanum, a Corduba, civitate Hispaniae, 
rbat prime* ; cf. Jourdain 1494 : 
hemise ct braies en envoie Tenfant, 
hauces de paile, sollers de cordoant, 
rans piaus dc martrc, jusqu'as pi^ trainnans. 
ligloQ, Recueil, p. i : 

▼ois quiex soUcrs de cordoan 
et com bones chances de Bruges ! 
ITC preserved in cordirainer (Spenser's * buskins of 
cordwain\ F. Q. II. 3. 27,) the organic w, which 
has a|^>arently assimilated in cordonnicr, for O.F. 
Banier, It. coixiovan-iere ; cf. Span, and Portug. 
ton, cordo^-ao, where cordobes, cordovez, are the 
. denoting the inhabitants, with suff. -tnsis ; the 
r snffiz Diez refers to the Arabic form kortobani^ 
fM unnecessarily, as the suff. "Cnus is common in 
e names. 
% Mui Oin] cf. Rom. de Brut. 5703 : 

por toz les crestiens destruire 

qui avoient abitement 

oltre mon Giu vers oddent. 
et Amilcs 2464 : 

cQCtts Amis s*en entra en sa voie : 
elk de Rome qu*on tient la plus droite. 
ant soot li pui et ks montaignes roidcs .... 
Mongieii vmrent tantost com il le voicnt . . . 
r soot en Lombardie. 

raigto] cf. Alix. 196. 9 i r montcr d*un rosU pui 
from Lat. mst-icus, from which O. F. and Prov. 
ed the vaSbx in certain popular words, e. gr., Pr. 
la m gnomut-icQs, indi « indicus ; perhaps the 
wing to the attraction of the vocalized guttural, 
w>te : rarstimsB mMne : numarAuH. M .F. h^is added 
I mstie, cf. registre s registrum from regestum. 
3 total k OMiniBl cf. Chauc. Cant. T. 1508 : 
lad to the grove, ot which that I ynw toldc 
by aventnre his wey he gan to holdc. 
rihtwfa] It. cammino, Sp. camino, Pg. caminho, 
hf . L. caminoL a via, which occurs as early as the 
y. It b ptoo. not the same as Lat. caminus, 
e, but ts connected with the K>'mric root cam^ 
1 ; to take a tum^ S:^ jnst to take a walk, [Our 

word chimney however, M.F. chemin6e, is dcrivcil from 
the classic meaning, only not directly : M. L, caminata, 
F. cheminde, meant a chanil>cr fumishc<i with a cam- 
minus, and so came to represent ihc stove itself.] 

1836 Comelin in the Bmt. the companion of Brutus 
is called Coriiieus, but M. dc l.incy in his * dcsoriplion 
des MSS.' p. l.xxviii. quotes ihe' title of a MS., ' la 
lignde des Bretons ', in which the name is given differ- 
ently : ** queus il furent et de tjucus nons ; et conieiit 

Brut %nnt primcrcnicnt en Knglclerre, et donl il 

\'int Brut ct Conielius^ &c." 

1839 veeslin] from Lat. vitulus in the diniin. form 
^•itellus, O. F. has its vcel, our * veal *, l*rov. vetlcl, 
M.F. veau, but vel-er, to calve; with suflT. -i>/i/,f, 
vit'linus becomes M.F. velin, with inter])ulated j, veslin, 
cf. pasle for pale, and v. note on 375. 

1840 meschin] It. meschino, Sp. mezquino, F. mcs- 
quin, from the Arabic niaskin, intrtxlucetl into M. L. 
from Spain, (as indeed it first is met in .Spanish charters ). 
From the meaning poor. wretche<l, came that of weak, 
tender, and hence O. F. meschin, meschine, young 
j)crson, and Ital. meschina - ser\*ant, maid. 

1841 puslin] the origin of this. term of reproach is 
obscure: two explanations seem jwssible ; (i*) Kell. 
Rom v. 219. 12 qui fu Henri le cuivert de but //>/, 
which I regard as just puHn (with inlerj)olate<i s, as in 
veeslin ;) - put lin^ as O.F. lin [Lat. linum] is ccmimon 
in the sense of lignage, ligne [Lat. littea, from linum. 1 
and {ox put cf. putage 2S9. But (2'") the word is found 
in B. du Gucsc. 16274 li paien pulant ; Amis et Amil. 
1294 Judas li traitres puslatts, &c., where it seeniH 
to be referred to M. L. putlaui, cf. !)('. Vii. .^56: 
*dicuntur pu//ant qui de i)atre Syriano el matre l*ran- 
cigena generantur'. So then it would mean ' dcgenercji 
filii '. Others say : * qu'ils furent ainsi nomm^/ parrr 
qu'ils estoient originaires de la Pouille[ Apulia]'. Again, 
M. Gidel, in his Ktudes sur la litt. drecque, p. 47, 
writes ; ** ddji il s'^tait form6 k c6t6 de la ra<e franrpie, 
une race nouvelle sortie du sang mC'\6 des Francs et 
des Grecs. Ces hommes, que Ton a aiifK-UH * les /'ou- 
lains\ d'un terme innocent d'abord, devenu [>lus taid 
une injure, mettaient toute leur application et toule 
leur gloire, u imiter les chevaliers qu'iK avaient vtm". 
In a note, M. Gidel adds : •* noulains vient probablr- 
ment de irovAoc. employ^ i)er les (irecH nio<lcrnrh dann 
le sens de iraiQ, J*ullani^ pullut^ iriiAof*'. 

— ] in allusion to the custom of af>j»ending Ihc 
name of the author to his work ; cf. .Mar. de J*. IL 410 : 
au finement de rent rwrit, 
k*en Roman/ ai tum£ rt dif, 
me numerai par rcnif-nibr^ifur, 
Marie ai nun. «i sui de I'ramr. 

1844 enterrin] cf. B. du Gi:f>r. u,»^,2 qui twr ot 

enttrin ; Kell. Romv. 220. 2 or ai nj* r rut* rm ; d* nv. 
of entier, It. intero, .Sp. crilero, WaJI;i#h, lutp j;, I»"iii 
Lat. integer. 

1845] a common formula at ih** Mid of iili ■, ut ind* » d 
in the middle ages, and in )>'>piilar t^lm 1 1 ill, flu m m 
u^uallv w,me phrai>e to «i,h'/w thai ihr »»f/iiy i« » on/ |iid# d, 
e. gr. m Icelandic, b£r kcmr 4 till %i>:Ut, hcit comr* lh« 
ri'-cr to the 4ca. 

( "8 ) 






a 408 

e 339. 737. 935. 1766 

i 222. 445. 1052. 1488 

XL 71. 8i8. ISM 

able 1039 

ee 494 

ie 716. 1484 

nn 802.1697 

age 280 

ein 713 

in 61. 1811 


al 1. 1600 

el 1404 

ir 1201 

nr Ml 

ance 1368 

ele 1242 

is 148 

nn 589 

ant 786. 1119. 1733 

ent 175. 1555 


as 921 

er 25. 102. 201. 664. 1269. 1624 
ens 1464 
ez 382 

is 883 

ant (II 19) 

^ (737) 

— (935) 
er (102) 

^nt (1555) 

eus (1464) 

* (445) 

— (1052) 
w («43) 

ist (645) 
iz (883) 



uni ^620) 


besantz 1149, sergantz 1154. 

damncz 745, estcz 752. 

poscz 959, privez 1037. 

quor 104. 

turmentz 1576. 

eels 1482. 

fleeehiz 485. 

oiz 107 1. 

paralctics 148, kaifs i49,ydropics 151, plcintifs 164, poc'stifs 165, cheitifs z66, 

vifs 170, gentils 171, estrifs 173. 
respiit 649, eheriit 655, delil 662. 
gentilz 898, cristz 899, esperitz 900, politz 901, requitz 903, eslitx 909, 

peritz 911, csjoitz 912, CDobsciiritz, 914. 
receiiz 72, meiiz 73, venuz 74, enbeiiz 89, mulvu 95, arestuz 98. 
eseuz 851, muluz 852. 
rund 623, pund 635, mund 637, bland, 640, parfund 642. 



9m. sg. and in the obi. plar., a final sibflant 
!d to tnbstt. adii. and ptq>p. The sibilant 
ar s, and the foUowing analysis is intended 
edsely the nse of each. 


A, • as final sibilant. 

rwels: — 

rr final e (mate), e. gr. aigles. 

wx, for «/-sr, and aus for a/-j, e. gr. cheveus, 


*r other Towels and diphthongs, e. gr. reis, 


» a mnte consonant, e. gr. kalfs. 

msooants (bat only liquids) : — 

irif, e. gr. enclins. 

^ r, e. gr. errois* 

7 /, e. gr. fek. 

*r M, (only once,) reims. 

B, I as final sibilant. 

3web: — 

xt /, e. gr. entrez, blez, criieatez. 

sr f , e. gr. diz, gamiz. 

er M, e. gr. enbeiiz. 

ar other vowels, e. gr. faiz (* feiz). 

iDsooants: — 

eril, e. gr. coards. 

er /, e. gr. laitx. 

er 11/, e. gr. dolenti. 

er M, e. gr. dolenz. 

er i/, e. gr. doilz, cheroilz. 

er r, e. gr. morz. 

etes, aigles, ambes, angeres, angles, apostles, 
ickt, aspres, autres, aventaiUes, avogles, 
tea, baches, boies, caractes, cercusmes, 
aires, centetnes, chaesnes, chambres, 
noes, cofres, coiltes, cutes, debonnaircs, 
ipks, delicloses, dclitables, delivres, dia- 
i, escorgies, esmeraudes, esmirables, esp^, 
ioes, esta^, fcTres, fines, freres, gambes, 
icfl, genziYes, gi&armes, graces, hautes, 
imeSy hommes, honurables, hostes, jaspes, 
ites, jorres, jom^, lances, langes, Icres, 
DCS, Itrres, lounges, maciies, maces, maistres, 
tades, maladies, manicles, martires, megres, 
obrcsy menreOles, miraclct, m^ momes, 

musches, nobiles, nosces, nasches, pailles, palet, 
paroles, paumes, peccheres, precnars, peines, 
peres (= stones), persones, plaies, plainnes, 
plantes,pointes, poples, precloses, princes, quites, 
relev6es, riches, ricnesces, robes, sages, seeches, 
sepulcres, sires, sueires, tanailles, temples, 
terres, testes, traitres, trespassables, tazeles, 
tutes, urties, verees, viandes, Wales. 

2, aigneus, Amphibeos, bens, chapeas, cherottf, 
cheveus, corporeus, criieos, cateas, desleos, 
desnatoreus, drapeos, dreitareos, enfemaatf, 
especieus, espiriteus, igneas, jdeos, javenceas, 
kemeus, kens, leouj, leas, h'unceas, movx, 
morteus, moreas, oiseas, orienteas, osteas, 
pastureus, peas, qaeas, roisseas, teas. 

3, amis, buus, clous, deus, (dis), dn|s, enemis, 
fous, giiieus, Jesus, lius^ las, luus, merds, [pensis], 
reis, (mes, ses, tes, sis, tis,) verais, [volentris, 

4, Dues, paraletics, vdropics, saafs, chdtifs, estxift, 
kai'fs, [pensisl, pieintifs, podstifs, vifs, Tcdentrift, 
[volentris]; francs, blancs, sancs, dercs, haa- 
bercs ; nerfs, serfi ; champs. 

5, anciens, bastuns, bons, charduns, chascims, 
chemins, chens, dtoiens. crestiens, campain* 
nuns, darreins, enclins, feians, focuns, ganietns, 
gcnoilluns, guereduns, lagans, legions. Bans, 
maens, maissuns, meins, nigromanaens, nana, 
oraisuns, paens, primerdns, piisans, qaens, 
raisuns, Romeins, Sarrazins, sems, suent, taTe- 
reins, tendnms, ans, veins, seisins, vins. 

6, airs, ancesurs, auters, baders, chers, cheralers, 
ders, creators, destrers, dolors, dublers, dors, 
enginnors, enters, error*, eschars, flors, jon, 
legers, losengers, martirs, ostors, pastors, pao* 
teners, plusuis, premers, pors, qoers, tafin, 
sdgnors, solers, sospirs, Toirs, rolcnters, Toltort. 

7, Amphibals, eels, cristali, dcsleals, fels, gentHi, 
nuls, suls. 

8, reims. 

B. I, costez; antiauitez, dtez, crfteotez, fertez, vaiteg, 
▼oluntez ; alez, alosez, amenez, anoitez, aims, 
armez, avoglez, blasmez, binnez, booarei, 
celez, chasti^z, chocez, doofichez, crevcs, 
curucez, damnez, debrisez, d eco le z , deioles, 
depanez, deproiez, desconfortez, dcsheritei* 
dcstumez, desvez, detrenchez, derbcz, enchacei, 
enchaesnez, encopez, encoaez, eadoctriiies, ca* 
flambez, enganez, enprisonez, cn ti c juiei , cntieSt 
csbnSlez, esciiex, esgaiez, filoinnfii €nMRS« 



esnez, ferrez, furmez, guetez, herbergez, irez, 
jugez, lettrez, levez, lez, (liez,) livrez, mandez, 
maufez, menez, muntez, nez, noiez, napez, 
ostez, pecchsz, penez, periUez, pez, (piez), 
portez, posez, privez, purgez, recunfortez, 
redutez, restorez, resuscitez, sauvez, severez, 
truvez, vaivez, voiez. 

2, crespiz, criz, diz, despiz, enviz, esbaiz, esbaudiz, 
escnamiz, eschoisiz, escriz, establiz, failliz, finiz, 
Hz, flaschiz, flecchiz, fluriz, meriz, midiz, oiz, 
partiz, petiz, sailliz, saisiz, trahiz. 

3, arestuz, batuz, cuneiiz, enbeuz, entenduz, escuz, 
esluz, esmeiiz, estenduz, irascuz, luz, meuz, 
muluz, nuz, paluz, parcniz, pcnduz, receuz, 
rumpuz, saliiz, sarcuz, trestuz, tuz, venduz, 
venuz, vertuz, vestuz. 

4, cailloz, droiz, faiz, fiez, fiuz, (liez, picz,) preuz. 

5, ciiardz, mundz, veillardz. 

6, baratz, certz, chautz, Cristz, cuntraitz, laitz, 
droitz, enobscuritz, esjoitz, eslitz, esperitz, 
estroitz, faitz, flotz, fortz, mortz, nuitz, peritz, 
politz, pretz, requitz, sortz, trestuz, tutz, vertz. 

7, argentz, arpentz, besantz, brantz, centz, chantz, 
desjointz, dolentz, grantz, guarantz, jugcmentz, 
parentz, poisantz, portantz, pountz, presentz, 
repentantz, sacramentz, seintz, senglantz, ser- 
gantz, tirantz, truantz, turmentz, vivantz. 

8, anz, cumanz, cunpainz, Danz, denz, dolenz, 
granz, poinz, repentanz, seinz, serganz, tiranz. 

9, chevoilz, cunseilz, doilz, genoilz, gentilz, gtipilz, 
mailz, solailz, veilz. 

10, descuverz, morz, terz. 

[The above are all the instances of the added final 
sibilant ; here may be added those of substt. and adjj. 
with fixed sibilant. 

A, with fixed sibilant, s. 

bois, cors, Damas, dolenis, dos, engres, envius, 
feverus, franceis, frois, gros, ji'eus, languerus, 
lepnis, lis, Lungis, mais, mauvois, Messias, mois, 
Moyseus, nes (nies), pais, pais, paleis, para'is, 
piteus, puis, repos, Sarrazinois, Sathanas, tens, 
treis, uis, uoes, urs, vis. 

B, with fixed sibilant, z« 

brebiz, braz, croiz, cuniz, duz, fiz, laz, piz, solaz, voiz.] 


a. It will be seen that j, not permanent, only occurs 
in dras (= draps) ; after e, we find s after e mute (so 
also in mes, ses, tes), z, when the e (= Lat. -a/,) 
would be accented; after i, — according to the rule 
that f added is used only when the word originally 

ended in /, e. gr. in the past ptqip. (« Lat. -«f-),m 
criz, {quirit-arf)f diz, (</fr/-,) enviz, (mvi/-), esoix, 
(script'), petiz, (cf. petit) ; [there remain only/s, 
with g permanent all through the inflection, wmch 
is for biz, or fiuz, and midt'M, which is simply 
owing to the rime ;^ x is found with the rest, amis, 
dis, enemis, mercis, sis, tis, (pensis, Toleiitxis, 
ydropis) ; after o, — there is only one example, and 
m it the sibilant is s, cailloz, probably for cailU 
oilz, (cf. genoilz) ; after k, — the rule Is fixed, viz., 
s is used after the u which forms the last vowd 
of a diphthong, au, maus; eu, deus, bens ; in, hu; 
ou, clous, fous ; uu, buus, luus ; but m alwa}-! after 
u - Lat. 'Ut; e. gr. in the substt. escns, {scut*), 
paluz, {palud')t saluz, {salut^XyeTtoz, {perttUAtVoA. 
theptcpp. (Lat. -uttis,) arestuz, batuz, &c. [In the 
case of the three exceptions — lui^JUa, and prtia-^ 
luz is simply wrong, it only occurs once, and is 
elsewhere lus, or luus; fiuz only occurs onoe 
(against 22 fiz), and preuz {d.prud'e) is evideody 
formed on the analogy of the 'd bases.] The re- 
mainder, viz. at, eij oi^ tif, follow the rule of final 
i; thus droiz, {direct-), liez, {laet-)^ piez, (>«^) 
have 2, as ending in dentals, compared with reis, 
rois, and verais, which end in vocalised gutturals.* 
[There are also two anomalies, /au, feiXt from 
vic; zxidjficz for fiefs, where faiz has perhaps fol- 
lowed the analogy of faitz (-fact-)^ and fiez is pro- 
bably the plur. of a word known as fii^fUd^ (not fief^ 
which would certainly have made fiefs ;) the. mere 
accented e would not necessitate z/ we have mtf, 
(= nas-us) ]. 

b. After the », j is invariably found, except when a 
dental has been omitted, thus denz (i^m/-), grani, 
(grand-),^iviz (punct-), seinz {soMct"), but andens, 
bons, liuns, &c, [To this there are three excep- 
tions, viz, anz, cunpainz, Danz ; now if we com- 
pare Lat. a/i;r-us, dom'n-us »= dowf-us, and the 
common form in Aub. cumpaiffii-un, it seems not 
improbable that the double nn may foUow the 
analogy of nt; but perhaps it is better to regard it 
as a mechanical rule that ^an prefers s, but -«R| 
'in, 'Oft, -un, prefer s], 

c. In the same manner, r final takes x, unless s 
dental has been omitted, thus chers, plusurs, bat 
descuverz, (diS'CO'Opert')^ mors, (mart'), ten, 

d. In the case of words ending in /, s is ilwsyi 
and only used where the / is preceded by ^ 
thus chevoilz, cunseilz, mailz, sc, but celst, 
cristals, nuls, suls. The one excepticm to this 
rule is gentils, only once, 171, against tea 
instances of gentilz, but here 171, the rime is to 
blame, and the / was silent, gentis. 

• Contrast with these the substt. having a permanent sibilant, all of which have guttural stems, brebii-i 
(vervec-), braz, (brach-), croiz, (cruc-), curuz (?), duz, (due-), laz, (laqu-), voiz, (voc-), except the two dentals pXi 
(pect-) solaz, (solat-^ ; and fiz = filz. ^ ^ 

t It is quite certam that the / was not pronounced here, as the word occtin (1482) in rime •ius ; farther the 
spelling nw or nuh makes it probable that the /here also was silent* 



e. Where tlie stem ends in mute consonants other 
than dentals, as t, /, /, nc^ re, f/, «/, the sibilant 
is always s, e. gr, hues, sauifs, dras (» draps), flancs, 
dercs, seris, champs. 


It wiU be thns seen that the nse of the j or e is 
detennined by the following principle : where the 

Item does or did end with a dental, (/ or </), it 
takes <, which is also used after -i7 ; in eveiy other 
the sibilant is s. 

In the case of the nom, sg, mas, the use of the final 
sibOant with the dcfin. article is pretty regular, and in 
conformity with the rule just given. The examples are 
as follows : 


A. I , aigles,Cesaires, dedples, frcres, martires, maistres, 
poples, princes, riches, scpulcres, temples. 
t, criicus, uunccus, maus, orientcus, pastureus, 

3, dens, reis. 

4, cheitifs ; francs, sancs ; clercs. 

c, chemins, feluns, guerduns, paens, suens, uns. 

6, ain, chevalers, clers, creaturs, jurs, martirs, ors, 


7, fels (49^}« ^^ [2^4» pronounced ceus, cf. 1482]. 
B. I, fenres. 

5, mnndz. 

6, esperits, peritz ; chautz, flotz. 

7, chantz» tirantz ; dolentx ; pountz. 

8, tirans ; scinz ;— <unpainz. 
% doila, solails. 

Against these 95 cases of the use of the final sibilant, 
are 18 cases in which no sibilant is used, though with 
the nomtn. form of the article //. Of these, eight arc 
owing to the rime, via. 51 li pelerin; 356 li rcdut6; 
807,1 "3 M tut- poissant ; 1338 li darrcner ; 1398 li lu ; 
1430 h cervel, (if sg.) ; 1563 li suen prechcmcnt. The 
remainder are as follows : — 
122 li Maut fere du ciel. 
897 M Urtrt est fluriz. 

1305 li VII des crcsticns respunt. 

1343 li /rrrva bender. 

'344 \\f^re \\ curt sure. 

1301 li plus kauf k*est sans per. 

1301 li iu du bois. 

1408 cum li lu fait. 

15QI bUsmez fu li darrener. 

1 740 lores cumence li bruit, 


I e. 

A, I. frere, pere, tertre. 
$. on. 
6, darrener. 

B, 3, lu. 

6, bruit, haut. 

Of these tertre, un, and darrener are altogether against 
the usage ; frere, and pere, (as also lere,) seem to prefer 
the absence of the sibil., though we have also Urgs, 
peccheresy (and luz) ; haut, bruit, never have a sibilant. 
Besides these, there are twenty other cases in which 
the normal form of the nom. li is not used, but leox T, 
as in the following list : — 

270 benoit seit U pere. 

301 (celui) le fiz l)cu/u, 

306 le pueple kc veistcs .... Giiieu sunt. 

764 bis. estroit lur/u le champ e U chimin ferr6. 

816 tcsmoinc le element, 

840 tut le cors [est] doillant. 

841 tut le \\s Test] senglant. 
915 Ic jur Auoan cumence. 
992 le los Jcsu est (clers). 

1 01 4 le cors d tcrre est trebuch6. 

1 1 1 2 ik fu le cruet fi, 

1454 le cors m'cst feble. 

1529 le pere (feri) le fiz. 

1 787 ne puct le poer Jesu estrc ceU. 

18 1 9 le honur Jesu crest. 

1 82 1 uncorc vcndra /^^'i/r. 
482 Vun d'autrc parti. 

1246 Ponurdcs dcus bcsille. 

1 389 l^et^'le oiscus enchace. 

1 609 tut est escule Ventrail corporal. 
In 306, 1529, there is perhaps an attraction, le pueple 
kc veistes - populum quern vidistis ; veisez ke le pere « 
\'idissctis patreni, quomodo, &c. ; in others, the ab- 
normal form seems de|)endent on a connexion with 
estre, but in others, such as le honur crest, uncore 
vcndra Ic jur, Tonur des deus besille, &c., the forms do 
not seem capable of any explanation : they are so in 
the MS., and they are wrong. 


With the indefin. article, the usage seems arbitrary, 
as seen in this table : — 

AVith sibil. 
A, I, aigles, poples. 

2, ruisbcus. 

3. rais. 

5, crcsticns, paens, Sar- 


6, chevalcrs, osturs. 

6, cuntraitz. 

7, granli. 
9, veils. 

Without sibO. 
autre, estrange, miracle. 


crestien, pelerin, Sarrasir, 

chevaler, cstur, tafur. 




grant, pesant, trespassant. 


• I iranslate as if it were ki est li plus haut, sans per. as li cannot be the accus. in opposition with dea. 

R 2 



1. The following are the vowel-combinations that 
occur in the poem : 

A, Two vowels. 

aa, ae. ai, ao, an ; ea. ee, ei, eo, en; ia, ie, 11, lo, In; 
oa, oe, 01, on ; na, ne, ni, no, nn. It will be seen that 

only 00 is wanting to complete the entire series of pos- 
sible combinations. But, of com^e, the proportion in 
which they are found is very different ; tnus ao, 60, lo, 
smd no appear once, (aorer,* leonesse, note, ofuokes^ ; 
aa, twice, (raa, raant ;) 11, oa, only thrice each, ^cheriit, 
despiist, respiit; encroa, loant, roal;) nn, only four 
times, buus, luus, ebruusd^e ; puiir. Of the rest, these 
are comparatively rare : ae, oe, ea, la, na, on ; the re- 
mainder occur pretty frequently, viz., ai, el, oi, nl, an, 
en. In, ee, ie, ne. 

2. But these vowel-combinations do not all re- 
present each a single sound, and for distinction, it is 
convenient to use diacritic points : the rules which I 
have adopted in the Vie, are as follows : 

(a) Wnere the last vowel is o or a (as in ao, eo, to, uo; 
oa, ea, ia,ua;)f neither vowel has any accent or points. 

(b) The diacritic points, where used, simply mean that 
in my opinion, the particular combination is diph' 
thong; as contrasted with the other instances of the 
occurrence of the same combination, where it is merely 
a digraph, but monophthong ; the points themselves are 
alwajTS placed over tne second vowel, except in the fol- 
lowing cases; — i", in any combination with final nasal 
ui, I have placed the diacritic marks over the preceding 
vowel, ^employing also the acute accent when this is e,) 
and 20, m tne case of the pres. (3 sg. and 2.3 pi.) of verbs, 
and in nouns and ptcpp. in ^e, ue, (using also the acute 
accent in the case of a preceding e) ; thus dum, turn, 
cum, but Atm, ie ; e. gr. Pharaun, (also liun, Hun- 
ceus,) dium, poum; v6um, agr6e, soud^e, h6ent, 
e£fr6ez, v6ez, esp6e, &c. ; niie, vue, siie. 

(c) I have besides judged it best to give the acute 

ou, vout, 

uu, buus, 

at, saele, 

ee, peel, 

ie, vie, 

oe, voer, 

ue, puet, 

ai, delai, 

ei, leit, 

oi, trois, 

ui, bruit, 

iuitH, vtenia 
iiMn, dlam. 
cum^ pdum. 

over single final /, not mute, e. gr., in sbstt plenty 
mauf6 ; in verbs, pruv6, mk ; in adj. \k ; as also the gave 
accent over the local adw. 1^ and Ih, 

3. The following table will exhibit the system of 
diacritic points and accents I have adopted} : — 

au, chevaus, am, maur, aun, Phaxaim. 
eu, cheveus, Mf, seur, 

w, giu, 

0», pofb", 

«M, puur. 

at, aers. 

ee^ soudeer. /f, 

a, viele. 

oe, poer. 

ui, cruel, He^ 

ai, paralb. 

n, obelr. 

oi, esjolr. 

Mt, mine. 


B, Three vowels. 

4. In combinations of three vowels, these occur, vis. 
oia, ona; alo; ean; oni, nel; noe; ein; oia; Jm; 
nen; ene; Ine, one; ale, eie, oie, me, ex. gr.: «< 

(des)loial, joiant; oua, louant, nonant; aio, piaiol; 
eau, leans, veaus; oui, oni; uei, ([quel,) sueires; mm^ 
noes ; eiu, seium ; oiu, estoium, solum ; ieu^ espedeoi, 
jieus; ueu, jiieus, criieus; etu, veSe; ncr, gifie; mm; 
ouent ; aie, aient, traient, plaie, veraie, aieie; M^ 
eicnt, eiez, seiez; oie, estoie, sole, voudroie, croiea^ 
soient, voient, deproiez, noiez, guerroier, joie, sok; 
uie, fuic, pluie, guie. 

5. Of these the only cases in which I use discritie 
marks are 1% in the fem. of past ptcpp., as esbaie, vcAe, 
esjoTe; 20, the vowel precedmg the monofditbaBf 
ending ^eu [= ellus] of adjj., as JQcas, -^— 
espec'ieus, jieus.Q 

* Gdholer also might be counted here. 

t To this series might have been added ie, which has points only in viele, Diene, and in the terminatioii of the lot 
in itr, as lier, ntmder, and further, in the past ptcp. U, or when followed by sibilant s, iH ; so also iu, as it has diacritie 
points only in the adj. term, lus, as deliciuses, envius, gloriuse, preciuse, and in the word gin, (Jew), whenfoUoved 
oy other vowels, viz. giue, giueu ; also when s is followed by nasal u, dium. 

X Except in the termination of femin. nouns in -i»n = Lat. 'ion, which follow the general principle of {2 (a), sad 
take no diacritic mark. 

§ The only case where I have used two accents is in n66, 773 ; elsewhere only one mark is employed, thiaia 
ii, ui, of past ptcpp., the accented i serves also the purpose of the e of the infinitives of some verbs. 

^ y The following have, however, been marked on special grounds, viz., cut, from the rime (1438) ; oaaCy [as 
given in gloss.] as being wrongly trigraph, and guier, which is of course only a diphthong. 



In the followiiig aniljiisy wbkh b mtended to exhibit ' 
die origtii of every one of the iiwtancrs of Towel-com- 
tffM»^^^ occurring in the poem, I bare not thoogbt it 
Deoeoary to snbdivide farther than merely to show the 
Latin vowek from which these French combinations ' 
hanc pr oce eded. But, inasmuch as the following con> 
KMUmt has frequently played an active part in the : 
tnmsformation of the mother-vowel, the Latin originals 
an pvcn accompanied by the next following consonant. rmdi'-arw. 


', na,raant. 


Tlie fdllowingare mere cases of digraph, representing 
Lat. t* : saHgu^n6]Untus, ensanglaent6e ; serpent'^ saer- 
pcnt ; ^ggr, (^ eger,) aegre ; sera, saerr^f ;— or Lat. 1, 
aa rigidus {m rigidus,) raed ; sigillum^ (= siglum,) saele. 
Bat genenlly the a represents a Lat. a : thus a — a, had" 
% baer ; pacane^ paer ; radiart, raer ; pagunus, paen ; — 
a(4^A)a«r-/nr, aers ; caUlIuSy chael ; catena^ 
-1 : cad{itus]t chaetz ; rapida^ raedde ; 
saet (1568, usually set^ but also seet, 690). In 
it seems to stand for Lat. Oi vix. — a, 


It win be seen that in almost every case ai is simply a 
Lat. a to which has been attached 1, by attraction from 
the following letter or syllable ; this t may be either the 
oatiind vowel, or a vocalized guttural, c or g. It is only 
before ai or m that we find ai a Lat. a, without any 1 ; 
fy daim§4t for amo, damo, and main for manus. 

I, from Lat. a. 

Lat.ab:iha^-«9),ai,&c. (and the futt. averai, deverai, 
dormtrai, ferai, flcchirai, guerpirai, musterai, pas- 
■crai, ptcodrai, respunderai. tendrai) ; — ao : fac-^ faire, 
€n,csatie-, re-fait, faiture ; lact'^ laitz ; vertu-us, verai ; 
imx-^rt (« lacs-),laist ; poc-, pais ; plac-, plaist ; — 
•Cl: aifffteai/-, aventaiUes; com-initi-acui-^ cumcn- 
fail ; imirmnU', entraU ; ten-acul", tenaille ; trab-acul-, 
travafl; imindus \ja cald-us » cacl;-ucu]-) ] caill-oz ; 
«fiaZ», (- acla), aigle ;— adi (l) : glddius, glaive ; /r</. 
traitre; rddiur, rai ;~adi (2) : cadiv-us, kaifs ; 
^fJHj, parais; tradiUan-, traisun ; — aga : piag-a. 

pl*i-«: pag-am-us, pd-en;— a^: pmgwmm, pais:— 
a^: magis^ mais ; magister^ maistre ; — agn: agntllus^ 
aignd :--ah : troM-em, re-traire« con-traits ;—^k|u : 
ald^Jut-are^ aid-er ; ^o/W-mx, bailli(e), baitler ; — atlUai 
airU}: batualia, bataille: coralia, curaitle :/a//>/ry, faille, 
faitlance, failli j) ; maiU-us, mails; palii-um, paille: ^- 
ire, sailli; taU-a, en-taille ; vaU^o, vailtant ; — am : (<>«')• 
amartt; aimant ; am-o, aime, aim-ent ; clam^c, (re-)* 
claime ; — an : man-us, main ; /ont-an^a^ funtainne ; 
man-w, remain, rcmaint ; plan-a, plainne : — ani : 
cum-pani-y cunpainz, cumpain-nun, cumpainnic ; m^mt^ 
ofu-a, muntainne; — ans: mansion'^ maissuns, maisn^ ; 
— ant : ante, ainz ;— ap : sap-io, sai ; — ar : [ (tf/r, ii^na), 
air, v. note on 1477] ; — aso : pasc-ent-^ pai»sant : n«ix-tf- 
{ere), nais-t-re ; vasc-ellum, vaiss-ele ; — at : (tiiiat^trt\ 
aelai ; prat-, prai-ol ; — atl : (tf)m/it>«-, oraisun, rainun ; 
sation-, saisun; — atri: patri^re^ re-paira ; — aVl; in tilt 
perff., recunt-ai, sung-ai. 

2, from Lat. e. 
ed : cnd'fn, craire. 

3, from Lat. 1. 

io : vic-em, faiz ;-~iOTll : sol'icuUus, roIaII i—ld : fid* 
el'is, fai-cle; — in: minus, mais-fait ;— isi : misx'Mt, 
mais ; — it : iter, aicre. 

4. From Genn. diphthong ai* (ei), hnit, rr-ahAitt 
(1724); /eit, laidcr (157), laifFan^cr; or by tiaii* veil ion 
off, vafi-an^ vaivez (553) ; saa-j-an, Rai«-lr (ip). 

5. atdunc seemn simply a cotnp. of ti atnl a foitn 
(not in Aub.) idunc ; it occum only twiic, aiitl \% 
certainly aidunc in 43H, but not, I think, In \^^\\ \ 
the intcrj. ai, hay, is prub. diphthongal. 

6. In proper names, ai AdonaY, (^aim, (I'alliiMf*, }) 
^ami: Verolaime ; -annia : Brcttainne ; -an : ( r«Alt#«. 


Lat. a-o: ad-orare, aorer; In gA«h-oli>r, th«« vow#l 
are separated by an inorganic h, (v. noti; on ^71). 


I. au. 

The monophthong AM \% alrnr/«t invflrUMy th«< m«iiIi 
of a/, with a conjiin/.t followifif; muviuauh , * vi ti In 
esmcraude, thcr<: rniitt h^vr b««fi » tntiu •umnth]*!*, n» 
in saum«*, from sagma, an mtrtiwiutm •nlfna, (if 
sumcr 1284/. 

* la the feDowiDg analysis, the Latin combinations a/, and oe, are 'tn*.\u*i«-*l uri/|rr f h«> #, 

t So in acamaU (whatever be the origin, v. note on 20t, which can hardly \**- otlrt Unn a tUgtm^th. wh«Mi^r 
be froaa the «r of ex-maltha, or a prefix to s impure, ^-smait. Ihe wW:, uAf.itf], ratl»^r iu*Uf% fof Ih** tUitUihnua 
• ate chea de 4 HaUd ; still I prefer e niisches de aesmil. 

SI have DOC given this in text or gloss, as a diphthrjn^. ^j^ra'ivr of "uthtrui^/. t,f ^70, wh/r# lUm •* itt*i;§t u imU 
f| ra lB,chae»i£s; but I am inclined to regard the fir^l m as z iui%*ukf 'A rh*^ M^ t'tt », wl.i#)i wif*tl*\ i;ivt tn^ii ml 
■is I la fn rhagsnet; as the word is elscm-here alwa%% v.^tii.*"!. *i *//* 710 Wfi 

\ Ia«<ZfaMi;3fa.pffei.siibi. of alcr.itiilbfBBcdaafromabuca/. '^,M all - a«iJ«aiiib'J. Ifnii aHiMafa, 

OB It. 



1, from Lat. A. 

As a digraph, it is very common in Norman docu- 
ments written in England ; hence our spelling and pro- 
nunciation of aunif haunt, launch^ &c. It is only found 
before «• ; M. L. abandonum^ (a)baundun, abaun- 
duner ; incantamentum, enchaunlemcnt ; ex-camhi-Oy 
eS'Chsiung ; ex'^nd'f espaunt, espaundi \flacc-uSy flaunc. 

9Lg : smaragJ-us, esmeraude; — all (in art. a{d) il-, 
au); .<4/^«i/.<-,Auban ; a/ig{uis) un-us^aucun; al{iud]sicy 
aussi ; al(iud) taU^ autel ; altare, auter ; alter-, autre- 
(ment), autrui ; ad vail-em, aval ; [balth-, baud-(ur), 
esbaudiz ;] calce-a, chauce-iire ; calci-ata, chauc-6e ; 
calid'USy chautz ; caball-us, chevaus, chevaucher ; cor^ 
al'iSy curau-ment ; infernal-iSy cnfcmaus ; gdlVnuSy 
en-jaun-ir ; ex-alti-are, es-hauc6 ; fals-us, faus, fauscr, 
fausetd ; falUity faut ; [hal{s)bcrCy hau-berc ;] alt-us^ 
haut, hautement, haortc ; legai-is, leans, Icaumcnt ; 
mal'USj maus, mau-bailli, mau-dient, mau-fe, mau- 
men6, mau-talent, mau-[vois] ; palma, paume ; palit- 
{art) paut-en-cr ; salv-are, sauv-cr, -as, -cz, sauf, saut, 
sauvaciun ; salt-\illare)y sautele ; z'<z/., vaudra, vaut. 

2, from Lat. 6. 
el: v^/, veaus (386), suvaus (941). 

3, from Lat. i. 
il : silvaticuSf sauvage, ensauvagi. 

II. au. 

The diphthong au is rare, occurring only (a), from 
Lat. a — «, or (i3) by sjTicope of / ord;— a-U : ad-un-are^ 
aiiner ; tnatur-us, maiir ; satullus, saiil ; — a-o : ad-or^ 
aiirai, aiire, au(r)rum, aiimint, aurent, aiirer, aiira, aiir. 

(b) in proper name : Pharaun. 


1, from Lat. a. 

grat-uSf agreable ; marcat-ant^y marche-ant. 

2, from Lat. 6. 

cred-ent-y creance, mescrcant ; sed-ent-, scant ; cre-aUy 
creatur, creature ; leg-al-^ dcs-leals, flealt^, leal ; reg' 
al', real ; — as a simple compound of Lat. re^ in re- 
ahaite, rc-amener, re-apeler. 

3, from Lat. i. 
vid-ent-f vcant ; vi-{are), en-vea. 


1. With irrational duplication, from Lat. a: pal-us, 
peel ; sapit, sect ; — Lat. e : gem-^erc), geenst ; av-um, 
6e ; — Lat. i : vitutin-us, vecjlin. 

2. With first e from Lat. a : grat-, agr^-e ; brag- 
(ire), br^-ent ; stare, a-rc-st6-entj ; [hatj-an, h6-ent ;] — 
Irom Lat. e : nec-are, ne-6 ; — from Lat. i : frig'd-uSy 
ef-fr^-ent. effreez ; sold-icare, soudcer ; vid-ere, v6cz. 

3. Its usual occurrence is in the final of fem. past 

ptcpp. or nouns thence formed, Le. from Latati: 
I, ftcpp,y adubb^e, afubl^, arus^, asemblte, atempc^ 
avil^e, aiin^e. a^6e, bers6e, blesc6e, bniid^, caxh£^ 
cri^e, cumenc6e, cuntee, cuntruv^e, desir^, desmesnufc^ 
dresc^e, dun6e, ebruusd^, emfl^, ensan^aent^ 
entuschee, envee, figur^e, honur^e, lev^, (malnriej 
men6e, pruvee, reclamec, redut^e, saerr^, sal^, tniu* 
latce, trespassee, trublee, truvee, ubli^ ; 2, sbstt.cdik, 
chaucee, cuntr6e, demur6e, destin^e, esp^, SPr^ 
jurn^e, maisn^e, man6e, matinde, medl^, mcsnee^ 
pav^e, relev6es, rcnumde, rus^; 3, adirv, ii^meat, 

4. In proper names, Beethleem, Galil6e. 

5. With prefix re; in re-cstorer = re-ex^staumn, 


I. ei, 

1, from Lat. a. 

ab: hab-, eit, ei-ent, ei-c«; — to: yor-^rv, fd-re; 
pac'y peis-ible ; placere, pleisir ;--aot : iact-^ leit ;— la : 
fam-eSy feim; [icamis-,) cheins-il;] am-o, eim, ani- 
ent ; clam-Oy recleim ; ram-us, reims ; — an : (centeines), 
ccrtein, darreins, darreinn-er, (endemein,) foreiBe, 
(gardein,) humein, lointein, mein, (pleinne,) primereinSi 
proccin(ne), (pulein,) Romeins, seins, semetne, snte- 
reins. veins ; man-eo, remeint ; — anot : sanct-uSy seiat, 
seintific ; — andi: grandi-or^ greinn-ur; — ailg: fi^'tp 
ere, pleincnt, pleinte, pleintifs ; — ant: anU^ einz ;— api: 
capti2>-us, cheitif;— fari: a{e)ria, debonneire-(mem), 
eir, putcire ;] — asi : occasion-^ acheisun ; — aao : noic-i^ 
neiss-cRt; — ati: palati-um, paleis; [Germ. lOM'/'OMf 
scisir ;] — atzi : re-patri-are^ repeira. 

2, from Lat. e. 

e: mei, sei, tei; v<ie^ wei-mentent; — eb: dA^ 
dei, deit, deiz ; the endings of impft. and condit., cim- 
duseit, fcseit, pluveit, portereit, purreit, orrei-eDt;— 
eo : fec-iy fei-mes, fei-stes, feist, fei-{s)sent ;— «q1 : vecUnt^ 
(= vctulus,) en-veilli, veil- (lard) ;— neot : dirtct-us^ drdt, 
-e, -ure, -urcus, -ureument ; pectorina^ peitrine ; (ftif> 
lectum^ toleit ; — ed : cred-ere^ crei-re, creit, crd-ent; 
[Germ. {ge)reit-eny cun-rci;] parU'Vered-us, pal^ 
frci;— eg: leg-, lei; reg-, rei; — el: steUa^ estoU; 
vel'um, veilz; — em: rem^ rein; — en : /oflia, pdne^ 
dcinent ; (prend-ere^) preinne ; seren^us, ^enein ; wm, 
veine; — eni: senior^ seignurfie); ivni-, dereingDc;— 
ens : pens-are, pcise; -ens-is, franc-eis; — er: ser^utyWa; 
ver-uSf veir ;— es : tres, treis ;— et : secret-^umf segicu. 

3, from Lat. L 
i : vi-a(re), cun-vei-a, cunvei-ant, en-veit ; in pitt. 
subj. Lat. sim. Sec, sei, seit, sei-nm, set-ec;— ib: 
bib-ere, beit, beivent, beivre;-io: </jr-, deis, dose; 
vic-em, feit, feiz ; auctor-ic-are, ottreit ; peU-ici*^ pdeif* 
un; vicin-us, veisin ; ^x//f^7-«j, espleitcr; — )ii: fi^ 
fei ; occid-y oceismes ; quid, quei ; vid-^ vet, veie, m- 

• Except in rancher (258), irregularly for sacher, with an irrational «, cf. the s in hauste. 

t As contrasted with Icaw-menf , Icaus ; veaus for vcls. 

i I can hardly regard this as a mere mistake for arestent, though it certainly is not very intelligible. 



eat, Tcit, veiz, vdmes, vdstes, veissez ; fri^*d-us, freit, 
freide, enfreidissant ;— ign : dign-an^ deigna, des- 
demgnant ; insigri'^ ensei^ement, enseinner ; — il : 
€onsiUmum^ cnnseil ; mirabili-a, es-merveillcr, merveil- 
les; — ^im: re-d^im^re^ reinst* ; — in : dominUum^ de(s)- 
meine ; nUn^ari^ meinCf lueinent, demeinent ; rapin-y 
laTeinner; vin-c(e)'rey vein-t-re; — ing: at-ting>gy 
ft-tein-d-re; ««^-, es-ccint; in-fring-ere^ enfrein-d-re, 
fngere^ feindra, feintise ; pingerCy enpeinnent, enpeinst ; 
fi^nytura^ peinture; tingu-^ es-teint, teint, tcinst; — 
ms : insuloL, cille ; — ip : per-cipi-^ a-per-ceivent, de- 
ceivre; — iso: discipul-us, deisciple; pise-, peis-un; 
'itum'y weiment-eisiim. 

4, from foreign ai. 
leidit, Genn. Uit; meint, Welsh nuient (?). 

II. ei. 

Here also the diphthongal et Is confined to a few 
words, via. ge-ir, geisent. Germ, jeh-; ha-Yr, Germ. 
haUjan; obe-ir, obeTssent, obe'i\ obei'st, obeissant, Lat. 
9b€dirt; deit^ Lat. deitat-, 


Only occurs in leonesse, Lat. Uon-, 


This denotes three different sounds, distinguished 
thns : €h; eu; hi; the first is for the most part the 
result of a Tocalisation of / ; the second , of the contact 
(by S3maeresis of intervening cons.) of Lat. u with a 
preceding ToweL 

I. eu, 

1, a1 : {cal-tre^ cheut ; pal-us^ pens ; — alls : corpo- 
reus, desleus, desnatureus, especieus, espiriteus, keus, 
lens, leu-ment, morteus, orienteus, osteus, queus,t 
qoea-Hce), teas, [and in Uie n. pr. Ampbibeus, (Lat. 

2, Lat. el :— ellus (-illns,) aigneus, arbruseu, beus, 
beutd, ceus [- ecc'illosj, thapeus, chasteus, chevcus, 
catens, drapeus, eu [- m illo,] eus [ illos,] ig^ieus, 
jd-eus, juvenceus, kemeus, mureus, nuveus, oiscus, 
roisseos ; — elis, criieus ;— el : vetulus^ (= eel for etuV) 
Teoz ; — [Gmn. hilm', heumes.] 

3, LaL ol: dol-et, deut; sol-et, seut; {vol-^) veut, 

4, It occnrs also a few times as an umlaut of o : 
foc-us^ feu; cbr^ qu-eur; pro-d^ preuz ; {pitosus,) 
|»teos, [and perhaps ji-eus for gaudi-osus ? (v. note 
1466.) ] 

5, In Jiieus, Giii-eus, the eu seems based on the 
Tocalisation of v, toteVt judae-us, ju-d-ev-us = ju-ev, 

(M. F. jU'if^ jii-eu, giu, [whence our jew], v. note on 

6, There remain Deus, Lat. deus^ and deus, Lat. duo; 
and besides, euue (69), where the double uu is for the 
common w in ewe. 

II. eu. 

1, This is found in (a) the pret. and past ptcp. of 
verbs of 2nd and 3rd Lat. conjug., (b) in the termination 
'of nouns, ^ Lat. ator, atura, and (c) in one adj. in urns. 

(a) — abu: cii, eiimes, eiirent, ciissum, eussez; — acu : 
geii, geiisent ; — apu : seii, seiiz ; — cucu : peii ; — ebu: 
deiissez, delist : — edu^ creiimes, recreii ; egu^ leii ; — ibu^ 
enbeiiz, beii ; — «/«, (pur)veii, veii-e ; — ipu^ aperceii, 
deceii, receii ; — u : «/«, cuneii, mes-coneii, recuneii, re- 
keneii ; — otu^ peiistcs, peiisum ; — ovu^ esmeiiz, meiiz. 

(b) -ator : — boiseiir, cnangeiir, cumandeiir, empereiir, 
enginneiir, fableiir, mireiir, peccheUr, precheiir, sau- 
veiir ; — also from -itor : cunquesteiir ; -atllia : atem- 
preiire, chauceiire, harpeiire. 

(c) -nnis, securuSy seiir, seiire. 

2, Further, in two abstract sbstt.inLat. or: blancheiir, 
foleilr, ( where o - U, and the e is inorganic) ; [probably 
also pUurent (15 13) is a similar case, for Lat. plor-ant, 
rather than a case of umlaut for 0, as in qu-eur(J58);J 
cf. also feiissez (61 1), but fuissez (465), with fiissent 
(1744) and fust (612). 

III. Su. 

Only when / is followed by a nasal u of Latin or 
Romance ; leon^, 16un, I6un-cel ; vid-{emus\ v6-um. 


1, Generally = Lat. ia : amiable, bestial, diable, em- 
perial, espicial, merci-able ; Mrith synaeresis of conso- 
nant, li-g-are^ lia, aliance ; mari't'Oticunty manage ; 
{pbli-t-are^) ubbliance; in pret. of verbs, cria, espamias, 
espia, humilia, prias ; also in pres. ptcp., tcsmoniant. 

2, - L:t. ie : morient'y muriant ; [^vi-v-enday) viande ; 
ziv-ent'y \'iant. 

3, Sometimes the t is itself a modification; thus 
prias from prec'{ari) ; briant, (788, but bruant 1 153,) 
from a Lat. bru-^-tent-y (v. note on bruit, 620). 

4, nn. pr., Belial, Mesias. 

ie (= I'e and ti or te,) 

1, With e for Lat. a, and inorganic i prefixed after 
sibilants or liquids, (v. note 804,) ra»-, chien; cad-it, 
chiet ; cap-uiy chief ; nav-y nief ; «<w-, nies. 

2, From Lat. ia, in term. -iailTlS : ancien, celestien, 
crestien(l6), nigromancicns. 

3, As umlaut for Lat. e ; — eO, Ja^f/«»f,siecle ; {veclus) 
viel ; — ed: ped-y picz;— el: coelunty ciel ; — en: bene 
bien ; — er J : feruSy fier ; heriy hier ; nervusy nierf. 

* Probably the e of the Lat. prefix must be allowed for here ; cf. also meimes for a form m^-<ps-[issi]m-us. 

t This seems to have influenced the spelling of the unique queur, 158. 

X Oder and entier only occur once each, instead of the usual ac^r, and ent^r / ader, however, is perhaps the 
better form, as being « Lat. aci-ari-us, and the 1 in entier may have been influenced by the guttural in Lat. 
intc;^, \tgt m tir, c?. prim^ri'US^ prem>ier]. 



et : laetus^ liez ;~6y : UiM>y lief; [Genn. feu m fev, 
fef, fiez.] 

4, In the infin., and past ptcp. of verbs of the 1st 
conjug. iarfy icare^ {ec-are), igore, {'^g*^^^)t id'are^ 
(it-are) ; devier, (esparnier,) mercier, lier, nier, nuncier, 
otrier, sacrifier-unt ; alid, chastiez, crucifix, repli6 ; fier ; 
crier, crienim, ublier, escriez ; in the 3 pers. pres. sg. 
and pi. of the same verbs ; enmercie, enhumilie, pro- 
phecie, chastie, deslie ; prie, renie ; crucifie, multiplie, 
ottrie, plie, seintifie, signific ; lie, (es)crient ; defie, fie, 
escrie(nt), treshublie; and in the 2 pi. imper., otriez. 

5, In fem. of past ptcpp. of verbs in ir: enrichie, 
ensevelie, esclarcie, flestric, flurie, furbie, garies, partie, 
perie, replenie ; also in the 3 pers. pres. sg. and pi. of 
dire f==Lat. dic're), die, dient, mau-dient. 

6, In sbstt. in la : cumpainnie, cunestablie, escurgie, 
felunie, folie, losengerie, maistrie, maladie, nigro- 
mancie, partie, seignurie ; — ioa : mica, mie ; urtica^ 
urtie ; — id-la : invidia^ envie ; — ita : vita^ vie ; — itel : 
viteUa^ viele. 

7, In pres. ptcpp. in "ient* : escient, orient-(el) ; and 
in 2 pi. condit., friez. 

8, In prx-^-re from preC'ari, the t =• ec - «', and the 
er = air = arr, corresponding to a normal prec-ari-a, It. 
pregh-iera; cf. also anienti (1454) from neC'ens, Vfith 
anentti (1142), and the simple nent (634). 

9, mien is an irrational form of Lat. meum, which is 
not easy to explain. 

10, In nn. pr. Gabriel; Marie, Messie, Palladie; 
Sulie; Diene. 

• * 

Only in cheriit, despiist, respiit, v. note on 1. 645. 


Only in riote, (of unknown origin). 


The most common occturence is in the fem. termina- 
tion tun of sbstt from Lat. -wm- : avisiun, confessiun, 
confusiun, consolaciun, cuntenciun, dampnaciun, devo- 
ciun, encamaciun, entunciun, legiun, manziun, passiun, 
perdiciun, processiun, promissiun, redempciun, regiun, 
remissiun, revelaciun, sauvaciun, subjecciun, tribula- 
ciun ; also in masc, champiun ;— and further in ist pi. 
pres. diC'j dium. In addition, we have from Lat. ll : 
^iius, fiuz; vilisj viu ment; -i-os-us, deliciuses, envius, 
gloriuse, preciuses ;— Lat. 60 : leon-, liun, liunceus ;— 
: loC'USy liu ;— n : judaeus, giu, giiie, giiieu. 

In estriu, it is perhaps for ev - eb, of Germ, streh-an, 


{incroc'are,) encroa; laud-ant'^ lo-ant; (M. L.) 
{rohanl'Um^) roal. 

In the infinn. encroer, I0&, no§r, {nei-ane), pok^, 
(^pot'ere), and 3 pi. poent, with deriw., po£st€, poimft; 
in imper. 2 pi. from audire, o£s ; laudem i a ^ loeogt. 

In n. pr. r^oe. 


1, From Lat. A : {ati), paloH^um^ p«lois ; a(fi}Mk 
{nus), citoien. 

2, From Lat. an : {naus-ea^ noise ?) ; rGerm. tusmd* 
jan^ soille ; kaus-jan^ choisir, es-choisir ;J-HaTldi:/8iM^ 
es-jo'ir, re-jo'ist, joie, joiant, joius ; a«tf(-£rv), Sr, 0^ 
o'ismes, oistes, oiez. 

From Lat. t. 

3, e : in the pronn. me, se, te, moi, soi, toi ; wim, 
moie ;^bt* : deb-ere, doi, doit, doitz ; — 60 : dinO^u, 
droit, endroit ; prec^ari, proier, (de)proies; nec-^n, 
noiez; — ed: cred-ere, croi, croire, croitz, croi-cit; 
praeda^ proi-e ; — 6^ : leg'^ loi, loial, loide, deiloid; 
reg'^ roi;— ^: sUlla^ estoiIl6;— ens: fiwiwt-i!r» non; 
'^nS'is, pantois-er, Sarrazin-ois ; — ar: habere^ avoir; 

sper'Oy espoir ; ser-us^ soir ; ver-^us, voir ; — 61 : fio^ 
(us,) frois-irent; tres, trois ; — et : vet-artt Toi-ez; sd^ 


From Lat. L 

4, i : via, Toie, [for pur-voier s pro-viare, t. note oa 
1695,] (and the subj. pres. « jim, siiy &c, soie, Hit, 
soium, soiez, soient) ; — lb', bibere, boiv-re; — ^io : exfUf 
cit'y exploit-er ; strict-'US, estroitz i-icarie, plowTi des* 

ploier, flamboie, guerroier, otroier, [audoT'tcgnl 
verdoi-ant ; — ^Id :^-^, foi; vid^eo, vois, Tcn-ent; tm» 
uus, void -6 ; — Ig : di^-it-us, doi ; ffs^-m, noi-re;— ^: 
dign^ri, doinne;— U: capill-us^ chevoilz; miraiw^ 
es-mervoiller ; — ip : recif-it, re^oit ; — [Genn. iao ijn^ 
frois ;] — iv (= «f-) rimcell-us, roisseus. 

5, In benoit, benoite, benoie, [oT ?]the dipihthoiit^ 
arisen from ei = Lat. e(d)i in benedict-. 

From Lat. Ot 

6, 00 : voc'y Toiz ; noet'^ a-noit-ex; adestm-MS^dtaa^i 
ocul'USf oil ; hoc il(lud), oil ; [noxia, » nocf-ia, noif^ 
but V. 173] ;— 05 : cognit-us, a-coint-6 ;— ^: ^utt i l ' t 
apostoille; spolt^arcy despoille; dol^Ure,) aoSiai, 
doilz; moll-ire f es-moilli; foli-um, foule; voU^ voB- 
lant, voille, voUz, vr isist ; — olg : coUig-ere (= celg'^iJi 
a-coill-ir, acoilt ; — on : car(n)onea, cnarmnne (▼. 846) ; 
sum-mone-, su-moin; tes{ii)numi'um, tesmoin, tcf- 
moinne; 'don-are^ doins, doinst ;-Hmg : kmg-uSf «■ 
loinn-ez, esloinnera, loing, loin-tein;— ozi: kisieht, 
estoire; gloria, gloire ; ebore-um, ivoire; — 000 : t^^ 
nosc'ientia), cunoiss-ance ; — ^HiA'. poss-Unt)^ poiss-ant, 
pois-ance ; — [G^rm. Osi : bosi, bois-eiir.J 

• There is further an infin. voer (941), which I consider as a mere mistake for ver, by a similar change asm 
fi«)*r,—subst. (685), and verb 1st sg. pres. 1761— compared with ^Kjrj (1277). ^ ^, . ^. _, ., _^ 

t Here may be added the endings of the impft. and of the condit. [= Lat. ebat, ebcaii^ vix. estoie; estoit,ivQit; 
avoient, disoicnt, cstoicnt, savoicnt; seroic, voudroic ; puiroit, serroit ; amerroicnt, diroicnt, ocvoient. 



From Lat. il 

7. W : eme*^ crab ; gien'Ucul'y genoflz, genoill-uns, 
tfenoUla; (a£)rat(^)cul', roill-6, (v. 1008); sucuU^ 
•oOle, (bat ▼. 562) ;— ngn : pugn-usy poin, poinn-al ; — 

ponm-ciit, point, pointes ;yi/m:/-raes-jointz, jointes ; — 
|Gctm.UBi: bi'Siumgiy bu-soinne, (v. 124,) soing; — 
Wk : vy^fMo/ifOrgoil (722) ;] — ^osti : angusti-a^ angoiss^, 
ntirtf-itf- robte, (▼. 1832) ; — [Genn. nirifiO : buwisc, 


I, Ii vsaaHy the rei»eseiitative of Lat. an : pauc-f 
pmi ; aud', on-ant, ouent ; alauda, alou-e ; laud'^ lou, 
m-ant ; fauper^ poure ;^-el8ewhere of a (or other 
^PDWid), with fidlowing u by vocalisation or transvec- 
Hoo; ata: habuit^ out; — ftT: clav^us^ clou, dou- 

a, al : eUuphmy (coipus)^ coup, conper ; {/olJis), fon ; 
(iM ic nne) loodeer ; sii(ve)re, soudr-nnt ; {vol-ere,) 
«oodr«oie ;---olll : voiU'tt^ voat ;— <yta : potu^it^ pout : — 
ll : a/d}iilter, a-T-outre. 

3, It k a fhnple modification of in pont'^ pountz ; 
AnUr, o«-i ; (iMZ-tfnf,) nou, nou-ant. 

4, Of the lorm 0w, we find poiisse, for M. F. puisse, 

f> lapfa, ptfMom] ; poiir, espoiiri, from Lat. iav^or^ 
paa-or ■ po-or) ; auo £rom {p<ft'€re^ ist pi. pres. 

After fottmals from Lat. na: language, quant, 
cpatic, loage, {smaviare); or from Germ, w: ^uagc, 
Males, puranta, guarde, guari, guami; — with a 
Lat. a : joc'^mt^ ju«ant ; €vJ-a, cu-ard ; — from Lat. 
^ug^ bra-ant ; myU^ mu-a ; /m/-, pu-ant ; jsm/-, 
>; tor traanta, ▼. note on 524. 


Aa la the case of mi, 10 here we have three distinct 
soioids upnn a ted by the combination mt, vis, mt, ue^ 
aad mi* 

I. ue. 

If OocanaftergvttnrslsfixnnLat^, ^.'languerus, 
qoeram, querant, queur, quen, queus, 
latiii, reqneste, cunquesteiir; — for Germ, 
ga^, gnenhmsy gueres, guerpi, guerroier. 

a, Bj aalaat Cor Lat. a;-H» : iUoc^ fluec ;— d : {doU 
■■Kwl;— Ml: «Mt-«f,aiien-s;— q»: /^/Vmx, pueple ; 
v: OTsrs d c mu e i e, (de)maerent; mori^ muer-ent; 
r-«#, dcsUaen;— ol: /oT-, paet;~OT: dov-, buef; 
nef ;^lbr Lst O, in suf-fir', siiefre. 

II. ttV. 

3, Where the u is derived from Lat. a, na : siie, 
tue, [but cf. suen, tuen] ; — ah : nub-€Sy niie ; — noa, 
ma9iies; — ad, sudo^ su-e and su-eires [sudarium"]; — 
nga, riie ; — nta : mue, saliic, \iie ; and the ptcpp. batiie, 
esmiie, veniie ; for the verb ahiient, v. note 1425. 

III. u?. 

4, From Lat. equ ; — etjualis, dcshucl ; — Lat. ; 00 
locare^ luer; nod'^ nu-e ; — otel : {botellaY bucle, esbu« 
elez; [Germ. j/Sw, estuc- ;] — Lat. u : mue, salu6, saluer, 
tuer, suer ; — ^nal : anucl ; — ^ud : crudcl-^ cruel. 

5, In suef^ from Lat. suavis, the initial u being proh. 
the same sound as our w, 

In this combination »/, the modification of Lat. <; to » 
only takes place under the influence of a following /, by 
a kmd of assimilation ; this i may either be the natur^ 
vowel I, or the i = vocalized guttural, and in either case 
the transvection of the / will produce the same effect. 
I, Lat. e: %%tfress{us)^ fruisscnt; — MU, sequ'^ sui-t. 

r, but-uill-er; — 11: ex» 

iu B ui,) riviC' 

2, Lat. leal : but-icul-ariuSf 
ilium^ ex-uill(er); — ^ly: (where iv 
elluKf missel. 

3, Lat. ol : hoiat buies ; recoctus^ requitz ;— 00, Og, 
(b oi) : noct'y nuit ; noc'fre, nuire ; cog.itare, qui-der ; 
— odi : odi'Um, es-n-ui-ez, v. note on 375 ; podi-um, 
pui, puier ; hodi-e, ui ;^)Bti : ostuum^ uis ; postc^^ 
puis, despuis ; — otl : toti (pi.), tuit, trestuit ; — olg (* oh) : 
Lat. colligere (= col-eere;, a-cuill-ir. 

4, Lat. n, when followed by f, in the same manner 
gives ui ; — ui, fuimes, &c., ruine ; — no, ng : destrucU^ 
destruite, fruct-^ fruit ; ducU^ sus-duit ; lux^are^ luC' 
sare^ esluiss-er ; hrug-y bruit \fug'^ fuie ; — uli : muli'tr^ 
muill-ere ; — usti : anptstia^ anguisse ; [Germ. uuL^ — 
bruzdf bruidee;] — UM (= uti): puU^us^ pui-s; — nvl : 

5, After the gutturals q and g; Lat. ^, qui^ qui ; quaes* 
(fVf), quist, requis, cun-quist, en-quis ; iinqu-eref len- 
quir ; ^nascu'\ nasqui ; qui{e)tus^ quites ; — g : langutre^ 
languu* ; — gu (a Germ, w) : wit^an^ gui-er. 

6, Lat.<UM>, an-dui;fMiyf, sui; an/ii/iiiito/-, antiquites. 

7, For lui, celui, v. note on 244. 


Only in of-uokes s ab hoc, in the abnormal iMies, 
for Lat. opus, and in the forms with quor, quoer, requor, 
requorai, where the u belongs to the q, 

As in the case of it, a mere duplication, buus, for 
bou, ▼. note (680); ebruusdee, (v. 1134); luus, lupus; 
except only puiir for Lat. pw4'-or. 



[. prep* At, to, towards, for, on, with, &c., used as follows : — 

A. I. 1. Dative after verbs : — 

abaundunerZii ii vus : 1033 i Dcu : 1654 au deu : 1718 al enfemal M. : 1791 k lui : 1844 ^ J^^* — 
s*alier 1271 au derc. — apendre 725 i home : 119^ ^ sauvaciun. — s'cuentir 720iili: 726 a lui. — 
atacher 1603 au peel. — aUindre 1227 \ vostre cumpainnie. — atencer 1308 i ki. — attendre 816 i toi. — 
aiumer 363 as oons : 506 ^ morteu medl6e : 977 au martir : 1399 ^ chescun. — clouficker 88 ^ 
un fust — creire 1 259 au vent. — cumander 377 4 Jesu : 488 i lui — cunbcUre 1029 4 flot — cunter 214 : 
i lui. — cufwertir 1223 4 lui. — cuvenir 1239 ^ crestien. — demander 1268 ^ vus. — descwerir 458 \ 
un tirant. — duner 663 ^ vus: 817 \ ki : 870 \ Moyses : 1004 4 lus : 1161. 1442. 1496. 1596 4 
Tesu : 1234 (v. note) au brand ferir : 1416 ii Phebun : 1481 4 Deu : 1604 4 cheval. — entendre 567 
a eus : 1570 4 ces mais. — encuser ii^i i un Xxr2Xit,—faire 36^ bis. ke hem vus face au cors 
u (mauf6) au quor: 577 k td n*est.fait premur (v. note): 622 feste funt i, Febum. — se humilier 
422 k un Je%u..—juger 741. 1151 i, mort. — Iter 890. 950 4 un arbre : 161 6 4 un piler. — livrer 548 
bis. 745. 1648. 1785 livr^ 4 mort : 8^7 bis. 4 luus e as oisseus : 963 4 martire: 1218 i torment : 
mester 210 4 crestien est mester: 1 78 1 n*a mester 4 nuL — nuttre 971. 981 au cors. — Q9) 304 k 
tauradun : 308. 315 k mort : 308 i dampnadun : 338 bis. 4 grant mine e 4 perdidun : 17171^ con- 
fusiun. — mustrer 10^7 as ses martirs: 1809 al apostoille. — nuer 951 as reuns. — nuncier 1834 as 
Romeins. — obeir 478 ii ses diz : 814 4 toi: 1091 d ki : 1215 i, mes cumanz : 1680 ii lur maavois 
voler : 1754 4 la Id.— ^or^r 2 13 ii s\m hoste : 1075 ^ autrcs.— ^j^r 498 4 ki : 1528 al darreinner. — 
plaire 118 bis. i ki *1 plut i lui (v. note) : 1229 i, keus : 1315 i^ }ts\i.--presenter 787. 135 1 k Deu. — 
rendre (^graces) 882 au deu : 1397 i Deu. — se rendre 1632. 1790. 1826 k Jesu. — retter 1359 rettd a 
Ini. — trainer 798 ii martire. 

I. 2. a, With infinitive folUrwing : — 

cmmencer 31 i demander : 133 i esmerveiller : 1643 i precher. — defendre 106 & manger.— j/ mettre 
'3 au noer. 
After aver : — 
28 palefrd n*ai ii chevaucher : 678 n*a mais viandes k manger : 682 n'a mais lit au chucher. 

I. 2. c. After aver = * to owe to^^ * to have to* : — 

25. 46 ad tut le mund i guvemer : 102. 13 15. 1636 tut ad k guier : 1330 venea, li mien ami, ki ai 
i iottdtor. 

I. 2. d. After f aire s* to be worthy ofy (with inf used passively) : — 

129 tant Uitz k amer : 1259 ne fait plus 4 creire : 1345 tant hst i loer : 1559 ne fait pas & despire. 

I. 2. e. Dative of purpose : — 

124 fist sun messager 4 fere si grant busoinne : 238 (tendi) fd k boivre : 766 ne nief & passer 
unt tmv^: 834 4 90 pruver sui prest ploier le gant : 91a 1021 le regne ii recever : 1530 as plaies 
bender : 1548 as cors garder (v. note). 

L 3. Dative of aim : — 

97 m*amene i, vostre salu : 849 (purvu) k sun martire : 1418 sumuns ii cenbd : 1554 (seisi) & son noes. 

I. 4« Dative of instrument : — 

afermer 237 k clous. — decoler 1443 k la esp6e furbie. — defuUr 988. 1 341 as chevaus : lOIO & pea : 
I7|0 i chevaus.— i£^/Ym-A/r 1499. 1641 au brand. — enbrever 1546 a arrement ncrci. — esgarder 
1788 al ofl. — recever 879 as mcins. — tuer 1280 ii glaive. 

I. 5. Dative of price : — 

1 162 prisa i valnr d*an gant 


f. 2. b. 


I. 6. In adverffial phrases expressive of state or manner : — 

(a) 6 ^ loi de desloial : 157. 231 ^ tort : 327 ^ lennes : 328 bis. & jointes meins e i, wdmentisan: 
351 it bon ure: 369. 960. 1797 4 grant humilit6: 505 4 hautes manaces : 523 4 cmel gorgi6e: 
524 ^ pute destin^e : 526 ^ parole simple: 558 ^ baudur: 600 k desmesiire : 616 i drature: 
770 bis. ^ grant estrif, H volenti : 787 4 devociun grant: 817. 1156. 1474^ ^^^ semblant: 821 
i piteus semblant: 899 a cel^e : 909. 12 10. 1521. 1552 i honur : 9384 queuke peine: 1 105 
& un cri : 1182 ^ clere voiz : 1195 4 quor baud: 1240 ^ vostre pleisir: 1290 k jiim6e8: 1336 i 
sun talent: 1366 ^ cruele mort: 1409 k crueut6: 1436. 1633 & haute voiz : 1545 4 cert cante: 
1594 i sermun: 1603 H grant turment : 1699 ^ un voler commun : 1732 4 grant processian: 
1789 i une voiz. — (b) 762 i cheval : 762. 1422 ^ p6 : 772 & nou : 790 k flote : 792 i seeches 
plantes : 940 bis. & genoilz e i cutes : 1286 ^ penuncel lev6: 239. 325. 514. 775 i genoOhins: 
1173 ^ genoilz. — (c) 73 H mervelles : 313. 1729 i bandun: 619. 843 k peine: 751. 1566 i pon: 
810 ^ tart. 

II. I. Dative after nouns (subst. and adj\) : — 

54 ^ lui sui enclin : 309 serfs au tirant : 343 i lui es acoint6 : 466 i Den es dm : 560 (sucor) i sm 
deciple : 618 (enclins) k pecchez : 656 ^ lui-meimes semblable : 1044 bis. (sucnrables) 4 ceas Id sunt 
H vus enclins : i loi (traitres enemi) ^ humein lignage : 1195 pretz sumes k fere : 1357 i, proie est 
devurer (v. note) : 1490 it lui atrait e asoti. 
II. 2. With following infinitive of nearer definition : — 

699 fu duel k regaraer : 1029 fort est i cunbatre. 
11. 3. Dative of determination : — 

17 i solers e estages: 20 i robe d'or batue: 677 ^ servant butuiller : 681 ter. 4 plume nei 
cotun ne 4 pailles d*utre mer : 788 ^ fiot briant : 8go i reims bas e petix : 1 167 i grant niissd : 
161 7 it ctuime de espines. — (b) 1258 fable k rote : 1288 cofres i sumer. 
II. 4. Dative of attribution : — 

1091 le sen au maistre : 1334 par sortz au sarmuner : 1343 au fiz la plaie : 1387 les cons as martin: 
1419 ost i rei (v. note) : 1462 b Deus as crestiens : 1749 le cors au martir. 
B. I. a, Local, of place * whither , (/3) in phrase, figuratively : — 

aler 1 16 a Sathan : 4 r4 Ii un prince : 507 as maissuns : 626 an temple : 629 4 lur temple : 1807 i 
Rumme : 1645 al haut rei de gloire. — aprocer\/^'^2 4 Auban. — arvver 908 4 bon port. — desendre 1386 
^ terre. — enveier 1722 ^ sun champiun. — mener $^0 & queu chief: 761 au queu chief: 1363. 1414. 
1739 4 Verolaime. — reamener 12^$ & maisun. — reapeUr 1672 & vie. — trametre 168 as apostfcfc— 

trebucher 1014 i terre. — venir (a) 10 i Varlam : 75 4 une maisun : 266 al encuntre : 455 ^ 
sun maistre : 499 bis. ^ eus, 4 la curt : 539 & curt : 613 4 vus : 765 4 une ewe grant : 1221 an 
grant guercdun : 1242 4 Verolame : 1485 bis. & Verolaime, i lur osteus. — (/3) 433, 1463 ii pleisir: 

966 i volenti : 1012 i gr6. 
Of limit, in phrases with ^decike,^ * geske* : — 

de ci k* tg ci k'4 Teuue du Rin: 1264 de ci k'i Burdele.— ^£r/l* 1702 da frond gesc' an 
talun. — {degree) 234 gesk' au sane espandre. — {tinu) 18x5 gesk' i. tant k'il fiirent mis en sarcn. 

I. b, Local, of place * where * : — 

15 entre 4 un portal : 18 s6ant al uis : 167 asis k destre sun p^ : 409 k une fenestre: 412 i la 
croiz s'agenoilla : 699 as reims : 798 au puier le i>endant : 803 au sabelun : 804 cfaxet as pies A. : 
942 (munt6) 4 sun destrer: 1095 i sa tumbe resplendi : 1413 ne mangenmt i table: 1466 1 une 
pleinne se arestecnt : 1705 al destre s,un pere : 1831 au procein port.— ferir 88. 1529 au qnor: if 
au queur : 235 k la face. — {gfsir) 859. 971 & terre : 1164 au p6 du munt — d = cha 671 en garde i 
fdun gaholer : 1023 en la prisun est au mauf6. 

II. Temporal: — 

(a) period of day 212 par tens al enjumer: 494 al endemein par tens: 683 bis. au soir e an 
disner : 703 bis. au seir n'al enjumer : 902 k midiz : 1830 bis. au vespre, au matin. — {^)generalfy 
39 au paraler : 145 au jur oitisme : 166. 263 au terz di : 181 au cumencement : 366 4 k fin: 5°^ 
au chef du tur: 621 au jur quant feste fiint: 858 au jur ki dune fulung: 1 140 4nuljiir: 1185 
au muriant: 181 1 k ceu tens. — {c)=for ever 1796 (damn6) i tut dis.-HCd) occasum loa almo 
le iiz Marie : 895 au coup : 1588 k ceste sumunse : 1606 k chemin jurnaL — {with mf) 2^^^ 
saucher de la lance : 913 au coup duner : 973 au seint cors tucher : 1057 an partir de cest sede* 
1153 au passer de un pund. 
c. With secondary predicate : — 

557 i fause fust pruv6e : 955 4 seingnur Tas clam6. 

a II. under aver. 

abandun \ v. tr. to give up, or over ; to entrust, commend ; to bestow. 

abandun^ > ind. pres. I sg. 488 4 lui vus cumant e abandim: 813 4 vus m'alme e mun cors abandui e cumant : 

abanduner ) „ „ ,1 m 1844 4 Jesu me abaundun. 

infin. 1 7 18 par abanduner al enfemal Mahun : 1278 par.largement tresor abaonduner. 



(abainduner) ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) ^ 79' lur temples e auters 4 lui (unt) abaundun6. 

ppp. mas. pL 1033 se sunt de quoer a Deu abaundun^ : 1791 tuit sunt abandttn6 (au deu crucifix.) 
abatre v. tr. to knock down. 

infin. 1 34 1 (veissez les uns) abatre e detrencher. 
abanndun-^-er under abandun. 












n. pr. Abel. 

prp. 399 d'Abel, cum Tocist Cairn. 

n. pr. Abraham. 

prp. 402 d' Abram e Moyses, les veillardz alosez. 

s. m. shelter. 

ace. sg. 1087 qui quist, cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri. 

8. m. agate>onyx (v. note). 

nom. sg. 4 n'iout acastonee negemme ne cristaL 

s. m. steel. 

nom. sg. 684 roche si dure cum acier. 

pro. sg. 1303 decolez du brand d*acer : 164 1 les detrenchent au brant d*acer. 

adj. of steel. 

mas. prp. sg. looi coup de mace e de brant acer6. 

adj. ofsteeL 

mas. prp. sg. 1838 decol6 fu du brant acerin. 

v. tr. to assure ; (ppp. =) adj. confident ; convinced. 

mas. sg. 378 de vus croi estre seiir e tres bien acert^ : 964 bien le croi de fi e bien sui acert^. 

„ pL 10^6 par les grantz miracles dunt il sunt acert^. 
I s. f. occasion ; cause. 
} nom. sg. 538 ^artut est renum^e) Tachesun purquei : 1652 tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener. 

ace. „ 829 mes jo sai Tachesun. 
) V. tr. finish ; accomplish ; end. 

j infin. 124 4 ^fere e achever) si grant busoinne : 209 la vie en la croiz achever (deingna) : 
„ 1284 (aillent) ceste grant busoinne sanz delai achever. 

ppa. ^ind. ant. 3 s£.) 373 apres 90 ke il out trestut cest achev6. 
„ (subj. pit. 3 pi.) 1026 bein quident ki tut eient lur voler achev6. 

under acer. 

acoilli, acoflt under acuillir. 

acoint6 v. tr. to make acquainted, to make friends with. 

ppp. mas. sg. 3^3 par sa revelaciun i lui es acointd. 
acordant v. mtr. to be in harmony, onlv in phrase en un — , unitedly (v. note on 1138). 

gmd. 1 187 pur 90 nus assemblames en un acordant 
acuillir v. tr. gather ; accept (sinners) ; receive (as guests) ; take. 

ind pres. 3 sg. 30 acout : 74 une part Tacoilt : 909. 1019 k honur Tacoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz : 
,y „ „ „ 1690 les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover. 

infin. 1209 ki par lui trespassant me deingnat acuillir. 

ppa. (ind. pit 3 pi.) 1 1 1 1 imt droit vers Wales lur chemin acoilli : 1 552 4 honur les unt ja en sarcuz acoilli. 

ppp. mas. pi. 152 1 4 honur sunt e ^loire eu ciel acoilli 
acompainn^ v. ref. to join oneself as a compamon. 

pp. (ind. pfl. 3 sg.) 1038 & A. e Aracle ki s'est acumpainn^. 
Mcumpli ) V. tr. fulnl, accomplish, finish, end. 
acumplir j (pip.) infin. 1241 lors les ad baptize pur la loi acumplir. 

ppa. (ind. pit. 3 pi.) 1012 qant u imt acumpli quanke lur vint k gr£. 


ppp. mas. ss. 251 de moi est ja tut acimipli : 1052 li martires de A. fait est e acumpli. 
*> t> !»• 1536 pur turmentz corporeus ki ja sunt acumpli 

▼. intr. to run up towards. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 050 ceus i acurent : 1699 lors tuit i acurent k im voler commun. 
acvrer v. tr. to cut out the heart 

infin. 1 263 acurer frai (Id prechera de cele lei). 
ad under aver. 

Adam n. pr. Adam. 

ace. 105 Deus out fait Adam : 655 Deu k'Adam furma. 

prp.'!39o d'Adam. 
adantmre s. f. breaking-in. 

prp. sg. 619 (pulein) k peine ublie 90 k*aprent en sa adanture. 
Adonai n. pr. Almighty. 

voc. 250 en tes meins mun esperit, pere Adonai, cumant* 
adrescement s. m. diort cut, cross road. 

prp. sg. 1592 li uns de eus s*en vunt par un adrescement 

a 2 





















ai I. 

ai II. 








V. tr. to adorn. 

ppp. fem. sg. 2 mes ne ert adubb6e d*or. 

adv. temp, thereupon. 

183 adunc respunai : 438 aidunc orra : 1483 adunc se sunt muntez : 163 1 aidunc (plnsurs se rendireni) 

s. m. adversary ; devil. 

gen. sg. 113 en les laz le adverser. 

voc. „ 1669 entenc vers moi, paen adverser ! 

nom. pi. 154 envie en urent adverser enemis : 1332 90 ouent sarrazins, li glut adverser. 

s. f. adversity. 

prp. sg. 364 ne soiez esmeuz pur nule adversity. 

adj. fiercely eager. 

mas. nom. pi. 1624 il en simt plus aegre de li turmenter. 

(aerdre) v. mtr. to be attached, adhere. 

pp. mas. sg. 1 1 13 li sancs A. i pert, aers e endurdu 

s. m. enamel (It. smalto). 

prp. sg. 20 nusches d'aesmal. 

V. tr. to fasten (with nails). 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 237 k clous le aiferma. 

V. tr. to fix, set up (a stake). 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 600 un peel en terre afichent 

V. tr. to put on (as a garment). 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 519 I'esclavine k'il voient k' A- ad afubUc. 

s. m. age. 

prp. sg. 152 puis ke il fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis : 288 tant estoit dune d'agc : 

„ „ 550 ki sages es de aprise e d*age estes maur. 
V. ref. to Imeel down. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 412 vit cum i la croiz A. s*agenoilla. 
V. tr. to overwhelm. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1700 de peres Tagraventent, de zuche e de pemin. 
adj. acceptable. 

mas. sg. 14 1 7 sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u tord. 
V. intr. to be agreeable to (used impers.) 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 498 i ki peise u agr^ (« no matter whom it may vex or please), 
adj. sharp, pointed. 

mas. nom. pi. 855 urties e charduns k'aspres sunt e agu. 
s. m. watcher. 

ace. pi. 1065 aguetes e pasturs paens en unt garni. 
V. tr. to chase with cries. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1425 escrient e Tahiient plus viument k*un chad, 
intei]. of calling, oh ! 

921. 1043. 1219. 1503. 1619. 1708 bis. (ai). 24O. 354. 572. 811. 1646. 1795 (hai). 946 (hay)- 
under aver. 
v. tr. to aid. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 609 Jesus me haid e sucure ! 
ppa. (ind. pfl. 3 pi.) 980 le gentil chevaler Aracle unt aid6. 
under adunc. 
s. f. assistance. 

nom. sg. 672 k*aie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester. 

prp. „ 1220 par ta aie (venirau gueredun) : 1438 pit6 te preinne de moi ki peris sanz ale. 
under aver. 

s. m. journey, wandering. 

ace. sg. 56 if devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin. 
s. m. eagle, 
nom. sg. 1386 un aigles of lui (est venu) : 1389 Tegle oiseos enchace : 

„ „ 1392 li aigles raveinner : 1550 (vunt un grant lu) e uns aigles (ki. . .). 
prp. pi. 057 (ke ne soit) de egles u wltures ne de lus devor6. 

s. m. lamb. . 

ace. sg. 281 Deus Tat fait aignd d*un leun sauvage : 1408 pris l*unt e seisi cum li lu fait aig^^ 

„ fH. 1478 il vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 
under aler. 
s. m. diamond. 

nom. sg. 1 147 raed fii e estable cum fer a aimant. 
under amer. 


(a, i). 176 
(a, 2). 636 

(b, I), i: 
(b,a). 1: 


(ju) adv. I, befordund; 1, sooner, rather; (K) coig, I, nay rather; a, withke«(and suhj,), before thai. . . 
(a* O* |76 il or einz purpose : 752 ft armt ainz estea. 

36 ainz porra mer secchir ke jo treshnblie Jesus. 
[369 einz les honure. 

1363 (ne se desjonenmt) einz ke a V. aient ^t mener. 
8. m. air, atmosphere. 

nom. sg. IOJ5 li airs enobscnri : 1059 pus estoit li airs : 1091 li airs ob^i. 

ace. „ 85 ki fist les dementz, terre, unde, air, e fii : 1336 Teir fait & sontalent rebundir e suner. 
prp. „ 1259 (vent) k*en Pair ventele. 
V. intr. to dawn (used impers.) 

pp. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 967 plus a fsdt ui vertu puis k*fl fiit ajum^. 
8. t dawn. 

prp. sg. 5a7 il s'en ala ben devant I'ajum^e. 
V. tr. ^to place near), to fit on, to adiust to. 
ppa. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 971 au cors Tad mis e ajust£ (le chef A.) 
under li. 
alas under aler. 

V. tr. to fiitigue. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1428 li chemins ferrez I'alasse. 
ppp. mas. pi. 1 003 de ki battre tuit fuimes alass£. 
\ V. intr. to go ; often with foil, gerund, (and shading off into a mere auxiL 818) ; 8*en aler, to go away, 
j ind. pres. i sg. 376. 380 e (= en) mun pais m'en vois. 
„ „ a „ 1190 (Jesu] qe ki vas sermunant. 

»» 3 ft 19S oormir s'en va : 213 hastivement s*en va i sun hoste parler : 


ft f> >» t» 

»t t> »i tf 

ff f> »t » 

•t ft ff ff 

ft ft 

426 par ci sermunant va : 525 va par ci prechant : 552. 806. 1251 va prechant 

5^3 s'en va vaivez : 76^ enviz va bon gr^ : 

789 (l*eue ?) va si apetizant : 81 1 va prisant : 854 entre espines ki va : 

1343 ^ P^>^ au fiz la plaie va bender : 1433 il ne va querant el. 
I pL 831 k*alum vengant. 
ind. pres. a pL 818. 887 k*alez-vus demurant ? 1295 k*alez-vu8 simple gent enganer ? 

„ „ 3 „ 503 s'en vunt curant : 507 as maissuns A. vunt : ^08 chambres vunt cherchant 

„ „ „ „ 510 A. vunt querant : 824 k'avant urent ire, ore la vunt-il dublant : 

„ „ „ „ 1025 vunt s'en en hur citd : 1080 tuit vunt une part : 1 138 vunt Deu loant : 

ff ff ft ff _ . _ 

„ „ „ „ .592 s'en vunt par un adrescement : 1819 vunt en dec! 

1285 s'en vunt : 1352 s'en vunt (demurer eu del) : 1548 as con garder vunt 
i ff 1592 s'en vunt par un adrescement : 1819 vunt en declin. 
„ pret. a sg. 028 mar I'alas cuntruvant. 

„ „ 3 „ 414 ^ un prince hastivement ala : 527 il s*en ala : 797 a1« trainant A. A mart Ire ; 
ff ff ff ff 003 d nuls unc hom ala : 1 174 ne s'en ala vantant. 

t r»l t 


ff ff 

„ I pL 1 170 (nus^ Id I'alames vengant. 
fnt. I pL 1276 nus 1 iirum. 
ff 3 ft 6^ AU temple santz demure immt. 
sobj.pfea. 3 pL 1283 cumande k'en Wales tuit aiUent. 
imper. a sg. 7 C4 va t*en 1 his ! 949 va quere tun setnnur I 

„ jpL 4M alez vus ent ! 1644 bis. alez, martirs ! alez, leus chevaler I 
tnfin. 3a d penses tu aler ? 1 12. 1 15 (hir covint) aler : 1416 aler le suronnent : 

„ 1587 a fl aler tent : 1684 U te covendra aler. 

„ 1590 se penent d'aler : 1591 lent d*aler. 
pp. (ind. pit 3 sg.> 201 s'en est alez chochcr. 
ft ( ff f f 3 pL) 984 d*flnec sunt aU : 1807 e sont a Romme aU, 
res n. pr. Alnaiidrr (the Great). 

nom. 3^5 h est Alezandrei, H princes alos^ ? 

under aler. 

s.t alHanrf 

nom. sg. (pred.) 898 aHaace scit brtcinie . 

▼. n£ to aujr one's tdf to. 

pp. (iad. pft. 3 pL) ia72 an dcrc d'ntre mer se soot aM. 


nom. sf. tEo falme taz jan ink : lOraralme I'en port : 1731 fMhne «'«a M. 

ace M 660 en con m*alme mkt : Slya vnsm'ahnee mtm conahaiidwi cewvuifit 

prp. t, (46 charoinae tana alrae: 1445 pv f ahne e^cbrcie. 

a. C a lmffi t in g. 

pqv tf. 100 c& haa t hm e e ahrwif m tn tern dctpearfv. 





'* prp. P^- "^ ,ioue cspervcr. 





«is. ace. sg- '»3 .„asve«i»««*^- 

s. m. ^°'*V»oo to resotttst pw " 

^detamer. , -bas. >7»S *' 

^^5 ...vine Ue . • -J J«,^. _ _^^. 



♦ondit. 3 V^" i,ri 2Ltnon«^ Nplusi*"^ ^* fv note)- .^^i,.. 

'■*^^nfif?^^«^«^'^^^ « sis amis ed^^Vaxni est let>«*'*^ ^irf). 

nom. sg- 9 f,fCoSn«f /f^ bon ax^- 56. 59?-,". jS D<«,- ,«d : 


111 J^l^»<^i^Pnutv^°«^'- " ^ li«i«»* 






8. f. nuuden. 

prp. sg. 1251 de Marie va pc«cliant« one simple aocde. 

(adj. s ) s. m. men-of-old. 

prp. pL 1257 la prophede d*aiiciciis 90 confcnne e saele. 

pron. bodi. 

nom. pL 403 cum forent andni de Damne Dea prirei : 461 » pris sumes amtui : 
tt ft 479 atant se sunt andni d*Uaec meoi : I •' 31 encusex fustes andui : 
„ „ 1 175 11 ofl U sant chaet andni da chief: 1260 cum antrcs morteus furent andui ciM c vdo. 

ace. „ 109 de paiais les rova ambesdeus exuiller. 

s. m. angeL 

prp. sg. 125 del angle Grabrid en 6st sun messager. 

nom. pL 1064 li beus angeres du eel (muntent) : 1097 du cd li angere joius e enUaudi O'^ii^t «vivi) ,- 
„ „ 1 182 angeres i aparurent : 1353 li angere les cunveient : 
„ ,, I480 unt grant joie li angre espiriteus : 1732 angeres eu del la portent . 
tt tt 1719 atant es-vus dens angeres. 

ace „ 1069 ben unt pa^ns les angles veQ e eschoisi 

prp. „ 267. 905 legiuns des angles : 1706 (une grant legiun) des angles. 
„ „ 900 des angles est portez eu ciel li espentz : 1714 m*envcit do uuf^rtcM coiitoliiciun. 

adj. angelic. 

fern. prp. sg. 303 servi e honors de anglin legiun. 

s. f. anguish, torture. 

nom. sg. 669 (plus sent demuiance pener) ke ne fait anguisse : 1458 ta'angoiniic* lute s\n r^t pMitlis 

under angere. 

under angoisse. 

) V. intr. to perish, to be shrivelled. 

ind. pret 3 sg. 1 142 flestri e anentti quancke estoit verdoiant. 
pp. (b adj.y mas. sg. 1454 le cors m'est feble e anienti. 
V. intr. to become evening (used impers.). 
pp. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 396 des relev^es e quant fu anoitez. 
ez s. f. antiquity. 

pip. sg. 397 escriz d'antiquitez. 

aaj. annual. 

mas. ace. sg. 625 servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt. 

fern. M „ 1416 si en frunt feste anud. 

s. m. year. 

nom. sg. 7 IS pass^ en fu ja dlmi an plener. 

(temp.) ace. sg. 1093 demi an (ne rendi fruit) : 1139 dimi an (ne pluvcit). 

ace. pL 288 parcruz ert e trente anz out. 

prp. ft 152 puis keilfud'agee d'anztreizfeizdis. 

▼. tr. to blow on (and cool, as the wind). 

ind. pret. 3 tg. 694 ne venta vent si Id les pedst aorer, 

iv. intr. to appear, 
ind. pret. 1 pL 1182 angeres i aparment. 
tnfin. 1280 4 penuncd lev6, d unt (ait aparer le soldi e b lane* 
pp. mas. sg. 1 398 teu miracle k*en lur terre est aparu. 

)v. tr. to caS, to summon ; to appeal to ; to same, 
ind. pfea. 3 sg. 31 une part I'apde: 818 e td inzjm% apele ' k'alr/^viH *UmH9»hl * ' 
99 tt ft ft 1244 ses hnmroes e amis e sci pnvez apele 147H il v«« fi|i*)# t nnt ^inmiitt *•«- ••l|(ii» w 
„ ptet. 3 pi. 146 Jesu Tapderent si parent e ami. 
tnfin. I vsi iDeul» prescnte Id \c% dcigne apeler. 
V. intr. to be fitting, proper (impen.). 

ind. prea. 3 sg. 139 par droit apent nairtre: 182 kJt irtf. 1 a|«#^«f * j$% #^U m*t9l »jtHtl * hrttth 
ft tt ft tt 1503 » cngcme n t cum de k/dtntut f««!»dre »|j«nfti liM^ *4 Ut 4m§ \m i«|i#.fM -mjmmh i 
», fot. „ „ 441 ft'en pcmez ten vengcajKe cmm il 1 M^tiitUm. 
periph. prcs. pic. 1 194 k sanvacina de oas k'csc af^ftdsatf , 
mt 1 V. tr. to perceive, observe : rtt vL 

} ind. pres. 3 pL 98^ pars •'apocervent. 
nl ) ppp. mat. pL 76 (ke ne ftoieoCf <4 Be tf^rttrk f'U ««>««*« « •^|p>fc/i 

pcnpiL prcs. ptc. 17^ Sarrazm ne <reat s(4er'.r»Mi«. 
eat adv. openly bdore all, plainly. ^yimiAj 'm v^^fJkj . , f*^im,\i 

214 sa avismn i la apcstOBe&t cnaf«r .t\',^ '-^^rt «w«^ * «r«* i^^*^ 
331 — rem rmrkanitiMi iif M. : ^Yf 'jnk a 'ir* ^ Kf. «> «m^*«/ 
foSy voient h jam — s im» fvtm — nam . $jf/9 yAm, ^^nn^ ^m^M 

/ tt 




Apolin ) 
ApoUin j 










ardent I. 

ardent 11. 











V. to grow small, 
gmd. 789 (I'ewe) va si apetizant. 
n. pr. Apollo. 

gen. sg. 65.1816 la loi Apolin. 
&CC. „ 334 ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun. 
prp. ff 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sathan, e Belial, 
s. m. apostle. 

prp. pi. 168 d'iluec fuas apostles li seinz esperitz tramis. 
s. m. the Pope. 

prp. sg. 1809 mustrer al apostoille tute la verity. 
V. tr. to teach ; to learn. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 178 ke Jesus en ses estabUz aprent : 619 90 k'aprent pulein en sa adantore : 
„ „ „ „ 1599 cum diable les aprent* 

„ pret „ „ 606 90 ke m*apristne guerpirai : 1335 tant apiist nigromant kant il ert escoler. 
ppa. (ind. pft. i sg.; 83 jo ne Tai apris, ne pruv^, neleA. 

„ 2 „ 1 193 clers es e apris Tas en tes livres lisant. 

ft 3 » 372 clc la fei Deu la summe (a) apris e demustrd. 

„ „ pL 1 781 apris unt [v. note] n'a mester k nul (guenroier le rei). 
ppp. mas. sg. 407 A. est ja apris e bien endoctrinez. 

f> If P^* 341 P^ humme suntli autre apris e endoctrin6 : 998 li crestien en sunt apris e entos 
(a) prep. temp, aher ; (b) adv. afterwards. 

(a) 147 apres pou de tens : 190 apres la mort : 373 apres co ke il out achev6. 
209.1 165 apres 90 : 12^3 apres Tenfantement : 1445 apres la mort du cors. 

(b) 1 180 la nuit procemne apres. 
V. tr. to prepare. 

ppp. mas. sg. 755 ke tu as deservi, luer td est aprest6. 

under aprent. 

s. f. learning. 

prp. sg. 550 ki sages es de aprise e d*age estes maur. 

under aprent. 

V. intr. to approach. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1432 despuis ke 4 A. aproce. 

n. pr. Araclitis. 

nom. 935 Li chevalers Aracle : 969 li francs chevaler Aracle : 974 Aracles : 1039. 1 159 Arade. 

ace. 799 ki Aracle avoit mm : 944. 986 (veit) Aracle : 980 le gentil chevaler Aracle unt sid€. 

prp. 1038 mustrer as sez martirs privez, A. e Aracle. 

voc. 946 Aracle, chevaler alos6 ! 

V. ref. to become enraged. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1780 li princes tost s'en est arag6. 

s. m. tree. 

prp. sg. 890 Qes cheveus A. lie) k un arbre ki Id fu : 950 sun chief purras truver ii un arbre h€. 

f, „ 106 d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit k manger : 970 le chef A. del arbre ad ost€. 
s. m. small tree. 

prp. sg. 1 172 suz un arbruseu ki eu munt fu cresant. 
n. pr. Architriclinus (but v. note), 
nom. 62 quant manga as nosces lu ber Architriclin. 
(arder), v. intr. to bum, to be hot ; to be inflamed, enraged, 
md. pres. 3 sg. 1 74 eu feu ki art tut dis : 644 fust art: 1243 li princes, espris de ire, art e resteno 

„ „ 3 pT. 1779 les langes lur ardent, 
adj. eager. 

mas. nom. sg. 1742 tant par fu ardent, 
v. intr. to stop ; ref. id. 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 1466 k une pleinne se aresteent. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 1062 sur la tumbe A. arestut fichi. 
pp. mas. sg. 98 sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 
s. m. silver. 

nom. sg. 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu. 
ace. „ 1288 or portent e argent : 11 49 asez li ofrimes, jueus, argent, besantz. 
prp. „ 292 ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus ran9im ne guage : 1664 tresor de argent e de or cl« 
s. m. argument. 

prp. sg. 193 ne purroit estre pruvg par argument. * 
V. tr. to conduct, 
ppp. mas. sg. 908 (A. est) d bon port arivez. 


▼. tr. to ann. 

ppp. mas. pL 1587 ben afinet le svent. 

». m, a memue of length, npcat, O. E, 

(ace.) pL 481 le amdmeit ticis aipenls e doni. 

s. m. ink. 

prp. tg. 1546 feimes cnbrerer i airanent nercL 

nnder ardent L 

s. m. art, deceiL 

prp. sg. 1249 mes plus set d*en£hantement, d*art e de favele. 

▼. tr. to bedew. 

ppp. fern. sg. 515 des knnes anis6e est sa face. 

imder aver. 

under fi. 

under assembkmes. 

)v. intr. to assent to ; ref. id. 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 196 droits ne raisuns n'i assent : 726 le plus i lui s*asent : 1574 ki las ut 1 1 Miiutt 
>t ft 3 1^. 730 des samudns s'asentent bien i li grant partie. 
adv. enough (of quantity) : long enough (of time). 
380 asez ai sujumd : 1 149 asex u ofnmes. 
V. intr. to be seated. 

pp. mas. sg. 167 & destre sun pere est asis. 
s. m. ass. 

nom. sg. 615 nel eiissez plus entendu ke asne harpeiire. 
V. intr. to tie infatuated. 

pp. mas. face.) sg. 1490 (unt perdu A.) e lur parent (i. e. Aracle) k lui atriit e afecit*. 
) adj. roug^ rugged. 

j mas. nom. %e, 1437 li chemins ferrex, aspre e deshuel (I'alasse). 
pi. 85J charduns k'aspres sunt e agu. 

»* »> 

ime \ V. intr. to assemble ; ref. id. 

unes f ind. pret. i pi. 1 187 pur 90 nus assemblames tuit en un acordant.: 
i I tf ft >f » 1446 assemblame pur 90 gentenune cumpainnie. ^ ^ 
Enmt ; „ fiit. 3 «, 624 d tuit se assemblerunt. '^^ 

pp. mas. pL 713 sunt assemble trestuit li dtoien : 738 iltt^c sunt aitetnbM. 

„ fem. sg. 499 venir k la curt assemble. 

mider asent. 

imder aver. 

▼. tr. to tie, fasten. 

ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1603 au peel Punt atache k grant torment coraJ. 

adv. thereupon, just then ; always at the beginning of tha Uoc (and clauM), iiava Hi f'll. jAli t|if 
1731. (1748). 

142. 197* Mi« 3^* 479- 493- 713.821. 835. 875. 884.888.9^,984, I0I5« till, M|i, l^lfi f|il< 

I7I9» 1731- 1733- 174«- 
V. intr. to attam to. 

infin. 1228 k vostre cumpainnie atetndrc (me doiast Deat)« 
e 1 V, tr. to temper, restrain, 
r I infin. 690 nne chahir Id pas ne se sect aiemprer. 

ppp. fem. s^. 526 (A. dist) k parole simple c atempr^. 
ore a. L tempering, restramL 

prp* ag. 590 (joMtiae son amge) par sage atanprefirc^ 

V. tr. to attack with insult. 

infin. 1306 i Id tn cnmenccs taot vioDnrt - tcacer* 

V. intr. to wait; await ; stay beUad ; baCca (vtfiy '/Jh€f (kj* 

ind, pra. 3 sg. 190 tnnoeBt (atcat Id 90 ne aoHj ; f y> Af4, mi I 4mmm4 9 aMM 
»» tt w »» tsB^ nak ne 
„ pfct. „ M 1117 «» ■■i"' 

infin. 1742 ne vovt taot 

ppa. fad. pA. t sg.J I57 (jmefiej ki k» ad 

grad. 540 atcBdaM b oarale i qK« c^icT faai ab(»fif. 

pcfiplL pRa. pec, 816 k dtmoKL ke 8 














under atendre. 
s. m. dress. 

prp. sg. 19 en atur festival : 541 en eel estrange atur. 
V. tr. to prepare. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 506 cum gent ki s*atume i morteu mediae. 
M ;« 3 pl* 1399 septdture atument e k chescun sarcu. 
ppa. (ind. pit. 3 sg.^ 977 lors ad la sepulture au martir atum£. 
ppp. (ntr.) sg. 781 Ki ver desirent ^o ke m'est atum6. 
„ mas. (appos. nom.) sg. 363 k guereduns est grantz, as bons atorn^. 
under li. 

n. pr. Alban, name of Britain's protomartyr (929). 

nom. 41. 104. 175. 191. 201. 322. 382. 407. 412. 439. 444. 452. 480. 483. 493- 519. 526. SiS'?^ 
633. 646. 654. 673. 685. 717. 722. 730. 740. 745. 774. 787. 806. 811. 838. 866. 897. 9(^963. 
1072. 1090. 1132. 1136. 1155. 1173. 1179. 1183. 1443. 1449. 1813. [1160. 1489. 1707. 

ace. 21. 369. 418. 510. 513. 627. 630. 710. 719. 798. 800. 821. 848. 864. 889.948. 1057. 1086,1119. 

[1 185. 1201.14a 
gen. 437. 497. 507. 738. 785. 804. 891. 915. 920. 940. 970. 978. 1020. 1062. 1068. 1113. 1166. iwi. 
prp. 416 d' — : 885. 1052 de — : 1208 d' Auban le gentH: 1844 de — : 
„ 432 i:448d*: ii26ches — : 1726 of — : 1143 — : par — : 1837 pur — . 
voc. 51. 285. 
^ adj. pr. some, somebody. 

) mas. ace. sg. 131 1 (gaiir e restorer) aucun langurus. 
*f prp- M 453 guami par aucun de la curt, 
fem. (ace.) sg. 574 ki n' est aucune feit susduit par foleur. 
) V. tr. to assemble. 

j ppp. mas. sg. 760 pueple ki \k fu aim6. 
„ fem. ,, 539 & fu gent aiin^e. 
V. tr. to adore. 

ind pres. i sg. 58 lui pri e aiir lu soir e lu matin. 
3 „ 8 ceste croiz aure serrein e maUnal. 
I pi. 830 (li solailz) ke aiirum. 

3 ,, 1797 la croiz aiirent ^ ^rant hmnilite : 1798 e lui tuit aiirent. 
3 sg. 422 ^ Jesu, fiz Deu ke il aiira. 








subj. pres. 






1267 Jesu ne aiirai. 
pi. 246 e toi tuit aiirrum e crierum merci. 
J, 622 ^ Phebum, deu du solail ke il aiimint. 
sg. 642 (chose faire) par unt diables mais aiire. 


584 noz deus poestifs aiir ! 

li solail e la lune ki lur plut aiirer : 1674 diable ki servez e vos plaist anxer. 
ppa. (ind. perf. 3 sg.) 514 suvent Tad aiirfee (=r la croiz). 
aiimas v. tr. to honour. 

ind. pret. 2 sg. 929 ki primers Engletere par martire aiimas. 
aiirmm|-runt|-um under aiirer. 
ausi adv. also. 

1082 serum nus ausi. 
autel adj. pr. the same (thing). 

ntr. ace. sg. 11 06 nus (uum autel. 
auter ) s. m. altar, 

auters / prp. S£. 1365 eu temple par devant lur auter. 

ace. pL 1701 lurs temples e auters k lui (unt) abaundun6. 
autre adj. pr. other. 

mas. nom. sg. 444 nus autres (cumencera) : 733 ja nul ne voie, mes autres lui. 
„ „ „ 807 n'est autre se il nun: 1447 n'est autre Deu fors dst. 

ace. „ 1384 un autre ad Deus fait miracle : 1822 ne sai autre language fors le mien, 
prp. sg. 2 ne d'autre metal : 482 1'un d^autre parti : 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz : 
,1 ,, 64 pur meint autre sarrazin : 295 par autre sermun. 
fem. „ „ 1340 d' autre (scil. part), 
mas. nom. pi. 341. 533. 918. 1337 li autre : 357 li autre prince: 773. 862 autres: 

,, „ 1 192 cum funt cist autre tuit : 1 260 cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 
ace. pi. 242 autres de toi : 748 autres jugementz : 763. 1293 les autres : 1367 autres. 
prp* » 236 en un fust dresc6, autre entravers parmi (v. note) : 431 d'autres Tesloinnera : 
»> ff 432 par les autres li maus s'espandera : ^51 as autres essample : 734 par autres garni 
)i „ 1074 (plus sages^ des autres : 1075 parole as autres. 
1549 (olesmi) d autres bestes. 









Dt adr. othenrise, 

718 antrament ke U nuUstret ib horn ne mum mic : 833 ki aatrement le dit, 

under autre. 

adj. belongins; to others. 

(mas. ace. sg.) 24A saof too con demeine com sauver seiiz antri 

adr. downwards, oelow. 

17 cders grantz aval : 914 (li oil) aval smit chaetz : 1610 li sancs raa aval. 

▼. intr. to come down. 

infin. ao7 Dens deingna dn del desendre e avaler. 

▼. tr. to exalt. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1360 tnz jnrs cherist e avance. 

!Ui\ adv. temp, and loc. i, forward ; 2, before, beforehand, heretofore ; 3, in fronti before others, 
(b) coni. witn ke (and a subj. pres., fi tnd. fnt.)» before that, 
a, i^, 888 avant est saillis : 1151 estoit amenez avant. 
a, z\ 360 Id avant [I'urent haij : 823 k'avant nrent ire, ore la vnnt il dublant : 

791 d avant passer ne pout hom : 803 d nnls one horn ala avant : 
1009 1'nnd mnt phis k^avant pen6 : 1374.1] 


U4 KAocs k'avant Ics (cors out) teint. 
1396. ii;5i avant (les nrent en despitV*: 1736 jnr6 eiirent avant 
(a, 2) 1 122 (cist) Tad saln^ avant : 1527 (cnescnn) avant se purofri. 
" , a) 429 avant ke pins avenge. 

• A 434 A^uit ke nns hom garde s'en dnra. 

e. avd) prep, down along by. 
7 avan I'nn des costea raa li sancs cnral : 8;8 avau le pendant s*espant. 
adj. snttable. 

BU- pip* ig. 1752 en sarcn avenant. 
V. intr. to happen. 

ind. fnt. 3 sg. 418 dnnt grant mal avendra. 
tnbj. pres. 3 sg. 129 avant ke pins avenge, 
pp. (ntr.) sg. 1 1 28 90 ke est puis avenu. 

s. f. upper front of the coat <k mafl, for the protection of the chin, 
ace. IM. 1468 desla^t aventailles, beumes e chapeus. 
s. f. mddent, chance ; par — , by chance, 
ace. sg. 1493 Tun de eus Taventure cunta. 

prp. „ 179 si par aventure enrage me prent : 621 fu paraventorean jnr : f 115 kiparaventnreenpali. 
under avnidra. 

IV. tr. I, to have, possess ; — 2, periphrastically with follg. substantive to express a verbal idea, ex. gr. 
aver cure, garde, sotng, to care for; aver dcsir, eniie. ire, merci, pi6t£, potir, voluntt, to desire, &c. ; 
aver nun, to be called ; aver en despit, to have in despite, bate ; aver feim, freit, sei, chant, to be 
hungrr, thintr, hot, cold ; aver mester, to be useful, pro6t : — 3, to have, to owe (to do anything) :— 
4, witn or witnout i, to ei^ress M. F. y avoir. 

rin two divisions: — A, mdependent verb; B, auxiliary.] 
ind. pres. i sg. at A 28 palefrei n'ai : 961 n'ai soing ne volunt^ : 1310 ai k soudeer. 

57. ift 

f« »t 

ft tf 

aJ A 

M „ B 83. 215. 380. 387. 440. 808. 809. 1 1 10. 1227. 1820. 1835 ai. 

2 sg. oj A 570 as tn hisckir. [1648, 1659. iOOl as. 

B 52. 100. 131. 418. 545. S4^>. (^jo, 755. 777- 9»i. 922. 95S- "93- "98. 1^7- 

3 „ fl A 591 n'a cure: 678 n'a mai» %iandeA : ^jHi n'a mai» h( : 

1612 texnte en a la peitrine: 1727 garde n*a de f u : 1781 n'a mester i nul. 
(« il v a; 381 tant i a plentf: : 

650. '130J. 1 420 n'a cist ki /ne rAxrUij fne seit decolea) (n'est muntet): 
703n'apTuienero%^: 1461 n'anulkincdie: 1 589 tant i a gent. [ 1803.1810 a. 

B 1:6. 2^j. 328. 346. 3:1. 408. 423- 449- 4:2. '/'7- 995 »022- 'OJT. » »«• "S^T- 
' 21 A. ad nun : 2^. 4^i ad le mund i guvcmer : 102. 1)15. 163OCUC ad 4 j^uier : 
138 do mand i/i ^ffH: fj'*) priran ad obtcu/e : 68) fetm ad e sei e frctt : 
6^4 p^r lit ad roche bikc: : 1 37S de leit ad ja semblance : 1 456 pi^f en ad : 
'sOva 5Ho?snozdeufcad;;rariifranc}jiM: I03ldcscttoien»adbicnmi]oplus. 
B 71. i'yi. 211. 2:0. 284. 325. 327 340. 302. y/l. 374- 179- 397. 4«9. JM. 
513. 514. ;r'/. C19 520. 535. 541. 542. 544. 5'if. rs8. 77<»- 783- 78$. 832. 
8:6. Myj. tvjf*. >y,4. ^lo. v>8. V39- 94'>- 94 »•'/»• 9ro- 97' 972- <»77. lo'j- 
loi;. ro2^ 1122. 11^5. 1237. 1241. 1282. 1294. 1384. 1403. I487. 1554. 

15:7 u*. i*/jH. 1*^,1. i:is- '837 *d. 

B 281. 945 at. 
t pL tftwiif B4S7. 1078. 1191. i$ii. 1653 
1 „ mm B 463. 618. 1534 avrs. 

b 2 

•• tf 

•» •• 



ind. pres. 3 pi. tind 

B 629. 1009. 1500 und. 


impft. 3 sg. avoit 


I sg. 
3 » 



snbj. pres. 3 sg. eit 

2 pi. eia 

3 .. aient 


49 unt lor lei : 359 n'lint plus de tere : 395 ilaec unt lor segreis : 

581. 630 pi6t6 unt (de): 1370 en lui unt amur: 138 1 en unt envie: 

1480 en unt grant joie: 1033 en unt cure. 
B 44- 353- 393- 5". 518. 531. 533. 620 bis. 737. 746. 748. 7^9. 75a 753. 

757. 766. 767. 857. 859. 870. 882. 980. 981. 982. 983. 986. 989. I0I2, 

1014. 1034. 1065. 1069. 1096. 1 109. nil. 1 120. 1202. 1286. 1291. 13SJ. 

1358- "359. 1360. 1382. 1387. 1388. 1394. 1395. 1397. 1400. 1401. 1408. 

1409. 1410. 1488. 1514. 1552. 1594. 1598. 1599. 1603. 1604. 1610. 1768. 

1781. 1785. 1788. 1789. 1792. 1793. "795- i«»iint. 
A 799 Aracle avoit nun: 1135 avoit le grant: 1469 n'avoit repos. 
B 391. '448. 1539 avoit. 
,, pi. avoient A 1406 unc n'avoient tel (travail) : 1484 destrers avoient plus fortz. 
B 1735 avoient. 
B 376 oi einz purpose. 
A 288 trente anz out : 557 il out poiir. 

(a il y eut) 4 n*i out acaston^ : 22 n*i out plus cuneiii : 

1325. 1639 n'i out ke curucer : 1771 n'i out Id I'ust . . . ke ne fiist . . . 

769 de pueple i out plent6 : 1766 meint en i out blesc^. 
B 105. 147. 319. 373. 710. 799. 936. 943. 986. 991. 1375 out. 
A 1273 parentz k'eiimes cher. 
B 1522 eiiroes. 
B I736eiirent. 

A 154 envie en urent : 358 tant urent tresor : 824 urent ire. 
B 162. 752. 8^8. 987. 1396. 1551 urent. 
A 1840 tesmom averai ofmoi. 

^ 367. 1537 le regne averez du del: 473 vus ma robe averez. 
A 582 n'averunt vers toi ne ire ne rancur. 
B 1 414 s'averunt men6. 

A 731 eit la vile perie : 733 poiir eit : 928 n'cit part de ecus. 
B 874 n*eit tei Deu rekeneii. 
A A63 trop seroie mari si mal eiez. 
A 643 mal aient deu. 
B 1363 einz ke ii V. aient fait mener. 
A 1716 ne eient (part de moi). 
B 1026 quident ki tut eient lur voler achev^. 
A 1346 ne failli ke n*i eiist mil enter. 

B 1 783. 1 784 ne se pout nul vanter ki iluec eiist est6, ke . . . le eiist deshonur^ 
A 1621 se rejo'ist cum se il n*ust unc mal. 
B 1771 n'i out ki I'ust mesdit. 

I pi. eume^ 









tf >» 


impft. 3 sg. eiist 


f> » 

I pL eOssum B 1525 n*eiissum un de eus flecchi. 


2 „ eussez 

3 „ ussent 
2pL eiet 


ppa. (ind. pit.) eu 

B 615 ne Teiissez plus entendu. 
B 795 cum geii ussent dormant. 
A 299 ne eiez vers lui quor ligger. 

A 114. 672. 702. 1279 aver mester : 706 par beivre e chant aver: 1300 sans 
plus aver par vus travail: 1327 sanz merci aver: 1342 pi6t6 aver: 1452 

gur aver ae vus batesme : 1665 pardun purrez aver: 1676 tuz jurs sants 
n aver. 
A 44 unt eii damage : 857 grant sei i unt eii : 867 pit^ en ad eiL 
1227 tant ai eii desir : 1396 ke il urent eii (en despit). 
avU^ V. tr. to defame. 

ppa. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 511 le crestien demandent k'ad lur lei aviUe. 
avis s. m. appearance ; used with estre, to appear. 

nom. sg. 206 avis lui est (cum Deus deingna) : 224 avis m*ert ke li eels se desdot. 
avisa \ v. tr. to behold, percdve. 

avis6 j ind. pret. 3 sg. 41 1 lur faitz e lur cunseilz 01 e avisa. 

ppa. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 408 es-vus un sarrazin ki avis^ les a. 
avisiun s. f. vision. 

nom. sg. 277 ceste avisiun (k*est ke signifie) ? 
ace. „ 214 sa avisiun 4 lui cunter. 

P>P* >» 31^ veistes en vostre avisiun: 778 Id en avisiun vi : 205 par avisiun lui esmoillir le quoer : 
»> >» 296 par avisiun vus a Deu ma6 le curage : 1223 par avisiun i lui cunvertir. 
avogl6 V. tr. to blind. 

ppp. mas. sg. 732 orb est de quor e avoglez : 1774 (ke il ne fust) desv^ u avogl^. 



stores adj. blind. 

mas. ace. pi. 149 (sana) feverus, avogles. 

under avogl6. 

under aver. 

t. m. wealth. 

prp. (partit. gen.) sg. 1301 del avoir vos en femm mut largement duner. 

under aver. 

(pp. b] adj. runaway. 

mas. prp. sg. 1247 par un clergastre avolez Id sautele. 

s. m. advocate. 

nom. sg. 559 (venuz dust estre) cum maistre e avou6. 

ace „ 049 va quere tun seinnur, tun maistre e avou^. 

s. m. adulterer. 

nom. pi. 1682 avoutre e homicide. 
aTra,-nu-nm under aver. 























V. intr. to open the mouth, (gasping for breath) . 

infibo. 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miles baer e pantoiser. 

8. m. r^er, chief. 

nom. sg. 459 de cest pais Id est tut sires ke bailli (v. note). 

„ pi. 714 li prince de la terre, li bailli e gardcin. 
s. f. power, dominion. 

prp. sg. 1448 pur delivrer nus d*enfemal baillie. 
V. tr. to command, manage. 

infin. 1266 tant cum vif e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele. 
s. f. hesitation. 

prp. sg. 1382 (si ami) ne sunt pas en balance. 
8. m. (adv.), i — , at discretion, atwiU, without reserve, 
prp. sg. 313 Sim fiz lur livra 4 bandun : 1729 le delapident trestuit k baundun. 
V. tr. to summon together (the army), 
ppp. mas. S£. 1285 cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener(v.note). 

„ „ pi. 1494 furent tuit sumuns e bani. 
V. tr. to baptize, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 369 baptize (A.) i grant humilit6. 

„ prei. 2 „ 1 130 le baptizas. 
(ref.) infin. 1804 baptizer se funt tuit. 
I ppa. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 124 1 lors les ad baptize pur la loi acumplir. 
J ppp. mas. sg. 419 noz deus ki ad guerpi e baptizez est ja. 
gmd. 1 121 grants vertus fesant e paens baptizant : 1292 (unt le derc truv6) prechant et baptisant. 
8. m. deceit, fraud. 

nom. sg. 1576 trop dure cist barats, trop dure cist turments. 
<^cc* tt 995 trop i a sun barat par cest pais semme. 
prp. „ 1295 simple gent par barat enganer. 
adj. foreign, barbarian, 
mas. ace. sg. 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin. 

»• pip* tf ^3 cest pais estrange e barbarin. 
8. m. assemblage of the nobility, 
pip- S£. 301 of lui regneras eu celestien bamage. 
8. m. barun ; man, husband, 
voc. sg. 1708 ai, gcntil barun ! 

prp. sg. 134 (kar ne vout espruver cumpainnie) de barun. 
adj. low, physically or socially, 
mas. nom. pi. 933 si en dient ' amen' e haut e bas ! 

ti pip- ft 090 k reims bas e petis. 
V. tr. to Duild, to cause, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 15 10 par ses enchauntements* ces grants maus nus basti. 

)8. m. stick, cudgel, 
prp. sg. 8^5 le tert du poin e du bastun pesant : 

„ „ 1&7 (ferent) de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal : 1701 batent de mace e de bastun. 
ace. pi. C04 pcrtants bastuns, ma^fles, u luche u espte. 
prp. „ 051 (batist) de pens e de bastuns. 
























I. f. battle. 

nom. sg. 1766 grant fii la bataille. 

under batre. 

8. m. boat. 

nom. sg. 790 ke n'i fust nus ft flote, ne batel ne chalant. 

ace. „ 766 ne batel ne nief unt truv^. 

under batre. 

s. m. baptism. 

nom. sg. 298 aliance seit batesme. 

ace. „ 1 192 batesme demant : 1324 recever batesme : 1452 aver batesme : 1843 batesme requorai. 

prp. „ 1692 par batesme tes pecchez espurger. 

V. tr. to strike ; intr. to beat (of the heart) ; — gmd. batant = hastily (with s'en venir, v. note on 424). 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1701 batent de mace : 1608 ferent, batent, e poinnent. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 234 gesk'au sane espandre de escurgies bati. 
'subj. mipft. 3 „ 651 (n*a cist ke ne) de peus e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist. 
infin. 711 (fait) batre : 1003 (alass6) de batre : 1616 lessa batre : 1625 (aegre) de batre. 

ppa, (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 7^7 (I'unt) batu e laidangtf : loio (l*und) batu de mafiies : 

„ „ „ „ „ 1610 des verges I'unt batu. 
ppp. mas. sg. 649 cumande ke batu seit : 1 163 batuz e debrisez. 

„ fem. „ 20 k robe d'or batiie. 
gmd. 424 ki s'en vent batant des terres de deli, 

pres. ptc. 843 i peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batant. 
adj. bold, courageous, 
mas. prp. sg. 1 195 k quor baud e joiant. 
8. f. boldness, courage, 
prp. sg. 558 (venus dust estre) ft baudur. 
under bandun. 
n. pr. Bethlehem. 
61. 484 k'en Beethleem (nasld). 
V. tr. to drink, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 676 ne beit des bons vins. 

„ „ „ pi. 879 11 mescreant en beivent. 
infin. 238 ft boivre fel tend! : 706 emflent ydropb par beivre e chant aver, 

ppa. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 858 au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent beii. 
adj. beautiful, fair ; (ethically, in voc.), fair, kmd. 

mas. nom. sg. 222 11 tens (estoit) beus e seri : 225 (li eels se desclot) beus e delitables. 
obi. „ 1420 n'a cist ki n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 
voc. „ 51 bel hoste ! 388. 468. 48A beu maistre! 777 beu sire Deus ! 
„ „ 215 beus hostes ! 277 beus nostes e ami! 329 beus sire Deus! 377 bens ostes! 
„ „ 868 beus duz sire Jesu ! 15 19 beus duz amis cheri ! 
nom. pi. 1064 li beus angeres du eel (desendent) : 1070 plus furent bens que rose : 
*f ft 1373 O^s cors) beus devenent: 1380 unc plus beus ne estoient. 
fem. obi. sg. 1261 (fei ke dei) Diene la bele. 

„ prp. „ 876 d'une bele funtainne est li roisseus hissu. 
n. pr. Belial. 

gen. 1622 paien se cumcent, 11 fil Belial, 
prp. 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sathan e Belial. 

adv. very, indeed, truly ; (b) in phrase, bien dire, to speak well of; bien fere, to act aright. 
(ben) 262 ben clos e garm : 1089 ben certz : 1 146 ben repentant : 1587 ben annex : — 
527 ben devant I'ajumde : 1133 ben devant I'enjumant : — 

162 ben savoient : 324. 421. 1069 ben (veit, vi, veil) : 557, 1088 ben pert: 561 ben ad pruv6: 
957 ben gar: 1097 ben unt servi: 1137 ben recunust : 1533 ben entendi : — 
571 ben s'en puet gabber: 966 si ltd ben vent ft volenti : 1822 ben le di e divin. 
Ibien) 276. 1542 bien certz : 378. 964 bien acert6 : 407 bien endoctrinez : 740 bien enparent6: 
743 bien n6 : 747 bien pa€ : — 

421 bien 01 : 964. 1455 oien croi : 1026 bien quident : 1034 ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ J^^ • '^^^ ^^ ^^ * 
1208 bien deit : 1562 bien pdum saver : 

1534 bien m'avez servi : 1550 bien defendi : 1800 bien unt recunu : 1803 bien geisent. 
103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil e plus numbrf. 
(b) 3612 bien fere e dreiture : 1570 ki bien de lui dira. 



s. m. goods; kindness; welfare. 

ace. ss. 11^2 (voillant) sun bien : 1763 (voillant) vostre bien. 

„ pL 1603 tu en purras granz bens* e honur cunsirer (v. note), 
pip* »> 3^4 ^^^ "^ ^ firent pur ses bens si mal nun. 
V. tr. to bind up (wounds). 
infin. 1343 tant cum li pere au fiz la plaie va bender : 

,» 1530 tant k'as plaies bender li freres main tendi. 
V. tr. to bless. 

subj. (opt.) pres. 3 sg. 26 (Deus) vus benoie e guard ! 
ppp. mas. sg. 270 benoit seit le pere ! 

„ fem. „ 128 Marie, Deu te saut, la benoite mulier ! 
under ben ii. 

s. m. nobleman, gentleman (ethically). 
nom. sg. 26 ki tant pers prude bcr. 
gen. sg. 62 quant manga as nosces lu ber Architriclin. 

a^x. „ 1307 mut cunusscz petit ccst prude ber : 1648 tu as ^ mort livr6 tant meint pmde ber. 
s. f. sheep. 

ace. sg. 431 despuis ke il verra une brebiz malade : 889 (saisist A.) cum fait In la berbiz. 
V. tr. to wound (with arrows). 

ppp. fem. sg. 521 plus est esmeiiz ke n*est (leonesse) quant est berste. 
s. m. a coin, O. £. besant, (Byzantine coin^. 
ace. pi. 1 149 asez li ofrimes jiieus, argent, oesantz. 
V. intr. to totter, be insecure. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1246 Tonur des dcus suvereins ja besille e chancele. 
8. f. Deast. 

I nom. 8^. 1574 ki les ot e i assent plus est fous ke beste. 
pi. 1756 ke ne les devurassent bestes, n*oisel volant. 

ace. „ 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miles baer : 1389 Tegle oiseus enchace e Us better li lu. 

pip. „ 1549 de chens ne d'autres bestes ke nul ne fust blesmi. 

aoj. of animals. 

mas. prp. sg, 1602 ki desire char de cors bestial. 

under b«it. 

adv. well. 

734 beu se chastie : 910 il ad beu meriz : 1099 il beu meri. 
bens under bel. 

s. f. beauty. 

nom. sg. 348 trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beut6. 
Q. under ben I., II. 

V. ref. to go away (v. note). 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 554 s'en est binnez en tenegre devant jur. 
\ adj. of a oark grey colour. 
) mas. nom. sg. (pred.) 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 

fem. ace. sg. 684 pur lit ad roche bise, si dure cum acier. 
br s. f. whiteness. 

nom. sg. 267 les legiuns des angles ke blancheiir vesti. 

▼. intr. to grow white, blanched (of leaves from want of moisture). 

infin. 695 foille veisez blanchir. 

adj. white. 

mas. nom. pi. 1376 (sunt) plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun : 
•• ,t „ 1720 erent plus blancs ke chein.sil ne cotun. 

}v. tr. to blandish, to entreat caressingly, 
iniin. 591 ki de blandir n'a cure : 1235 (ne larrum) pur losengerie, par duni, ne pur blaadir. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1524 furent manaccz, deproiez e blandi. 

V. tr. to blame. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1 59 1 blasmes fu li darreincr e ki d*aler fu lent. 
\ V. tr. to wound. 

f ppp. mas. sg. 1766 grant fu la bataille, meint en i out blesc^. 
„ fem. „ 522 saerpcnt quant cle se sent blescte. 

V. tr. to hurt. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1549 ke nul ne fust blesmi. 

s. t. turf, sod. 

prp. sg. 1755 1^ ^or> ^^ enteiT^ sui bleste verdoiant. 

s. m. com, wheat. 

nom. pL 692 flestriscnt blex en terre, perisent li verger. 

ace. „ 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit b gainnor paiiant. 





*blund adj. blond. 

mas. nom. pi. 640 ami ne brun ne blund. 
bois s. m. wood, forest 

prp. sg. 1391 li lu du bois. 

nom. pi. ^3 (perisent) li bois e li gardin, li praiol e herber. 
s. m. deceiver. 

nom. sg. 561 ben Tad ore pruv6 ke il est boiseur: 1560 si il fust boiseur. 
under beit. 

adj. good, righteous ; bon gr6, willingly ; de bon quoer, heartily, 
mas. nom. sg. 1470 sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 
ace. „ 1489 unt perdu A. lur bon ami. 
obi. „ 1420 est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 

prp. „ 346 feschoisi) de oon gr6 : 763 enviz va bon gr6 : 908 ft bon port arivez : 
„ „ 471 ae bon auor esjo'i : 685 de verai e bon quoer: 1632 de bon e verai queer. 
M t» pl- 363 li gueredims est grantz as bons atum6 : 676 ne beit mais des bons vins. 
bonaventure s. f. good luck. 

ace. sg. 592 si te doinst Deus bonaventure. 

adv. landly. 

30 cist bonement li grante ostel. 

under bon. 

8. m. happiness, good luck. 



















prp. sg. 351 ft bonure fu n6. 
adv. happy, 
mas. voc. sg. 1043 ^t niartir bonurez ! 
s. m. sword. 

ace. sg. 804 engette sun brant : 1 160 loing engetta sun brant, 
prp. „ looi (coup) de brant acer6 : 1 107 pour poiir de brant furbi : 
1747 im estur de lance e de brant : 

450 le chief li fra voler de brant furbi : 894 1'ad fern du brant Id ert furbis : 
1013 li ad du brant le chief (sevr^) : 1234 pur les testes duner au brand ferir: 
1303 decolez ne seit du brand d'acer: 1499 les detrenchames tus au brand furbi: 
1 64 1 (les detrenchent) au brant d'acer: 1838 decol6 fu du brand acerin. 
pi. 95 detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
s. m. arm. 

prp. sg. 1773 (defigur6) de visage u de bras u de main u de p^. 
nom. pi. 1374 les membres lur simt restorez pez e bras sans laillance. 
ace. „ 839 brisent braz e gambes : 1360 les braz li unt ]i€ : 

„ „ 1 69 1 les braz ad estenduz pur embracer, 
under berbiz. 
V. intr. to lament loudly. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 859 crient e br^ent e ft terre unt geii. 
n. pr. Britain. 

prp. 1 127 passastes par Brettainne d'Orient venant. 
under bruant. 
v. tr. to break. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 509 uis brisent e porte : 839 brisent bras e gambes : 1701 le cors brisent e batefl 
adj. noisily-rusmng (of water), 
mas. nom. sg. 1153 ii li flotz fii bruant. 

„ prp. „ 780 Tewe ki est parfunde e raedde ft flot briant. 
V. tr. to embroider. 

ppp. fem. sg. 1134 sa robe vus duna, bruid^e d'or lusant. 
B. m. noise, hubbub. 

nom. sg. 883 est ja levez noise e bruit e cris : 1746 lors cumence li bruit, 
ace. „ 620 grant cri e bruit fait imt. 
pip* tt 505 ft hautes manaces e grant bruit e criee. 
adj. brown, dark. 

mas. nom. pi. 640 ami ne brun ne blund. 
V. tr. to poush, bmnish. 
ppp. mas. sg. ^73 robe ii lut li ors bumi. 

tt VyP' it ^24 un' image d'or brum, 
n. pr. id. 

nom. 1836 en I'eiUe ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin. 
8. m. tnmk (of the human body), 
prp. 8g« 450 du bn le chief li fra voler : 948 ki chief est ja du bu conp4 : 

>» If 1013 ad le chief du bu sevr^. 



s. f. month. 

pip* sg> 837 do nies e de la buche li sancs ist e espant. 

nom. pi. 1778 les bnches traversent. 

adj. mrnished with a boss (or umbo). 

mas. prp. pi. 851 (garni) de hanbercs dnblers e de buclers escnz. 

s. m. goat. 

nom. sg. 66 en enfer gist puant com bucs n mastiin. 

s. m. ox. 

nom. sg. 141 7 sacrifice agreable plus ke bnef u torel. 

s. f. bowel. 

ace. sg. 1265 fors sacher du ventre la bufle : 1 601 la bnele en sachent du ventre. 

s. f. gyves. 

ace. pi. 680 ad manides e buies en liu de buns d'or cler. 

s. f. goodness. 

ace. sg. 1089 sa bant6 tesmoinne A ... Id saufs est e gari. 

n. pr. Bordeaux. 

prp. 1264 si quis deust estre de ci k*^ Burdele. 

s. m. pilgrim s staff. 

ace. sg. 1827 penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin. 

under bruni. 
\ 8. f. business, work. 

) ace. sg. 124 i si grant busoinne fere e achever : 1284 ceste grant busoinne achever : 
„ „ 1471 la busoingne Jesu faire. 

iv. tr. to thrust, push, 
ind. pres. j sg. 631 li uns trait, li uns bute, li uns ses draz desrunt. 
mfin. 5^4 du sacher e buter li est ensanglaent6c (la robe), 
ppa. (ind. pft. 3 pi) 753 Tunt trait e but6. 
s. m. Dutler. 

prp. sg. 677 (ne beit vins) de riche vaissele i servant butuiller. 
s. m. a bud (only used contemptuously, as a measure of value ; v. note on 334). 
ace. sg. 314 Apollin ne prise mes valiant un butun : 
„ „ 1071 kar ne vaut lur poisance un butun d'eglenter. 
s. m. armlet, bracelet 
prp. pL 680 (ad) manides e buies en liu de buus d*or cler. 


adv. here, hither (in 417, used for obi. case of dem. adj. pron. ; cf. M.F.^). 
48 DAsser geske 9a : 227 en terrc ^ jus desendi : dij enten 9a : 438 9a venir les face : 
470 (esdavine) ke 9a porter vus vi : 613 i vus 9a fust li clers venuz. 
n. pr. (Uin. 

nom. 3M d' Abel,^^um Tocist Caim si frere esnez. 
t. m. pebble. 

prp. pL 854 entre espines Id va e les cailloz menu. 
adj. of the head. 

mas. prp. sg. 1617 i curune de espines pur chapel capitaL 
adj. of goat-sldn. 

mai. prp. sg. 1828 sanz chauceiirede cordewon caprin. 
%. m. magic rite. 

prp. pi. 1006 tant se est par caractes e par sortz enchants, 
t. m. house (of a commoner kind^. 

nom. sg. (prcd.^ 16 un palois pemn trove Id ne pert pas casal. 
(541. 1157) under ciL 
under cid. 
M under cder. 
under dL 

(k — ,) adv. secretly. 
899 i cdte cmt eu seint nun Jesu. 
▼. tr. to conceaL 

isfia. 211 lans ren cder : 1269 ne vus devum cder : 1306 sanz T6rit^ cder: 1633 n'^nt core de cder. 
ppp. (ntr.) fg. 339 ne vus serra cd6. 





tt it 







(celer I.) ppp. mas. sg. 1030 herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cel6 : 

1 787 ne puet mais le poer Jesu estre cel6. 
nom. pi. 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cel6. 
^cc. „ 395 iluec unt W segreiz e cunsdlz celez. 

periph. pres. ptc. 1137 ne ren ne fu celant. 

s. m. cellar. 

prp. sg. 676 (vins) gisantz en sun celer. 
„ pi. 17 ^ solers e estages e celers grantz aval. 
) adj. celestial, 
celestiens ) mas. ace. sg. 275 me descuvri segrei celestien. 

„ prp. „ 301 of luiregneras en celestien bamage. 

„ ace. pi. 723 ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie. 

„ voc. „ 151 1 chers deus celestiens ! 

under celer I. 

(224. 1482) under ciel. 

under cil. 

s. m. tournament. 

prp. sg. 1418 li paen sunt grant pueple ctun sumuns k cenbel. 

s. f. haw, berry. 

ace. sg. 1 267 pur ki ne doins une cenele. 

num. hundred. 

prp. sg. 1595 crestiens nuveus plus de cent. 

ace. pi. 1403 nuef centz e nonante nuef la summe ad cnntenu. 

s. f. nundred ; used absol., by hundreds. 

ace. pi. 1282 lors ad mand6 sa gent centeines e miller. 

under cent. 

V. tr. to seek, search. 

ind. fut. 3 sg. 436 chambres A trestutes cerchera. 

ppp. fem. sg. 497 ke la maisun A. seit tute cerch6e. 

gmd. 508 chambres vunt cherchant. 

adj. certain (trustworthy; assured). 

mas. prp. sg. 1545 (establi) k cert cunte. 
„ nom. pi. 1337 (li autre) muerent certz de luer. 
„ „ „ 276 bien seiez certz e fi : 1089 ben sumes certz de fi : 1542 bien soiez certz d< 

adj. sure, convinced. 

mas. nom. sg. 559 (venuz a baudur) ctmi certein prechur. 

under cert. 

s. m. brain. 

nom. sg. 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf e tut veins li cervel. 

prp. „ 1 263 enfrundrer de teste u de cervele. 

under cist. 

n. pr. Cesar. 

nom. 356 il est Cesaires li riches e 11 redut6 ? 

adj. subject to Cesar. 

dat. sg. mas. (appos.) 1834 as Romeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin. 

under cist. 

under cil. 

s. m. hunter (horse). 

obi. sg. 1 42 1 est muntez (palefrei) chafur u fort nmcin u grant destrer ignel. 

s. m. Uttle dog, whelp. 

ace. sg. 1425 I'ahiient plus viument k'un chael. 

s. f. chain. 

prp. pi. 666 de chaesnes U6: 710 lier de chaesnes de fer : 749 1'lint de chaesnes 116. 
chaet, chaeth, cnaetz, under chiet. 















cest, ceste 
ceu, ceus 







s. m. kind of boat. 

nom. sg. 790 n'i fust nus H flote ne batel ne chalant. 

s. £ heat. 

nom. sg. 690 une chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer (v. note). 

ace. „ 857 grant chalur e grant sei i unt eii. 

f. room, chamber, 
ace. sg. 512 une chambre sutife i unt truv6e. 

pT. 436 chambres A. trestutes cerchera : 508 chambres vunt cherchant 
s. m. field, open field. 



nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fa le champ e le chemin ferr6 . 

P<P* *t 349 (trespassable) com est la flur du champ. 
„ pL 1540 garent par ces champs. 

%, m. champion. 

prp. sg. 1722 (angeres) enveit Dens i son loial champiun. 

imder champ. 

V. intr. to totter, reel. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1246 1'onurdes dens suvereins ja besille e chance Ic. 

s. f. chanson, song, ballad. 

nom. 8g. 104a (de lui) n'est chan9an ne fable. 

s. m. channel (of a river). 

prp. sg. 789 (I'ewe), retraite e (= en) sun chanel, va si apetizant (v. note). 

V. tr. to change, alter. 

infin. 667 ke snn voler pousse e flecchir e changer. 

s. m. exchanger, barterer. 

voc. sg. 572 hai ! oueu changeur ! 

s. m. song, chant, nyron. 

nom. sg. 905 (des angles) en est li chantz oiz : 107 1 teas estott lur chant z cntcndiu c oU. 

ace. „ 269 lur chant rentinc e entendi. 

V. intr. to sing. 

ind. pres. 3 pL 1353 haut chantent e der. 
at ) „ pret. „ „ 260 chanterent, e lur chant rentinc. 

gma. 1003 chantant e esjoi : 1 182 X clerc voiz chantant. 

under chant. 

s. m. chaplet ; cap, head-piece. 

prep. sg. 161 7 i curune de espines pur chapd capital. 

ace. pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles, neumes e chapeuH, 

s. f. flesh, body ; char prendre, to become incarnate. 

ncHU. sg. 652char emfle : 841 la char (li e^) noire e em l^c : f|(iU'hir ^nV^i) \n\ f lU'^uu*. 

ace. „ 659 k'en terre char prist : 922 ta char ne espznti an : iV/2 'lr«ir« 'Jur '\r 1 in% li«-«f ul, 

prp. „ 293 mes de sa char demeine, sacrifice e ontage ^mjit;. 

s. m. thistle. 

prp. pi. 855 (va entre) urties e charduns, k'aftprc% %ant e ^gtj. 

s. m. charm, magic. 

prp. pi. 885 par enchantement d*A. e les charmei e *Mi. 

adj. of the body, corporeal. 

fem. prp. sg. 1 731 (I'alme) s'en ist de sa cfaamel maiMin. 

s. f. carrion. 

nom. sg. 1505 eu desert gisez cum charoinae guer;^, 

factit. ace. 846 charotnne le tenent unz alme eo3Fr<v2it^r.( 
„ „ 1004 charoinne le tcnimet i liu e cbcm 'iutA, 

s. f. prison. 

P^P- *K» 673 A. en b ckartre ne fina Deu ytnt : 7 1 1 en ',h*/tf< ^^r>r ii^%'U » l»4i#«/* ^< th^ttt / 

under cb^cun. 

nom. 4g. 57 escu m'cst e gnaraat pltH ke cbatfid \^^. 

ace. „ 1 419 d'envair oit i rri. u ceJi a KZi^ja^A -> ■ r,'/^ 
„ pi. 586 (cunsircr) 6cz, cha4trs« e rw. 

V. tr. to chastise, check ; re£. ref^^rs *x^\ wi^ 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 7 vi hi yu ac:re« «« Z^otlhil -aii* '•>?% *^ ' t^o^ iiVf** »** *** « '» •> ' #1* # U ' *.• ' >* 
infin. 1367 odre le fer ax ysr vffj»r\ *iA*fj^ 

ppp. mas. sg. 442 ki ea ses ^fc**^:^^ '.sa^jua <• u t^^*rf« 

s. I. cansevav. street. 

prp. »g. 531 Ion I'snt cist pci* c *russ^ yu '^ ri^ •' 'ila v^-^ 
r s. f. shoe. 

prp. sg. 14J3 sani chzra^ve e s« itjA wrtac 'S-iiv^-.** *> *'m'^ •'/•. • -j*- 

s. m. beat ; chau: Usk. •-•> >t x^tar.-*/ . 'i.*.i.- *-»*^ v, -^ *^ « >/: 

DCim. sg. 700 fSare h c*.i;gf '^ zxvr viau f •^ »%u*vkr«r 

ace. „ <^5 'i«*«2, fe ciiir vrs^truw n«^ 

<acc.) „ ^i KAii^yk: lisc 'jtr ' • •->» ;-/,''•<■. t^ v , v./ -^ •'• ■ * »^ ••«* 
L I adj. hoc. 

I mas. Dotn. sg. Ij& 'i irXsIi c uLiiir-zeif • ffswr t/A «.>•.■•' • • • ./ m* ^ . 
„ (pred.) ^ 143 i pease ^i»ir r^sa^mr X 'jv^i 
I. nndcr chaoi L 



















under chief. 

s. m. sort of l^nen cloth. 

nom. sg. 1726 (angercs) plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun. 
7 adj. wretched. 

y mas. nom. sg. 911 mes ki le decola, li las cheitifs peritz. 
»» 1* P^* 353 i^^s U felun cheitif ki Deu unt ubli6. 
„ ace. ,, 166 d*cnfer rescut ses prisuns cheitifs. 
s. m. road, way. 
nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferr6. 

„ „ id27 li chemins ferrez (I'alasse) : 1589 (tant i a gent) 11 chemins nes (^ ne les)cump=^ 
ace. „ 56 il devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin. " 

prp. „ 1 1 1 1 unt droit vers W. lur chemin acoilli : 183^ (vers R.) tendrai droit Ic chemin : 
„ M 1 1 17 cu chemin demura : 1434 par chemin remist : 1606 cam i chemin jumal. 
s. f. shirt. 

prp. sg. 1376 les cors plus blancs ke de chemise n*est ginm ne mance. 
s. m. dog. 
prp. pi. 847 H luus u chiens livrez* : 1004 ^ lus e chens dxm6 : 

M ft 1549 de chens ne d'autres bestes kenul ne fiist blesmi. 
adj. dear, beloved ; in phr. aver cher, to hold dear, 
mas. prep. sg. 123 en autre k*en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier. 
„ voc. pi. 151 1 chers deus celestiens ! 

(phr.) 1273 (noz veisins) k*eumes cher. 
under cerch6e. 
adv. dearly, at great cost. 
1 58 1 ke il ne cunpere cest ovre cherement. 
V. tr. to cherish, hold dear. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1369 einz les honure tuz jurs, cherist e avance. 
„ pret. ,, „ 655 Deu k*Adam furma, e ki tant le cheriit. 
infin. 121 1 tant deboneirement e amer e cherir. 
ppp. mas. sg. 453 (par aucun) dunt il estoit cheri. 

„ voc. pT. i5i9beus duz amis cheri! 
under cher. 
prep, at the house of. 
1126 il herbergez ches A. fustcs. 
pron. each one, every one. 

mas. nom. sg. 442 seit chastiez chascuns : 521 plus est chascuns esmeuz : 768 s*est chescun eforcj 
1084 (penance demenum) chescun endroit de soi : 1502 dist chescun : 
1527 chescun de eus (se purofri) : 1533 une voiz oismes, chescun rentendL 
„ prp. „ 1399 k chescun (atument) sarcu. 
v. intr. to care for. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. ^164 de moi ki cheut ? 
s. m. horse ; ^ cneval, on horseback, 
prp. sg. 762 k cheval e k p6. 
„ ,, 141 1 de cheval n*osterunt ne sele ne panel : 1604 (unO ^^^^^ resne i cheval : 
„ pi. 908. 1 341 as chevaus defuler : 1730 navrent e defment k chevaus de randan. 
s. m. knight, 
nom. sg. 576 (perist meint) chevaler en estur : 686 deit sufrir leal chevaler : 

797 uns chevalers gentilz chiet as piez A. : 9^5 li chevalers Arade (le vis ad dresc6) : 
969 li francs chevaler est demurs : 1 159 un chevaler hardi e empernant : 
1 33 1 cum loial chevaler : 1775 ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alos6. 
980 le gentil chevaler unt aidfi. 
158 au queur fern du chevaler Lungis. 
946 chevaler alos^ ! 1644 leus chevaler ! 
nom. pi. 844 des pez le defulent chevaler e sergant : 1 154 sunt chaeth e peritz chevalers e sergi 
voc. „ 1^72 gentilz chevalers! 1534 mi chevaler. 
v. intr. to nde. 

infin. 28 palefrei n'ai k chevaucher : 1290 ne finent It jum6es tut serr€ chevaucher. 
under cheval. 
s. m. hair (of the head). 

ace. pi. 891 les cheveus A. be : 15 14 lur cheveus decirent. 
prp* >» 13SS il n*unt nis un des cheveuz entam6. 
»> »» 53* P^"" les chevoilz (I'unt pris) : 951 par les cheveus i pent, 
s. m. head ; end ; in phr. chef de tur, finally, m the end. 

















nom. sg. 948 A. ki (=■ cujus) chief est ja du bu coup6. 

acC' »» 450 Jc chief li fra voler : 895 fait voler le chef senglant : 950 sun chief (tniver) : 

M M 970 le chef (unt ost€) : 981 le chief unt au cors mis : 1573 il en perdera le cief. 
pip* » 54^ ^ qneu chief fust men€e (la parole) : 761 au queu chief fust men6 (le gugement) : 

„ „ 562 au chef de tur (fauset6 se soille) : 

>• f > 913 li sunt li oil du chief sailliz : 1 1 75 (li oil li sunt chaet) du chef, 
under chen. 
V. intr. to fall. 

ind. pres. 3 ss. 804 chiet as piez A. 
pp. mas. pL 914 (li oU) aval sunt chaetz : 1 175 li oil li sunt chaet andui du chef : 

,, „ „ 1 154 sunt chaeth e peritz chevalcrs. 
V. tr. to choose. 

ppp. mas. sg. 466 k Deu es dm choisi. 
s. t. thing, 
ace. sg. 444 (mar cumencera) teu chose : 641 chose ne purrunt faire : 

„ „ 1002 e veirs funt tut parer chose k'est fauset€. 
V. intr. to so to bed. 

infin. 201 A. s'en est alez chucher : 682 n*a mais lit au chucher. 
pp. mas. sg. 223 en mun lit fu chuchez. 

„ „ pT. 1056 paens se reposent cuchez e endormi : 

„ „ „ 1412 ne dorminmt chucez en lit suz lincel. 
adv. here, hither ; de ci k'ii — , from here to — . 

286 v€ez ci : 6^4 ci vei : 1657 ci ester : 1667 ci sunt morz : 1844 ci finis : 
457 nus a^iim fait ci : 558 venuz dust estre ci : 1087 (quist) ci ostel : 
245 devant le pople ci : 1085 en cest mund vivantz sumes ci. 
69 [de] ci k*al euue du rin (v. note) : 1264 de ci k*a Burdele : 
426. 52 q par ci va : 996. 1509 par ci passa. 
under chief. 
8. m. heaven. 

nom. sg. 224 avis m*ert ke li eels se desclot e uvrL 
ace. „ 1 1 78 eel e terre guvemant : 1437 cicl e terre guie. 

,, pi. 1482 ki ore regnent es eels. 

prp. sg. 122 jpere du cicl : 367. 965. 1537 regne du ciel : 1323 joie du ciel : 1097 du eel li angerc : 
1220 gloire du eel : 14 10 Deus de eel : 1802 sires de terre e du eel estoill6 : — 
207 du cicl desendre : 487 du cicl desendi : 658 du ciel tramLst : 106 1 du eel descendi : 
1064 li beus angcres (desendent) du eel : 1 180 (un rais) (descendant) du eel lusant : — 
38. 167. 264. 318. eu ciel (munter) : 331 eu ciel vi ; 352. 822.924. 1183 (eu ciel) (regner) : 
900. 1732 eu ciel (porter) : lOiO regne en eel esteilld : 
1352 s'en vunt eu ciel : 1521 sunt eu ciel acoilli : 1693 en eel entrer : — 
776. 938 vers le ciel dresc6 : 1704 vers lu ciel regarde. 
pron. dem. that ; he, she ; A, absolutely, — B, uualifying subst. following. 

A) mas. nom. sg. 118 cil, — k ki'l plut 4 lui (v. note). 

.. .. 30*- 528. 59> cclui ki. 

ace. „ 43. 130. 500. 736. 930 celui kl 

nom. pi. 650 ceus i acurcnt . 1 762 ceus, k'en cesl mund ^v. note), 

ace. „ 1557 ceus ki: 1640 trestuz ceus: 1643 ceus: 1667 ceus kL 

obL M 1679 \'X cuvendra il trestuz ceus deraurcT (v. note). 

prp. „ 928 n'eit ja part de ceus ki : 1044 sucurable k ceiLS ki. 

fern. nom. sg. 133 cele ert esbaic : 142 I'ottrcit cele : 1260 furent andui cist e ccle. 

B) mas. ace. „ 50 ceu Tesu hiJent : 809 ceu Deu n'ai servi : 857 ceu jur : 108O quenim ceu cresticn ki : 

„ „ „ 1157 cclmal restorcz : 1264 ceu tafur (v. note). 
.» prp* ff 541 en eel estrange atur : 1512 de ceu tafur : 181 1 h ecu tern* : 
fcm. nom. sg. 536 se curuce cele gent malurde : 72J cele mort a|K'nt. 

„ ace. M 115 cele part aler : 570 (cngettez) cele croiz : 746 ctle sentence unt confermc. 
„ prp. „ 1262 de cele lei nuvclc: 1 7 1 a en cele regiun. 
i V. tr. to circumcise. 

ppp. mas. sg. 145 fu au jur oitisme eu temple circumcis. 

pron. dem. thi^ ; he, she, it ; A, absol., — B, qualif}'ing subst. follg. ; n'a cist ki, there is no one 
who . . . ['703. 1803 cist. 

K) mas. nom. sg. 30. 33. 135. 247. 352. j86. 492. 758. 807. S92. 944. 955. (/o. 1260. 1440. i45«>. 1*129. 
„ „ „ 9. 163. 660. 734. 7<>9. 806 (dunt). 1003 (dc;. 1049. 11 12. 1174. 1293. 1314, ci»t ki, 
>• f> »» 1447 n*cs^ autre deu for cist ki . . . (v. note). 

t« ft 

»» tt 

»f »» 

tt »» 

«t »* 

n ft 

ft tf 










clam 6 












(ntr.) „ sg 
mas. nom. „ 

























mas. nom. sg. 650. 1303. 1420. n'a cist ki ne • . . (obdst), (seit), (est). [iSigdsi 

pl- 503- 518. 531. 1105. 1158. 1192. 1233. 124a 1285. 1350 bis. 1352. 1488. isoa 159; 
739. 1790. cist de la cit6 : 1394 cist de la terre. 
629. 634. 781. 848. 1494 (pur). 1551. 1735. 1788 dst ki. 
1722 ces i enveit Deus. 
373 il out trestut cest achev6. 

524 cist faus truantz ki : 571 cist enchantur ki : 708 cist grantz maus : 
996 cist pelerin lettr^ Id : 1143. >245 cist maus : 1255 cist deus k' : 1281 cist voler: 
1509 cist nigromanciens ki : 1556 cist Jesus ki : 1568 cist faus enginneur : 
1576 bis. cist baratz, cist turmentz : 1579 cist clers : 161 9 dst turment. 
1307 cest prude ber k ki : 1359. 1647 cest mortel encumbrer : 1581 cest ovre. 
63. 98 (en). 459 (de). 995 (par) cest pais : 1051 de cest secle kc : 
loSs, 1 199. 1319. 1475. 1623. 1680. 1762 en cest mund : 
1406 de cest travail : 1652 de cest grant mal. 
nom. pi. 1608 cist pautener vassal: 17 15 cist mescreant felun : 1745 cist jnutener tirant. 
acc. „ 569 engettez ces drapeus : 1 5 10 ces grantz maus basti. 
prp. „ 469 de ces paens : 1540 par ces champs : 1570 ^ ces mais. 
fem. nom. sg. 277 ceste avisiun (k*est Ke signifie) (v. note). 

8. 605 ceste croiz : 604 ceste moie vesture : 1224 ceste vie : 1284 ceste grant bu<;oL3 
291 en ceste croiz : 500 en ceste cuntr6e : 579 de cest grant foleur : 
745 ^ ceste mort : 1345 de cest (v. note) cumpainnie : 1444 en ceste vie : 
1453 en ceste voie : 1588 k ceste sumunse : 1812 de ceste estoire. 
s. f. city. 

nom. sg. 537 la cit€ en est tute (esmSe) : 752 k pou n'est void6 li temples e citez. 
415 la cit6 V. guvema : 14 19 (envair) u cit^ u chastel. 

21 de la cit^ un haut mareschal : 588 de la cit6 la flur : 739. 1790 cist de la cit^ : 
754 deus de la cit6 : 1780 li princes de la cit€ : 

1 1 il vent k V. une cit6 nobile : 480 de la cit6 issi : 750 hors de la cit6 : 
„ „ 1025 vunt s'en en lur cit6 : 1 152 dehors la cit6 : 1414 k V. lur cit6 natural : 
„ „ 14AI (de V. sui), la cit6 enrichie : 1585 en la cit6 : 1739 i V. lur dt€ : 1832 vers R. 1=^ - 
acc. pi. 586 (consirer) terres e citez grant, fiez, chastens, e tur. 
s. m. citizen. 

nom. sg. 547 ne fiiissez citoien de parents majur. 
acc. ft 19 (trove Ic seingnur), nobile citoien en atur festival, 
voc. „ 285 A. citoien nobiles de parage ! 

nom. pi. 713 sunt assemble trestuit li citoiein : 1 119 wnt li citoien : 1271 mil citoien nus faiUe-;^ 
(pred.) ,, 1 1 25 tuit fuimes citoiens e riches e menant (de V.). 

PVP' 99 93 f^sez des citoiens ja recuneii : 103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numbrf. 
voc. „ 1076 citoiens, vcsin, parent, ami ! 1229, e vus, citoiens gentilz ! 
V. tr. to name ; claim, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 583 reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Dcu. 

„ „ 3 „ 79 fiz d* une pucele, k'em claime Jesu. 
app. (ind. pfl. 2 sg.) 955 cist ne vus deit faillir, k seingnur Tas clam6. 
s. f. brightness, splendour. 

nom. sg. 265 gloire e clart^ les esceint e fluri : 495 du solail parut la clart6 k*est lev6e. 
adj. clear, bright (of colour, or sound) ; faire cler (by zeugma), to be shining, 
mas. nom. sg. 877 (li roisseus) plus clers ke n'est argentz : 992 parunt le los Jesu ders este eshs^-^ 
„ „ „ 1060 un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi. 
„ prp. „ 680 buus d'or cier : 1664 tresor de argent e de or der. 
fem. nom. sg. 1167 fiintainne freide e clere est surse. 
,, prp. „ 1 182 (angeres i aparurent) H clere voiz chantant. 

adv. 691 (solaO) Id tant fist chaut e cler : 1353 (li angere) haut chantent e cler. 
s. m. a clerk, clergyman. 

nom. sg. 15 vent s'en li clers : 24 li clers le salue : 183 adunc respundi li clers : 
322 (A.) I'entent cum clerc fait sa Icscun : 493 s'en part li ders : 
600 H clercs n'est pas desleals : 613 9a fust li clers venuz ? 1 193 clers es : 
1558 li clercs ne fait pas k despire : 1579 cist clers de puteire damage est k'il ne pentf^ 
1754 li clers fu prechant la lei crestiene. 
1 29 1 unt le clerc truv6 : 1364 aient fait mener le clerc : 
1407 rettent Apl. le clerc orientel : 1738 amerroient le clerc, mort u vivant 
127 1 au clerc d'utre mer se sunt ali^ 











under der. 



GLOSSARY. xxiii 

s. m. cleric-aster, wretched cleric. 

prp. sg. 1247 (cist maus surt) par un dergastre avolez Id par terres sautele. 

(877. 992. 1060) under der. 

under derc. 

V. jtr. to dose. 

ppp. mas. sg. 262 li sepulchres estoit ben clos e ben garni. 

V. tr. to fix by nails. 

ppp. mas. sg. 6 (uns cots) penduz e doufichez : 88 (estre) H un fust cloufichez. 

s. m. naiL 

prp. pL 237 i clous le affcrma, encroa, e pendi. 

dcm. pron. ntr. sg. that, that (thing, word, matter, circumstance, See); only used absol. in nom. (or 
pred., where it often means * to this effect,') — in obi. cases either absol., or followed by rcl. clause. 

nom. 192 90 ne re9oit sen : 674. 1292 co fu sun mester : 732 90 mustre : 

1 169 90 fu la vertu : 1254 90 est la lei faiele : 1279 trestut 90 puet aver mester : 

1320 90 est nostre sentence : 1334 90 est : 1693 90 est la porte : 1694 90 fait renaistre. 

1302 si 90 nun (= si 90 ne puet aver mester, as in 1279). 

ace. 68. 189. 279. 429. 468. 606. 619. 645. 685. 721. 774. 781. 815. 834. 1084. 1 155. 
„ 1 184. 1236. 1254. 1257. 1272. 1310. 1325. 1332. 1348. 1382.. 1441. 1492. 1564. 1639. 1697 90. 

prp. 209. 373. I165 apres 90 : 42. 77. 457. 1 128 de 90 : 452 de trestut 90 : 
»t 589* 616 de tut 90 ! 747. 916 de 90 : 1187. 1446 pur 90 : 1268 sur 90. 

s. m. coffer. 

prp. sg. 1288 or portent e argent en cofres i sumer. 

s. C quilt, [Lat. culdta punctal 

(prp.) pL 082 de soie (k ?) coiltes pointes n'a mais lit au chucher (v. note). 

adj. common. 

mas. nom. sg. y±2 (hom^ ki est commun enemi. 
„ prp. „ 1699 tuit 1 acurcnt X un voler commun. 
d adj. public, known to all. 

mas. nom. sg. 22 n*i out plus cuneiiz ne nus plus communal. 
i s. f. community (assembly ?). 

nom. sg. 737 h prince e la commune ne I'unt pas otri6. 
nnent adv. in common, all together. 

1 105 e cist communement respunent i un crL 

T. tr. to confirm (decree, sacrament) ; to establish (in the (aith). 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1257 la prophede d*andens 90 confenne e saele. 

infin. 1643 (cumencc X prccher) e ceus en la creance J. cimfermer. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 371 en Tamur Deu Ta par sermun conferm^. 
t» If ft 3 pi*) 746 cele sentence unt joure e viel conferm6. 

ppp. mas. pi. 404 des sacrementz d'ig]ise,~cum il sunt cunfermez. 

D s. 1. confession. 

ace sc. J26 de ses enurs fait veraie cunfessiun : 1806 pement confessiun de folie e pecch^. 
I s. f. connision. 

pqx sg. 1717 de mettre md i confusinn. 
e& s. m. conqueror. 

nom. pi. 563 (tun lingnage) ki grant conquesteur de R. (fnrent ?) nez. 

V. tr. to acquire, win. 

infin. 585 tn en purras consirer gucredun e honnr : 1663 granz bens* e bonur cuosirtr. 
on s. C consolation. 

ace. sg. 1 7 14 m'enveit de angeres consoladun. 
re s. C fiction, decdt, mere invention. 

nom. sg. 598 semblance est e laosset^ porpens e cuntrevore : 1258 roes trufle t%i r contrijviire. 

▼. tr. to convert (to the (aith) ; to change (joy into tcan). 

ind. pret 3 sg. 1086 crestien ki A. convcrti : 1501 en lermet e grant duel lur j«/ic < tmvnu. 

mfin. 381 fm*en vois) sairacins omvcrtir : 1223 par avisiuo td i lui cunvrrtir (y«iuf ). 
s. m. cordwain, leatner. 


pq>. sg. 1828 sanz chaoceure de cordewoo capnn. 
D. pr. Comdios, Corinens (in Wace'k Brut. v. note). 

nom. 1836 en rdDe ke cunqnist Bnitns e Corndin* 
^ adj. bodfly, possessed of a body ; bckxiging to, inflicted on, the br^y. 
) mas. nom. s^. 147^ (tamt mar fnstes nez) corporeo* : lUxj tut e%i c%tul^ I'rotraiJ i<irp'#r«l. 
„ prp. pL 1536 par turmcntz corporens. 

s. m. Dody. 













crcsa ncc 


nom. sg. 5 uns cors d'um mortal f fu furmez) : 959 11 cors soit Dosez en sarcu marbrin : 

840 tut le cors (in*est feole) : 1014 le cors est trebucnfi : 1454 le cors m'est feblc : 

975 sis cors est restor6 : 1470 si cors est las, mais sis bons quors (frois est). 

244 sauf tun cors demeine : 668 le cors pener : 670 sun cors erever : 

813 ^ viis m'alme e mun cors abandun : 853 mes sul A. i est, le cors e les pez nu : 

923 tun cors livras : 941 suvans le cors A : 952 le cors (truver) : 953 k'il garisse tun cor 

956 sun cors gar ben : 973 au seint cors tucner le martir (v. note) : 

991 despuis k'il out le cors lu martir tuch6 : 12 18 sun cors livrer* : 

1616 batre sun seint cors real : 1673 mun cors garir : 

1 701 le cors brisent : 1749 le cors (sustrait) : 1752 mi^t le cors en terre. 

365 (hem) au cors u au quor mauf6 : 















971 au cors I'ad mis : 981 le chief unt au cors mis : — 

: 8q" 






362 les faitz du cors : 838 du cors le remenant : 1445 apres la mort du cors : 

1602 char de cors bestiad : — 

257 du cors sane e ewe hissi : 653 li sancs Id s'espand, ist (du cors en plusurs lius) : 

896 (sane) ki du cors est flaschiz : 1 186 (sane) de sun cors escolant : — 

661 cu cors m'alme mist : 842 ne remeint sein ne entier eu cors. 
pi. 1 37 1 les cors (beus dcvenentj : 1376 les cors plus blancs devenent (ke de chemise n'cst ginm) 

1375 k*avant les cors out temt : 1387 les cors unt gard6 : 1395 les cors unt honur6 : 

1548 as (« k les) cors garder : 1550 les cors defendi : 1755 ^^ ^^^ ^^ enterr< : 

1547 mil cors i truvasfmes] : 

1 56 1 (ne feist teu mescinement) des cors detrenchez. 
adj. of the side (ribs), 
mas. ace. sg. 16 12 teinte en a la peitrine, le dos e flaunc costal, 
n. pr. Constantine (the Grreat). 
gen. 1825 pur tut lor Costentin. 
s. m. side (of the body, 
prp. pi. 7 avau Tun des costez raa li sancs. 
s. m. cotton. 

nom. sg. 1720 (angeres) plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun. 
prp. „ 681 lit i cotun (v. note), 
s. m. blow, stroke. 

ace. sg. 913 au ={k le) coup duner (v. note) : looi coup destument de mace, 
prp. „ 895 au coup li fait voler le chef. 
V. tr. to cut off. 

ppp. mas. sg. 948 chief est ja du bu coup€. 
under creire. 
s. f. faith, creed. 

nom. sg. 886 est la nostre creance (maubailliz) : 1383 ci*st la dreite creance (v. note), 
ace. „ 6^6 A. lur creance e lur loi si despiist. 
prp. „ ' 1643 ceus en la creance Jesu ctmfermer. 
s. f. creature. 

nom. sg. 593 est li creaturs plus haut, u sue creature ? 
(pred.) „ 874 ta creature est tut n*eit tei Deu rekeneu. 
s. m. creator. 

nom. sg. 593 queus est li creaturs plus haut, u sue creature ? 
V. tr. to believe; believe in; trust; think, 
ind. pres. i sg. 378 de vus croi estre seur : 609 en Jesu croi : 964 bien le croi de fi : 

i» »> '455 bicJ^ croi ta pridre ert oie : 1569 nel croi plus ke vent. 

2 „ 552 ore croiz ke va prechant un estrange tafiir. 

3 „ 189 ki 90 ne croit : 429 me croit : 717 en li creit et se fie : 1383 en Jesu crdt. 
pL 14 en Apolin creient : 1557 en lui croient. 








sg. 899 it cel6e crut eu seint nun. 




I pi. 1 146 creumes ke de sa enprise fust (repentant). 

3 tt 566 en noz deus crurent. 

infin. 185 tu la trinity voz craire : 210 quancke i crestien croire est mester : 
„ 1238 la trinity ke crere (cuvent H crestien) : 1259 ne fait plus i creire k* fear. 

pp. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1395 les cors unt honur€ redut^ e cremu. 
under creire. 
s. f. growth, 
prp. sg. 1379 grantz de cresance. 

au vent. 


midcr crest* 

adj. cmied (v. note in loc.) 

mas. prp. pi. 891 les cheveos A* lie par l^ focons crespli. • 

V. intr. to grow. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1819 le honor Jesn crest. 

periph. pres. ptc. 1 17a on arbroseu qui ea munt fa cresant. 

nnder crestiens. 

adj. christian* 

fern. prp. sg. 1754 (obelsant) ft la lei crestiene : 1808 de la lei crestiene estre endoctrintf . 

s. m. a chmtian. 

nom. sg. 898 (la croiz prist) uns crestiens gentilz : 1749 un crestien le con (tustrait). 

(pred.) „ 1 80 ke crestiens deveingne : 420 crestiens est. 

ace. „ 510 le crestjen demandent : 1086 quenun ceu crestien. 

prp. „ JIG ft crestien est mester (croirej : 1239 cnvent ft crestien. 

nom. pL 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cel6 (unt aid6) : 998 li crestien en sunt apris, 

ace n 1595 ft sennun entent crestiens nuveus (v. note). 

pip. ft 1305 li nn des crestiens (respunt). 

„ „ 1462 mut est li Deus as crestiens de grant seignurie, 
s. f. Christianity. 

nom. sg. 1027 quident ke destruit i seit crestientd, 
under creire. 
▼ tr. to thrust out (eyes) ; intr. to be split (of the earth). 

infin. 696 (veisez) les grantz paluz secchir e la terre crever. 

ppp. mas. s£. 875 du munt k*est crevez e fendu. 
»f tf Pl* 731 li oil crev^ li soient, eit la viie 
s. m. cry, snout 

vue perie. 
s. m. cry, shout. 

nom. sg. 883 est ja levez noise e bruit e criz. 
ace „ 249 haut getu un cri : 620 grant cri e bmit fait nnt : 1500 font grant noise e cri. 
prp. „ 1 105 communement respunent ft un cri. 
ace. pL 1440 ne laist cist ke ses ois ne eshaucc e multiplier 
under crier L 
s. f. shouting. 

prp. sg. 505 ft hautes manapes e grant bruit e cri6e. 
under crier II. 
▼. tr. to create. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 528 ki cria b terre e mer salte : 637 cria tot le mund : 
»» ti ft >t ^1 nioi cria e en mun cors m'alme mist. 

infin. 29. 1 18 ki nus dein^g)na cri^ : 1309 ki ons plot toz cri^, 
app. (ind. pft 3 sg.) 783 quanckc ad ai^. 
L ) V. mtr. to shout ; to ask (pardon) ; faire aiir, to annoonce poUicly, 
) ind. pres. 3 pL 859 crient e brtent : 863 fremiHest e crient. 
„ fat. I „ 246 toi tuz aorrum e crienun mcrci. 

infin. 1439 b rate des S. de crife le chastie : 1584 lore* fait truh r«al t umMwUmmitt, 
adj. pagan ; sarage. 

mas. nom. pL 1600 un pcd en teire aficbcnt li pai£a criminaL 
fern. pro. sg. i a (dtf) ciitasch6e de la lei crintikaL 
itz under Jcsn. 
\ s. m. crystal, predoss stone. 
/ Bom. sg. 4 n't out acas t oof e ae gcnune ne cristaL 

„ M 901 (cspcriu) pos e csBiraUet com oisub piMu, 
under cri 
nt, crotre, croit L croiz L '5251, mklcr cvdre. 
I. ( 1 185. i6if) Older croiz. 
L a. f. a croM. 

nom. sg. S97 la croiz e K tcrtre est twu» 

ace M 8 ccste croiz aure : Z84 ta ^rou S a4 ««•##< ; f^/ «4«x «4 f* «##4# 

323 ad la croiz veae : 4^1 sa era* ryu <fjmA (i| vl m *#*>!/ Kri* 

•f ft 

•f ft 

ft ft 

tt ft 


8981 acyqiz pri<eiMfca. iitiU*j'*t,'A ^cmyM^jryi tttt U '0*^0 yt^u 
1135 voMie craz nsesar : 1 1 7^ mw m 'jt'az $$Zi ^Um »t U *f'M 
laoi la cnxz les vac tarn : izYl a 'X'su t^m ftW«sii. 

laoi la cnxz les vac toor : 177; a wju J*3m ftW«M. 
pqi. ,, 412 ft la crasi A. s^ y^a Oa : — 



(croiz II.) 




ptp. sg. 90 de croiz ostez : 245 de la croiz desent : 261 de la croiz fu ostez : — 

209 la vie en la croiz achever : 291 cum veiz en ceste croiz fignrte la image : — 

37 en croiz morir : 502 murut en haute croiz drescde : 1448 en crcMz nramt :— 

07 estre en croiz pendu : 1508 pendi : 161 8 en croit le pendirent 11 Giii deskul :-* 

157 (fu) en croiz mis : 289 en croiz lui mistrent 11 Giiie de patage : — 

344 pur Deu en croiz pen6 : 427 ki Giileu en croiz peoerent : 

759 en croiz fu pen6 : 1798 en croiz murut pen6 : — 

719 k'em A. en croiz crucifie : 778 vi estre en croiz pos^ : — 

931. 1496 en croiz mort sufri : 1256 mort sufii ea croiz dure e cni^ : — 

1 45 1 d'iluec esmeuz of la croiz. 

1205 (bis) croiz gloriuse ! croiz ki tant deslr ! 

1200 croiz plus desirable k*esmeraude ! 1207 croiz tant glcMluse I 

s. m. figure of Christ crucified. 

nom. sg. 1 1 12 (la croiz) ii fu le crucifi. 

ace. „ 323 quant ad la croiz veue e le crucifi en sun. 



tt tt 






) V. tr. to crucify. 






fern. acc. 










subj. pres. 3 sg. 719 si en droitz k'em A. en croiz cmdfie. 
ppp. mas. sg. 716 ki cnicifi€ fu eu pais de Sulie. 

„ sg. (obi.) 947 mar reclamas le deu crucifi6 : 1654 au deu crudfi^ (se stmt abtundiui^)' 
adj. cruel. 

mas. nom. sg. 229 (un poples) e cruel e hardi (vint) : 445 11 tirantz criieus (entendi). 
„ „ 708 dura cist mntz maus tant crudl e tant fer. 
acc. f, 306 le puepleke veistes tant cruel e felun. 
prp. „ 1 131 (encusez) k un cruel tirant. 
voc. „ 1646 tres cruel pautener ! 
nom. pi. 1356 (paens) plus criieus e irez ke n'est urs u sengler. 

f, 1404 sunt curucez li sarrazin cruel : 1467 se reposent les sarrazins crneus : 
ff 1333 ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ P^^ crueus e plus fier : 1476 estes crueus, durs e desnatnreos. 
pi. 469 (huni) de ces paens crueus. 
sg. 1256 mort sufri dure e cruele. 

523 dient en hauste voiz e k cruel gOTg€t : 1366 (odre) i la plus cnBit mort: 
607 pur nule mort tant cruele e dure, 
adv. cruelly. 

235 des paumes k la face criieument feri. 
under cruel. 

)s. f. cruelty, 
acc. sg. 385 trop friez crueutez. 
prp. „ 1409 les meins 11 unt U6 k crueut6 e duel, 
acc. pi. 614 jo cunus voz criieutez, custusmes e porture. 
crurent, crut I. (899) under creire. 
crut II. (153) under crest, 
cuard ) adj. cowardly, 

cuardz j mas. nom. sg. 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi. 

„ voc. pT. 887 fousi cuardz, failliz ! 
cuchez under chucher. 

culur s. f. colour. 

acc. sg. 160 mua lune culur, devint 11 solailz bis : 543 de ire e mautalent tut miie la cnlur. 
cum conj. as, like ; as if ; how ; while, so long as. 

A, introducing case sentences of subj, or pred, — with verbs of seeing^ showings tellings stewUng, ete. ;— 
207 avis lui est cum D. deingna: 398. 399. 400. 401. 403. 404 cum fu, &c.: 412 vit cum A. 
s'agenoUIa 1413 cum il guerpi M. : 421 vi cum il se humilia : 556 entenc cum sa doctrine folate 
est : 1028 ne sevent cum Deus Pad devis6 : 18 10 mustrer cum Deus les a revisitiS. 

B, in adverbial sentences y^modal^ I. of qualitaivve likeness or similarity, withfolhwing{m)substttntnti 
(pySt) clause : — 

I. (a, i) 06 en enfer gist cum bucs : 91 posez en sarcu cum un de nus morteus : 506 Yunt cmant cum gem b 
s*atume : 510 vunt qucrant cum gent desmesur^ : 554 bis. binnez cum luz u cum gnpilz : 825 Irr* 
missent cum Huns: 864 escrient cum lu: 1260 cum autres morteus fui«nt dsteoSe: 1285 ^ea 
vunt rum ost bani : 1418 sunt grand pueple cum sumuns k cenbd : 1429 li sancs curt cum ewe <k 
missel: 1531 li sancs cum un roiseus seespaundi: 1602 la buele sachent cum Buns: 1698010- 
boient cum saerpent : 1826 k Jesu me sui rendu cum mi veisin. 
(a, 2) as appositive concept, {in the shape, quality, nature, capacity of etc.) : — 

loi tu regneras cum sis amis: 137 ki toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer : 165 J. releva cume sirt» 
poestifs : 282 Deu primes enmercie cum lettrez : 559 bis. (venuz) cum maistre e cum certein pit- 

GLOSSARY. xxvii 

cheor : 987 k*il nrent cum frdt mord giierpi : 1087 (quist ostel) cmn esgarez : 1 164 cum mort le 
lessames: 11 79 (A. est) of lui cum si leal seirant: 133 1 ^saisiz) cum loud chevaler: 136J (^mener 
le derc) cum sacrifice : IA71 (faire la busoingne J.) cum sis hem leus : 1505 gisez cum charotime 
guerpi : 1567 a dit cum losengers ki sun emir defent : 1615 liSr se lessa cum Umm detloial. 

I, 3) as s^conJary predicate after * recogniuf : — 
1 233 cum Deu recunustre. 

f) with clause follawiMg^ verb being — I, expressed ; 2, accompanied by correlative ; 3, omitted ; 
4, supplied fy the neutral * faire' : — 

(O 391 dumurez est cum A. li avoit proiez : i8aO la geste ai, cum la vi, escrit. 

(2; 143 tut issi cum vus recunt : 441 teu vengance cum il apendra : 689 en teu manere cum m'orrez 
recunter : 1519 n*est pas si cum vus le quidez : 1583 si haut vengement cum prendre apent : i6so 
n*est pas cist turment tal cum Deus pur moi sufri. 

(3) 50 cen J. htent cum aloue esperver : 147S il vus apele cum pastur ses aignens : 1606 rencbacent 
cum i chemin jumal Tv. note). 

(4) 3 1 7 relever cum fait li liunceus : 322 I'entent cum derc fait sa les9un : 889 A. prent cum fait lu la 
berbiz: 1192 cum funt cist autre, batesme demant : 1408 pris I'unt cum li lu fait aignel : 161 1 li 
sancs raa cum fait li roisseus. 

y) with parenthetic clause : — 

297 fai lui — cum fere deiz — lingance : 958 fai — cum faire doitz — ke il sdt enteiT€ : 1559 ne £ut pas 

i despire,— cum meint quide. 
I) with demonstrative pronoun introducing a relative clause : — 

9 ceste croiz aiire cum cist ki ert amis J : 591 respund cum cdui ki n*a cure : 660 force me doinst il 

cum dst ki poisantz est. 
1) with hypothetic clause assumed (with or without si) .*_ 

79^ enters e sdns, cum gcii ussent dormant : 1543 (les restore seins) cum si il gevbent vifs : 1621 se 

reioist cum se il n*ust mal. 

of quantity with tant : — 

291 tant sufri cum veiz : 638 pur tant cum porterdt de fin or : 1569 (tant tact) cum nuls dire purra. 

ofdegrect usually without correlative : — 

349 bis. trespassable est li mundz, cum est la fiur u cum Terbe : 684 roche ti dure cum ader : 

901 purs cum cristals politz : 902 raant cum solailz : 990 legger cum oisel enpenn^ : 1005 ligger cum 

ons osturs mu< : 1145 megres e pales cum penant : 1147 raed e estable cum fcr u aimant : 1357 

senglantz cum Hun. 

« in proportion as : — 

1586 cum il aiment lur vie. 

in adverbial sentences ^— temporal (a, point of time, fi, duration, y, interval) :^ 
1) 1703 cum il estoit en mortal passiun. 
I) 606 tant cum vie me dure : 1085 tant cum vivantz sumes ci. 
f) 1 341 tant cum li pere va : 1687 tant cum il lui plest espace otroier. 
, cumand^ under cumander. 
ment s. m. commandment, proclamation. 

ace. sg. 1584 lores fait crier real cumandement. 
nt \ V. tr. to command ; to commend, recommend. 

r ] ind. pres. I sg. 251 en tes meins mun esperit cumant : 488 ^ lui vos cumant, e abandon, e li : 

813 i vus m'alme e mun core abandun e cumant. 
3 „ 30 cumande entrer : 496 cumande (sa mcsn^ ke la maisun A. seit cerchte) : 
649 cumande ke batu seit : 688 les elementz cumande (venger le tort) : 
728 entendcz ke raisuns cumande e veut e prie : 1283, cumande k*en W. (aillent) : 
1640 cumande decoler. 
3 pL 665 (en prisun) le cumandent getter, 
infin. 1276 8*il vus plaist cumander. 
fax t. m. commander. 

nom. pL 564 ki furent du mund cumandenr. 
[« mider cumander. 
[1. ) t. m. command (assigned task), order. 

j ace. sg. 799 dst out (receu) le cumant de decoler A« : 1 196 fere le tucn cumant. 

pip* M 1385 par sun cumant est un grant lu venu. 

dat. pi. 1 215 i mes cumanz tant Icument obeir. 
) under cum. 

%. m. be^nning. 

ace. sg. 1812 de ceste estoire vi le cumenfail e fin. 

prp. „ 55 regnera sanz cumen^ail e fin. 
cumenc^ under ounencer. 


»t ft tf »» 

tt tt 

•« tt t» »t 

t* ft tf ft 

ft tf tf ft 

t» ft 







cumencement s. m. commencement 

prp. sg. i8i di moi ke fend tut an cumencement ? 
to begin, commence, 
pres. 2 sg. 1308 ^ ki tu cumences tant viument ft tencer. 

3 „ 31 cumence h, demander : 133 cumence ft esmerveiUer : 1642 cmnence ft piecher :• 
„ „ 42 cumence esmervoiller : 103 cumence (desploier sun sermum) : — 
„ „ f, ,f 915 lejur A. cumence : 1746 lores cumence li bruit. 

1668 retraire te cuvent e par tens ctmiencer. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pL) 518 unt grant noise cumenc6e. 

prp. ! 
ind. I 






fat. tt t, 443 mar ja cumencera nus autres ten chose, 

PP- * ' . '^ - - 
adv. interrog. how. 

43 cmnent, dist il, oses tu cdui numer ? 
cumme (137) under cum. 
cumpainnie s. f. company, society. 

prp. sg. 134 (kar ne vout 



espruver) cumpainnie (de banm) : 1227 (ateindn 
1345 de cest cumpamnie (ne failli ke un sul) : 1446 (assemblame) gent en one compaionic. 

(ateindre) ft Tostze campaimne: 

cumpainnun \ s. m. companion, associate. 

ciunpainnuns > nom. sg. 67 Apolin gist en enfer (cunpainz e vesin) lez Sathan. 

cumpainun ) ace. „ 1707 veit A. sun cumpainnun. 

nom. pi. 318 of lui si cumpainun (munterent). 

ace. „ 1435 ses cumpainnuns sivre : 1753 ses cumpainnuns martirs (mist en tene). 

V. tr. to contain. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1589 tant i a gent li chemins nes cumprent. 

V. tr. to fight. 

infin. 1029 fort est ft cunbatre ft flot k'est surund^ 

V. tr. to conduct, accompany. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 481 ki bien le conduseit treis arpentz e demi. 

s. m. constable, ruler. 

ace. sg. 1040 ne dute mais tirantz, prince ne cunestable. 

s. f. troop, company. 

prp. sg. 1450 mil fumes d*iluec esmeiiz en une cunestablie. 

under cunustre. 







cunfermer, cunfermez under, confermer. 


under confessiun. 

V. tr. to comfort. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 59 ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le fi:arin : 284 ki le cunforte e soage. 

V. tr. to confound. 

ppp. mas. sg. 871 quant eu desert tis poples de sei fu cunfimdu. 

s. m. permission to depart. 

su:c. sg. 374 le cung^ b ad requis e demands, 
cunoissance s. f. (carnal) acquaintance ; consciousness (life). 

prp. sg. 141 sanz cunoissance d'umme u repruver : 1371 les cois ki ne estoient de nule 

under cumpainnun. 

V. tr. to buy, pay for. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 1581 (plus ne mangera) ke il ne cunpeie cest ovie cherement. 

V. tr. to conquer. 

ind. pret 3 sg. 1836 en Teille ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin. 

s. m. arrangement (of precaution). 

nom. se. 428 si cunrei n'en est pris, grant dud ensurdera. 

s. m. advice ; deliberation. 

ace. ss, 1 16 Sathan ki (i. e. cujus) cunseil lur plust escuter : 1268 ft vus cunsd sur co demanr 
M pl* 395 ilucc unt lur segreiz e cunseilz celez : 41 1 lur faitz e lur conseilz ol e avisa. 

under consirer. 
cunta, cuntasmes under cunter. 
cunte s. m. enumeration. 

prp. sg. 1545 (ctmtasmes) ft cert cunte establi. 
cunt6, cunt6e under cunter. 
cuntenciun s. f. contention. 

prp. sg. 1713 il est vie sanz mort, pais sanz cuntenciun. 
cuntenement s. m. manner of life. 

ace. sg. 177 ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement 
cuntenu v. tr. to contain, amount to. 

app. (ind. pft 3 sg.) 1403 nuef centz e nunante nuef la smnme ad cuntenu. 







amter ^ ▼. tr. to enumerate ; to nanate. 

ind. [net 3 se. 416 la nuvele descaTii e ctinta : 1493 raventnre cunta e descuvri. 
,f t, I pL 1545 nnz les cuntasmes tuz k cert cunte. 

infin. 314 sa avishin k hii apertement cunter (va). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 70 la [estoire n'ert (v. note)] ctintte en frances e latin. 
cmtnit I ▼. tr. to twist oat of shape ; (ppp. «) adj. deformed, awry. 

cmtimitx | mas. nom. sg. 1773 ke il ne nist dn cors cnntrait, defigur€ : 1776 ore est on cuntraitz. 
CBntre prp. against. 

339 on poples cnntre lui e cruel e hardi (vint) : 1764 soiez contre diable lur escu e guarant : 

%, L country. 

pp. sg. 500 en ceste-cnntrCe d'nn den navel preche. 

▼. intr. to contradict (dat.) 

prs. ptcp. 1171 Talames vengant de ses enemis lai cantredisant (v. note). 
^ If w^ ■»«■<» Y. tr. to imitate, represent. 

ppp. mas. sg. 597 (an den) Id par engin est contre&it en entaille a peinture. 
fuU ei ui 'e nnder contmvare. 
cirtiuva nt \ ▼. tr. to pretend, invent. 
cuutiu i fe I infin. 1298 desdi ke ta dit as par tes gas cantraver. 

) gmd. 828 mar Talas contruvant : 1168 li ans le disoient (mes fans cantruvant). 

under cnnostre. 

under cunoissance. 

)▼. tr. to know ; recognize, 
ind. pres. 1 sg. 614 jo conns vos crfteutez. 
„ „ 3 {M. 1307 mat cunussez petit cest prade ber. 

infin. 1377 cunustre les pout hom : 1541 n*i peust hem cunustre priv6 ne estrangu 
(ppp. B adj.) mas. sg. 22 n'i out plus cuneuz ne nas (i. e. nals) plus communal. 

)▼. tr. to escort (cf. convey, convoy), 
ind. pres. 3 pL 1353 U angere les cunveient 

„ pret. 3 sg. 1 1 33 d'iluec vus cunveia. 
▼. intr. to sojourn. 

infin. 208 eu mund entre morteus e vivre e cunverser. 
under convertir. 
▼. tr. to Uame. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 231 sa doctrine despit e eschivi e k tort la cupa. 
adj. culpable. 

mas. ace. sg. 1842 (jo ne me os numer) mes pecchur capable. 
%, m. win, determination. 
nom. sg. 179 si par aventure enrage me prent. 
aoc* „ a8o entent sun quor e sun enrage : 590 sun curage e quor (A.) jastise. 

„ „ 2<^ par avisiun vus a Deu ma6 le curage. 
1. 1 side, vital parts of the side near the heart. 
ace. sg. 256 un de ens la curaille d*un glaive li ovrt 
adj. belonging to the heart (physically). 
mas. nom. sg. 7 avau Tun des costez raa li sancs cural. 

tt pvp* tff 1603 an peel Tunt atach€ k grant turment cural. 
under cure n. 

adv. fitmi the heart, sincerdy. 
92J pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias. 
8. L care ; aver cure de, to cate to (do anything). 
ace sg. 783 de tut prent cure quancke il ad cn6, 

591 cum caui Id de blandir n*a cure : 1633 n'unt cure de celer. 

tt »» 

n. I V. intr. to run. 

I ind. pres. 3 sg. 1344 li frere li curt sure : 1429 li sancs en curt raant. 
|M. 762 curent e poinnent k chev^d e a p^. 

devant eus font cure le gentiljuvencel. 

surse) k grant missel curant. 
pp. mas. sg. 878 (roisseus) ki avau le pendant s'espant e est cum. 
t. m. chariot. 

pip. sg. 623 (un* image) en un curre estant. 
aoj. running (of a stream). 

mas. nom. sg. 161 1 cum £ut de la funtainne li roisseus cursal. 
8. f. court (01 a prince). 

sg. 439 la curt apertement (orra). 



(curt I.) nom. sg. 499 facent venir H la curt asembl6e : 539 i curt sunt ja venuz. 

prp. „ 453 guami par aucun de la curt : 736 le plus de la curt s'asent : 1144 tax de b cart veai 
curt II., curu under cure ii. 




1 V. tr. to make angry ; ref. to become an^ 

I ind. pres. 3 sg. 536 dunt plus se curuce cele gent malur6e. 

L ti ft **P^' '622 dunt paien se curucent. 

innn. 1325 quant 90 ouent S., n*i out ke curucer : 
it 1639 quant ot 90 li princes, n'i out ke curucer. 
app. (pft. 2 sg.) 1662 tu les as curuc6 par tun grant nun saver, 
ppp. mas. pi. 1404 mut en sunt curucez 11 sarrazin crueL 
V. tr. to crown. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 238 un poples vint ki de espines curuna (Jesu). 
ppp. mas. sg. 352 regnera eu ciel sanz fin ctirun^ : 903 curun6 est de curune d'or. 

„ 965 eu regne du ciel est martir curun6 : 1073 martirs est glorius cumnez e flnii. 
pi. 1 3 19 en cest mund princes curunez regner. 
„ prp. „ 1 01 8 entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e curun6 (v. note), 
s. f. crown. 

prp. sg. 903 cunm£ est de curune d'or : 161 7 i curune de espines pur chapel capital, 
curun^, cunmez under curuna. 

















s. m. anger. 

prp. sg. 544 puis li ad dit par curuz e irur. 

s. f. (establisned) custom, mode of action. 

nom. sg. 744 custumme est e dreiture ke il seit decol6. 

ace. pi. 614 jo cimus voz crueutez custusmes e porture. 

adj. customary. 

mas. ace. sg. 625 servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt. 

under custumme. 

s. m. knife. 

prp. sg. 1426 aler le surounent de lance e de cutel. 

ace. pL 852 portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 

prp. pi. 1607 (ferent) de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal : 1625 de cuteus naTcrer. 
tt it '747 de maces e cuteus (ferent nafrent e traient). 

s. m. elbow. 

prp. pi. 940 k genoilz e k cutes ad le tertre mtmtf . 

under cutel. 

s. m. covenant. 

nom. sg. 1 740 tel fu lur cuvenant. 

V. intr. (impers.) to be incumbent 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1 239 crere cuvent k crestien : 1302 tuz lur cuvent passer (par la mort). 
1323 guerpir M. vus cuvent : iSSB retraire te cuvent : 
1693 90 est la porte par unt cuvent eu eel entrer. 
no lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur : 
115 (ne pout estre ^arantz) ke tuz ne lur cuvint ode part aler. 
1 17 lur cuvint of Im demurer : 13 1 ki par humme cuvint descumfire (diable)^ 
1679 U cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer : 1684 Ik te cuvendia aler. 

(ppp, =) adj. concealed, covered. 

mas. nom. pi. 979 crestiens plusurs cuvert e cel6 (I'unt aid6). 

s. f. concealment. 

prp. sg. 613 ^ vus fiist li clers venuz sanz fuie e cuverture. 

under cuvent. 







a II 







s. m. hann ; damage est, it is a pity. 

nom. sg. 1579 dst ders damage est k*fl ne pent. 

ace. „ 44 ont eii damage e desturber : 1 140 damage encurames : 1577 trop nus ad fait dam«)^ 

▼. tr. to damage. 

infin. 140 sanz pncelage perdre a damager. 

n. pr. Damascus. 

pip. 1497 pm- tut Tor de Damas. 

▼. tr. to condemn, to damn. 

ppp. mas. sg. 99 ne vont Dens ke soiez damnez ne perdu : 

»t ft >t 745 ^ ceste mort est A. livrez e damnez : 1024 (est an mauf6^ retenu e damn^. 

„ „ pi. 179b sunt en enfer i tnt dis damn€ : 1818 sunt dampn6 diable en enfer. 

„ prp. „ 1684 U te cnvendra of les dampnez aler. 

„ voc. „ 174 vus, pecchur dampnez ! (venez eu feu). 
1 (Dominns Dens) The Lord God (v. note, 403). 
ace. sg. 939 ad umblement Damnedeu mercif . 

prp. „ 403 cam forent andui de Damnedeu privez : 884 an padM de Damnedeu mtiudi/, 
onder damn6. 
mi s. f. damnation. 

prp. sg. xoS mistrent Jesu A mort e 1 dampnacium. 
lampnez under damn6. 

king, chief, (Don) ; in this form only before proper names. 

ace s^. 1 102 Jovin e Danz Phebun reni. 

adj. hmdennost (in place). 

mas. nom. sg. 1338 premers voisist estre ki est li darrener : 

„ „ „ 1 59 1 olasmez fu li darreinner e Id d*aler fu lent. 

„ prp. „ 1528 pesa al darreinner k'il tant fu espami. 
adj. last (in time). 

mas. nom. sg. 577 n*estes pas darreins, 1 td n*est fait premur. 
under darrdner. 
r. 200) under devant 

prep, of, from, by, with ; about, at, 8cc. 

A, m predicate, i. after verbs, 11. after adn., in. adverbially ;»B, in attribution ;— C,l>df»rfi Infliiltlv^k. 
;i.) wttM verbs, (i) intrufuitive, of motion from : — 

aUr 984: charr 1175 : dtcliner 163 : dtsendrt torj. 227. 245. 487. fo6f. Iffki (v. n«H«), 1710 
§tcuUr 1 186: esmuvoir i^yi: flaschir 896: {h)isnr 257. 480. 837 liis. 876. 1 73 1 1 fntHlP \%\ 
479. 4S2. 105^: {ratr) 1611 : reUver y; i saUlir 913. 1094 : turdrg ii(/t i IrikmHir 77 •' f'#«»' 

*7-3»- 33- "70-424- ««»7' '3^5. 1558:— (/5) /<ii//*> i34^. 

trunsitHft, (a) o/sevtrofut, (fi) of dtfenct, (y) of rec£piion /— 

couper^%\ cutrvtitr 1133: dtsheriter 398: deftunur not: nloinmr ^%%, 48*1 0^nift09 »m| 

nufur 1144. 1736: oster€jQ, 261. 970: tocher 1265. 1601 : uvrer 954^ %t>%\, %\%u Immfh* l^* 

28 : faire voUr 45a 836. 895. 
fmdrt tsy>' «557- delrzrrer 319. 1448: enfetter 119, Jio; gnranUr flf|: gttnhf '/m; im^M 
1 396. 1649 : mesciiur 1666: reimbrt f 1759 : reuurt 38. %(4». 287 !/»•, r^tuttthr 7'/4 *****^f 'If i 
tumumdrt 715. 
mtfer 145a : bever 677 : prendre 659. 1801 : ruever Vjo : reUnir J4J, ^//4 1 1 \%, 
of origin c^-' 

naistre 87. 564. 1781 : estre 1441 de Vcrolame un. 
of qualification after estre: — 

84 bb. taot est it force e de verta : i^ bti. il H d'aj^ c ^. «f»« f/H« io\t 'IM $%% l«#H ^•«oM 'I ^^¥ 
566 tant sum de Talnr : 786 tam ««at ^ vert* : fV^f UtA tmnt *U \»id^9 T$) '•wttHi tU ift4tt'lt- h^Htil* 
1371 de nole cumuance: 1462 dt gnat ^agfumr, . 15^/ 4« KfsM eH%^\gttM^».Hl l^ih »-»Ih|» »|» 
la lot A. :— ^3 ki de metal m^L 
(in contracted clause xritA omutTod estr^ : — 

77 !• li jome volcBthfi t wsm.' 4e Pjr-Jt € yA^A i'/// v* r»H ^ht 1h, 'U Hh hu 
denoting (•) the isutrwmemt, '3, the •rent — 

^ 88 fcrm da glaive : 95 desrcadbex «> trur^ t\%^^«ih<^ •^tt^^ $ %%tM\ >\*^* ynHH^^k #|M»Hi>Hi# 
de espOMES : 2$6 ofii d'aa gSayve 25;* <e^ 'm^^ 'xv/ v* ''*, i'/* ''• '''^** '^ *"•"' j''. ••♦h^p* it» 

xxxii GLOSSARY. 

835 bis. fert da poin e du bastmi : 844 defiilent des pez : 894 fera da brant : 880 reconfarteE de 
Tewe : 981 envolup6 de dras : loio batu de ma9ues : loii deroch€ de roche : 1013 sewr€ da brant: 
1352 nurri de sa mamele : 1303 decolez da brand : 1372 bis. esbuelez de espde a de lance : 1426 
bis. sumunent de lance e de cutel : 1580 mangera de la dent : 1607 batent de lances : 1610 batn des 
verges : 1625 navrer de cuteus : 1700 ter. de peres Tagraventent, de znche e de perron : 1701 bo. 
batent de mace e de bastun : 1747 ter. (ferent) de maces « de lance e de brant : 1792 depec6 de 
mailz : 1838 decol6 du brant. 
(P) I redut6e de diable : 76 01 de veisins : 93 reconen des citoiens : isopnrpris de inanf€ : 158 feradit 
chevaler : 303 honors de anglin legiun : 410 vea de ens : 469 hum de ces paens : 555 escries de 
pastor: 884 maodiz de Deo : 900 portez des angles : 957 bis. devor€ de egles ne de Ins : 1549 blesmi 
de chens ne d'autres bestes : 1776 porpris de maof6 : — 17 14 envdtde angeres (v. note). 

(6) of the cause, (o) mentcU, {fi) physical : — 

(a) 446 d'ire tressoa : 543 de ire tut mue la color : 871 cunfondo de sei : 993 sospris de rancnr : 993 
envenim^ de ire : 11 15 de feblesce enpali : 1165 laborant de sei : 1243 espris de ire : 1434 sospris 
de maladie : 1453 de langor : 1491 refait de loie : 1565 enflambez de ire : 1566 fent de ire. 

(/3) 534 ensanglaent6e do sacher : 691 du solail nestrisent. 

(7) ^ the motive and ground : — (a) sorrow, fear, emotion, — (/3) astonishment, repentance,— ^7) care, 
heed, pity, — (^) rejoicing, — (e) mocking, — (^) thanks, accusation, vengeance. 

(a) 867 des maos dolenz est : 916 efir6ez de 90 : 1728 de la voix se effir£nt : 589 de 90 n'est eanvs: 

73 de ses diz est meiiz. 
(j8) s^esmervoiller ^2, Tj, 549: repentir ^6^, 579. 1 146. 
(y) aver garde 1727 ter. : avermerci 1327 : averpiete 581. 630 i^chaiair) 464 de moi ki cheat?— 

prendre cure 78^ : prendre pite 927. 1438 : — se suvenir IZQ& :— 
(^) 912 n'est mie esjoitz de sun fait : 1480 de tens en unt grant joie. 
(c) 571 ben s'en pent gabber de vos. 
(C) prendre vengeance 15 12. 1583. r768 : rendre graces 1398 : retter 1406 : venger 1 171. I49t> 

(8) of the substance of which an object is made : — 

(a) 61. 1824^/ de I'ewe vin : i88detoi li/mr sacrifice: 281 VBifait aignd d'nnlain: 392 d*ime 

maison sotive ont fait lor escole : 635 de glzce fates pund : — K de fast fu/JKruMs;— 
(/3) 292 bis. ne mut d*or ne d'argent pur nus ran9un : 293 de sa char (misi) sacrifice. 

(9) of the object concerning which anything is done ;— 

519. 520. une grant noise cumenc6e de Tesclavine, e de la croiz nuvele : 351 de moi est acmnpfi: 
465 de vos serroit grant doel : 1238 on sermon lor ad fait de la trinitd. 

(10) of filling, clothing, &c. : — 

(a) 129 repTenie de grace : r525 empli d*or :^ 

(^) ■ ■ ■ ■ 

(fl) 2 bis. adobbdc d'or ne d* aotre metal : 3 bis. de pere, de ivoire : 30 batde d'or : 850 vesta de robes : 
851 bis. garni de haobercs e de boclers : 903 curun6 de curone : 1 134 braidde d'or: I2I3 vestir de 
sa robe : 1248 vestuz de viu gonele :^ 

(y) 896 floriz do sang : 1837 teinte de sang :^ 

(0) 12 entosch^e de & lei criminal : 89 de fel enbeuz : 1362 ne se desjanernnt nis de on disner. 

(11) of investiture, participation ;— 
311 de la lei lor fist present. 

seisir (de goeredon, dun) 908. 1017. 1045. 1098. 1726 : aver part (de ceos, de moi) 928. 1716. 

(12) of narrative: — 

desclore . . . 398. 399. 402. 404. 405 : descuverir ^^i \ dire bitn 1570: direvoits 1128 : emdoctn- 
ner 997. 1808 : enseinner 387 : eamir 452. 616 : o'ir 448. 936 : papier 41 : penser 563. 1613 : 
prechertfii, 525. 1251. 1262. 1558: recunter 6ij: saver u^i: sermuner ^2b, 1190. 

(13) partitive : — ' 

368. 870 de I'ewe : 676 ne beit n^ais des bons vins : 1301 del avoir, 
II. with adjectives: — 
(i) (a) 1297 quites de mort : r322 parcener de la joie : 1337 certz de luer : 378 seflr de vas, 
W) of qualitative determination : — 

285 nobiles de parage : 550 bis. sages de aprise, e d'age ma&r : 732 orb de qoor: 743 gentilx de 

parage : 1378 gentil de nesance : 1379 grantz de cresance. 

(2) with indeterminate (a) pronouns, on, aocon, plosors, &c. — (fi') adverbial ejppressums of quantity:^ 

(a) 91 on de nos ; 7. 1305. 1388. 1483. 1769 on(s) des: 256. 721. 1493. 152?. 1592 an(s) de eus: 453. 

aocon de la cort : 739. 1394. 1790 cist de (la terre. citd) : 1144 tuz de la curt : 1461 mil des S.: 

148 1 liplusur de ei|s : 1527 chescun de eos : 1631 plosors de eos. 

(/3) 147 poo de: 290, bis. 638. 15 16. 1554. 1568 tant de: 769 plenty de: 359. 425. 1249 ter. 1595 

plos de. 
(III.) adverbially ; (i) of place,— {a) of general reference = on the side of, — 03) of the part of the bodf 
affected,--(y) of the terminos a qoo, — (^,) in compound prepositions : — 
(i) (a) 873dumunt: 1339 d'une part : i34od'autrey 

GLOSSARY, xxxiii 


989 rennvel^ do core : 1263 bis. enfrundrer de teste a de cervele : 1350 bis. martir de 
de qoor : 1772 cnntrait du core ; 1773 quater. dcfigurt de visage, braz, main, p^. 
1264 de d k'k Burdele : 1702 du frund gesc' au talun. 

core, duluser 

(7) 1264 de d k'k Burdele : 1702 du frund gesc 

&) 7S^'^^'^ dc ^ <^i^^ ' 1464 pres de V. : — 6 4 loi de desloial : 680 en liu de buus : 1084 endroit de soi : 
1423 fore d*un manteL 
ojtifiu : — 

396 des relev6es : 700 de nuitz. 
of manner : — 

104. 175. 322 de quor entent : 471 prendrai de bon quor: 647 hal de quor : 685 suefre de verai 
quoer: 1033 abaundun6 de quoer: 1236 geir de quor: 1348 gent de quor : 1632. 1843 de quor 
vera! : 483 de tendrur gent : 775 gent de piet£ : 749. 1009 de rechicf : 82^. 1136 de meintenant : 
892 de ren: 964. 1089. 1542 de fi: 1203 de parfund: 1442. 1696 del tut: 1620 de loing : 
1730 de randun : 1771 de gr^. 
(IV.) lit plact of conjuncHon after comparatives : — 
242 antres de toi : 1074 P^^^ sages des autres, 
in attributive clauses : — 
of material: — 

20 nusches de aesmal : 477* '^29 pelei^un d'ermine : 62^ image d*or : 680 buus d*or : 682 coiltes 
pointes de soie : 710 chaesnesjde fer : 903. 904 curune d*or, de jaspes : 1303. 1641. brand d'acer : 
161 7 cunine de espines : 1664 bis. tresor de argent e de or : 1 828 chauceure de cordewon. 
of determination, quality, &c. : — 

(a) 6^ ewe du Rin : 240 rois de Giueus : 50 1 Jesu de Galflte : 716 pais de SuHe : 741 Id de Rumme : 
1 126 dtoien de Verolame : 1497 or de Damas :— 681 pailles d'utre mer : 1271 clerc d*utre mer : — 
424 teries de deU : 836 genzives de devant: — 122 pere duciel: 144 reis de parais: 367. 96c. 
'537* regne du ciel : 1064 1097 angere du cd : 1226 gloire du eel : 1322 joie du cd : 14 10 deus de 
eel: — 1 12 prisun de emfer : 599. 108 1 prisun d'enfer ; 1675 puis de enfer : 1759 fu d* enJfer. 

(3) 289 Gifie ae putage : 1841 paiens de puslin. 

(y> 312 terre de promissiun: 330 funtainne de remissiun: 345 hem de lealt^: ^47 citoien deoarenttf 
majur: 611 bis. gent de sen, de raisun: ioi9deus de majesty : 1645 rei de gloire: 1710 fiz de 
peraidun : 1 782 rei de majest6. 
of cause, oPigin, occasion: — 

317 voiz du Hun : 495 clart6 du solail : 905 cbantz des legiuns : — 394 fertez des sarradns : 596 ovre 
de ans enginnnre : 657 traisun de la saerpent : 885 enchantement d*A. : 960 presse du pueple : 
1043 encumbrer de diable : 1257 prophecie d*andens : — 153 renum6e de lui : 831 huntage de lui : 
ioc8 gloiie de lui : 1 194 sauvaciun de nus : 1 226 essarople de vus :— j6 nuvde dfu fiz Deu : 416 n. 
d*A. : 735 n. deli: 1042 chan9un de lui : 1202 estouv de li : 1488 nuvde d'Apl. : 1845 estoire 
of possession, general reference : — 

(a) 4.668 core d*um : 18 uis de sunostal: 106 fruit d*un arbre: 253 veilz du temple: 349flnrda 
champ : 349. 999 erbe du pr^ : 653 lius du core : ^8 remenant du core : 1 164 p^ du munt : 1376 
gimn de chemise : 1428 pel des plantes : 1429 ewe de missel: 1465 turdes de lur temples: 1601 
char de con> bcstiaL 

{fS\ 7 fix d*nne puccle : 134 cumpainnie de banm : 138 seignuiie du mnnd : 141 cunoissance d'ommci 
226. IS32 gloire de Deu : 31 1 dun de la lei : 326 cunfessiun de ses errure : 329. 812 pardun dc mes 
pccchez : 362 faitz du core : 370. 1804 i^Uit de (la) trinity : 372 summe de la fd : 403. 784 priv6 de 
£>eu (lui) : 404 sacrarocntz ^iglise : 529 jure de mun 6e : 56a chef de tur : c88 flur de la cit£ : 
605 figure de J. : 622. 882 deu du solail : 92a gloire du mund : looi bis. coup de mace e de brant : 
1052 martiiCH de A. : 1060 solailz de midi : 1 107 poQr de brant : 1 162 valur d*un gant : 1 169 vertn 
du solail: 1246 onur des deus : 1375 semblance de leit : 1393 garddns de mortidne: 1439 rute 
det S. : 1445 mort du core : 1561 mesduement des tore : 1652 achdsun df cest mal : 1671 butnn 
d'eglenter: 1747 tcr. estur de mace, &c. : 1806 cpnfessiun de folie: 1812 cumen^ail de ceste 
ettoire : — 459 sires de cest pals : 546 cumande^ du munde : 565 sdngnnr de i^nmtx terret : 
714 prince de la tcrre : 754 deus de la dtf : 1391 lu du bois : 1780 princes de la dt< : i8oa Ins. 
sires de terre e du cd. 

(y) afte¥ infinitive, used substantively: — 

258 an saucher de la bnce : 105 1 an partir de cest sede : 1 153 au passer de on pmd. 
partitive: — 

267. 905. 1706 lcgiun(s) des angles: 720 grant partie des Sarraxins : 726 le plus de la curt : 
1031. 1032 mil des dtoiens, des plus honurables. 

Before infinitives after—i, nouns, {fi) attributively; 2, adjectives; 3, verbs; 4, clause^ to express 
purpose :^ 

591 Q*a core de bbndir : 961 Q*al toing de gas 6!r : 633 n'ont cure de c^r* 
(/^ to le cuiDaot de decoler A. 







1003 alass6 de batre : 1650 las de laDgetter : 1624. 1625 ter. aegre de li tnrmenter, 8cc. 

768 de passer s*est eforc6: 11 96 ne lamim de fere: 1204 bis. se retenir de gendre e de lenner : 

1439 de crier le chastie : 1590. 1717 se pener (d'aler) (de mettre) : 1629 ne fine de nrer: 

1695 vus lou de vus purvoier. 

1328 (sachent leurs ep^es) d'ocire : 1419 sumuns ^ cenbel d'envalr : I471 (nuveus est) de (aire : 

1527 (avant se purofn) de murir. 

V. tr. to maul. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 838 derochent e debatent du cors le remenant. 
debonaire ^ adj. gentle, 
debonaires ) mas. nom. sg. 1477 duz e debonaires est Deus e dreitnrens. 

„ voc. „ 811 hai Jesu debonaire! 
deboneirement adv. kindly. 

1 2 1 1 tant deboneirement e aver e cherir. 
debonneret6 s. f. kindness. 

prp. sg. 778 pur tue franchise e debonneret€ (fai I'ewe decrestre). 

V. tr. to bruise. 

ppp. mas. sg. 935 senglant e debris^ : 1163 batuz e debrisez : 
it >t ff 1702 tut est debris6 du frund gesc'au talun. 

V. tr. to deceive. 

infin. 1 65 1 (n'estes las de) deceivre . . . e par diz enganer. 

ppp. mas. sg. 92 trop i es enganez, trop i es deceu. 
deciple, deciples under disciple, 
decirent under desire ii. 

declin s. m. decrease, decline. 

prp. sg. 1819 le honur Jesu crest, e cist vunt en dedin. 
decline \ v. mtr. to decline, go down (sun, day) ; degenerate, 
declinerent j ind. pres. 3 sg. 454 li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri : 1054 li solailz ja decline e li jnrs envespri. 











„ pret. X pi. 163 tuz jurs declinerent puis de mal en pis. 
V. tr. to behead, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 91 1 (li las cheitifs) ki le decola. 

infin. 800 (out receu le cumant) de decoler A. : 1339 veissez les nns decoler : 
„ 1640 cumande trestuz ceus decolor, 
ppp. mas. sg. 744 custumme est ke il seit decola : 937 est ja decol€ : 1 173 fh A* decolez : 

„ „ „ 1303 n'a cist ki decolez ne seit du brand d'acer : 

„ „ „ 1443. 1838 decola fu {k la esp€e furbie) (du brand acerin). 
v. tr. to defend, maintain or uphold ; to forbid, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1557 (ceus) de nuntage defent : 1567 losengers Id sun entir defenU 

„ pret. „ „ 106 d*un arbre lur defendi le fruit k manger : 

„ „ „ „ 1550 (uns aigles) d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. 
app. {pit. 3 pi.) 1387 les cors unt as martirs gard6 e defendu. 
v. tr. to renounce, repudiate, 
ind. pres. i sg. 11 00 les deus ke ser\'i ai, desore mais defi. 

„ „ 3 „ 723 noz deus despersone e defie. 
V. tr. to disfigure. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1772 ke U ne fust du cors cimtrait, defigurtf. 
V. tr. to trample down, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 844 des pez le defulent : 1730 navrent e defulent i chevans. 

infin. 1 34 1 (veissez) as chevaus defuler. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1 010 (I'unt) batu de ma9ues e H pez deful£. 
ppp. mas. sg. 988 as chevaus deful^ : 1 163 deful6 e senglant : 1767 mort e defiil^. 

„ „ pT. 1540 defulez e guerpi. 
prep, outside of. 
1 152 dehors la cit£. 
V. tr. to owe ; intr. id. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1261 fei ke dei Palladie : 1572 fei ke dei Phebizn : 
„ „ 1824 fei ke doi porter lui ki fist d'ewe vin. 

2 „ 297 fai, cum fere deiz : 958 fai, cum faire doitz. 

3 „ 132 Messie ki deit tut le mund restorer : 406 par nnt doit horn estre sauvez : 
„ „ 686 mut deit sufrir leal chevaler : 955 cist ne vus deit failUr : 
„ „ 1208 bien me deit (d'A. le gentil) suvenir. 
t pi. 1007 fei ke nus devum Mahum : 1269 ne vus devum celer : 

*f >t tf 13*0 devum pur Jesu murir desirer : 1553 devum cstre de joie repleni. 
„ fut. I sg. 182 (di moi) ke fere deverai 










tobj. impft 3 sg. 558 Tennz dust estre ci : 1264 si quis deflst estre. 





dds, ddse 
ddt, aetx 














3 ^S* SS^ Tennz aust estre a : 1204 si quis aeost est 
3 pL 551 deussez estre as aatres essample e mireur : 
_ „ 062 ne deussez esjoir si feusez seu6. 
^ ▼. intr. to deign (always said of God or Christ, save in 1209). 
ind. prrs. 3 sg. 204 Id li doinne sun segrei dcmustrer : 135 1 ki les deigne apeler. 
prct. 2 „ 1 156 ki horn furmer deignas k tun semblant. 

3 „ 29 nus deingna crier : 36 nus deingna sauver : 1 18 deinna crier : 
„ „ 207 deingna du ciel desendre : 

ft t* 1037 deigna mustrer : 1209 me deingnat acuillir : 1444 fere deingna vertuz. 
subj. impft. 3 sg. 87 (ne Tai apris ke Deu) deingnast de femme naistre. 
under dire, 
under disdple. 
under d^ 
s. f. godhead. 

«cc. sg. 1800 unt ja recunu sa haute deit6. 
under de. 
adv. beyond. 

424 s*en vent des terres de deUU 
s. m. delay. 

prp. sg. 7s6 tu muiras santz delai : 128^ ceste grant busoinne sanz delai achever : 
t> >t 1581 jo en prendrai sanz delai si haut vengement : i640cuinande sanz delai ceus decoler. 
▼. tr. to stone. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1729 lors le delapident trestuit k baundun. 
adj. delicious. 

fem. ace. pi. 678 n'a mais deliciuses viandes H manger. 
8. m. delight, 
ace. sg. 662 en vus met ma esperance, e m*amur e delit. 

)adj. delightful, 
mas. nom. sg. 225 (li eels) bens e delitables e purs e esclarci. 
fem. „ M 1050 (la joie) ki par est delitable. 

)v. tr. to deliver, 
infin. 1448 en croiz murut pur delivrer* nus d'enfemal baiUie. 
app. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 319 k* (= quos) il out delivrd d'enfemal dragun. 
\ adj. light, unembarrassed. 

j mas. nom. sg. 976 ne fu unc plus delivres : 1459 seins est e tut delivres. 
M ace. „ 990 (I'unt veu tut seint) delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenn6. 
s. m. the deluge. 

prp. sg. ^00 cum par le deluge estoit li mundz* purgez. 
V. tr. to demand, oeg. 

ind. pres. I sg. 29 ostel demand pur Deu : 329. 8 1 2 de mes pecchez pardun demant : 
„ „ II 91 batesme demant : 1268 k vus cunsel sur 90 demant : 
t» » 1 7^ I jo vus quoer e demant (ke nus soiez cscu). 
3 „ 368 de I'ewe atant dcmande, e hom li ad port6, (e baptize A.). 
3 pi. 511 le crestien demandent k*ad lur lei aviUe. 
infin. 31 cumence k demander : 107 sanz pardun demander : 
„ 1291 (unt truv6) par querre e demander. 
pres. ptcp. mas. pi. 1 188 mil sumes par numbre e vus sul demandant, 
app. (pfl. 3 sg.) 374 le cung£ li ad rcquis e deinand6. 
dfmrinf adj. one's own, * proprius.' 

mas. ace. sg. 241 sauf tun cors demeine. 
„ prp. „ 1 186 teinst en sun sane demeine. 
»» »t pi* 909 k honur Tacoilt Deus of ses desmeine eslitz. 
fem. „ sg. 293 de sa char demeine (mist) sacrifice e ostage. 
V. tr. to perform (penance) ; to spend (life) ; to manifest (joy, grief), 
ind. pres. 3 pi. lioy penance demeinent. 
impcr. I „ 1083 penance dcmcnum ke ne seium peri. 

infin. 1 10 lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur : 1354 chantent pur joie demener. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 983 si parent pur sa mort grant duel unt dement. 
dcmi adj. half. 

mas. nom. sg. 712 pass< en fn ja dim! an plener. 
„ (ace.) „ 481 le cunduseit treis arpentz e demi : — 

»• f f f f 1093 (la terre) fruit ne herbe demi an ne rendi : 1 1 39 dimi an n*en la terre ne pluveit. 
dcBiBcre« ddBnra under demnrer. 

e 2 














demurance s. f. delay ; continuous imprisonment. 

nom. sg. 668 plus sent demurance le cors-d'um pener ke ne fait anguisse ki s'en put tost passer. 

prp. ,, 1373 beus devenent e enters sanz nule demurance. 
demurant, demur6 under demurer. 










s. f. delay. 

prp. sg. 6x6 au temple santz demure imint. 
s. f. delay. 

prp. sg. 507 as maissuns A. vunt sanz nule demur6e. 
^ V. mtr. to delay ; stop, abide, dwell, 
j ind. pres. 3 sg. 199 Apl. sul i dcmuere e atent. 
imper. 2 pi. 386 une semeine veaus of moi demurez. 

innn. 1 1 7 lur cuvint of lui demurer : 22 1 k'en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer : 
666 (le cumandent| lH demurer : 1352 vunt eu ciel demurer (sanz fin) : 
1679 Ik cuvendra il trestuz ceus demurer. 

1326 sachent les esp6es sanz demurer : 1685 si tu ne guerpis tes deus sanz dcmnrer. 
gmd. 818. 887 k'alez vus demurant ? 
pp. mas. sg. 391 dumurez est (Apl.) : 969 A. est demurs. 

!y. tr. to demonstrate, manifest, 
imper. 2 sg. 872 demustre ta vertu. 
infin. 135 la recunforte par raisuns demustrer: 204 ki li doinne sun segrd demustrer. 
app. (pit. 3 sg.) 372 de la fei Deu la summe (a) apris e demustr^. 
s. m. penny, * denarius.' 

(ace. sg.) 40 sanz ki ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener. 
^ s. f . tooth. 

) prp. sg. 1580 plus ne mangera jamais de la dent, 
ace. pi 836 les denz lui fait voder des genzives de devant. 

V. tr, to tear (cloth) ; pp. = adj. ragged. 

mas. nom. sg. 1248 nu-pez e depanez, vestuz de viu gunde. 
depece \ v. tr. to pull to pieces ; intr. to fall in pieces. 
depec6 > ind. pres. 3 sg. 644 pere perist e depece, fust art e metal funt. 
depesc€ ) app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1792 lur aeus de mailz unt depec€. 

ppp. mas. sg. 953 di li k'il garisse tun cors k'est depesc6. 
deproiez v. tr. to beseech. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1524 mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi. 
derami v. tr. to rend (clothes). 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1 5 14 lur dras unt derami 
deroch6 \ v. tr. to stone, 
derochent ) ind. pres. 3 pi. 838 derochent e debatent du cors le remenant. 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) loii de pere (I'lmd) deroch6. 
des I. prp. from, since. 

215 des hier : 1161 des dune en avant. 
des II. under de. 

descendant, descendi under desendre. 
desclore J v. tr. to disclose ; ref. to be opened. 

desclos } ind. pret. 3 sg. 224 avis m'ert ke li eels se desclot e uvri : 1064 du eel ki desdot e uveri (v. 
desdot ) mfin. 275 (Deus me descuvri) segrei ke desdore vus ni. 

app. (pft. 3 sg.) 397 lors li ad desdos escriz d'antiquitez. 

V. mtr. to decrease. 

infin. 780 fai Tewe descrestre. 

V. tr. to discomfit. 

infin. 121 par humme cuvint descumfire e mater, 
descunfortez v. tr. to afflict. 

ppp. (= adj.) mas. sg. 384 dolenz en serroi e trop descunfortez. 

V. tr. to disown. 

ind. pres. i sg. 335 Jovin descimus e sun frere N. 

V. tr. to discover ; to disclose. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 274 (me mustra) e me descuvri 1416 d'A. la nuvde descuvri e conta : 
» »> »» »» 1058 (Jesus) de lui la gloire descuvri : 1493 Taventure cunta e descuvri. 
infin. 276 descuverir ne I'os : 1222 ki te vout sun segrd descuverir. 

ppp. mas. pi. 457 descuverz sumes de 90 ke nus avum fait a. 
desdeingnant v. tr. to disdain. , 

pres. ptc. mas. pL 1681 (li felun guerroier) desdeingnant Deu amer. 






GLOSSARY. xxxvii 

\ V. tr. to unsay, contradict. 

j ind. pres. 3 sg. 815 (le element tesmoine) 90 ke hem desdit. 

imper. 2 „ 1298. 1659 desdi ke tu dit as (par tes gas cuntruver) (pur la gent enginner). 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 748 autres jugementz unt desdit e faus6. 
ent *] v. intr. to descend! 

i ind. pres. 3 pL 1063 muntent e desendent Tli beus angeres) : 

re > „ f, „„ 1720 es vus deus angeres ki de lur mansiun desendent. 
a „ pret. 3 sg. 227 uns horn en terre 9a jus desendi : 487 ki dn del desendi : 

j f, „ „ „ 1061 (un rais) du eel descendi. 
imper. 2 ,, 245 de la croiz desent ore. 

infin. 207 Deus deingna da del desendre e avaler. 
gmd. 1 181 (un rais du eel) rcsplcndi descendant (sur la tumbe A.), 
pp. mas. sg. 1386 (on aigles) ki k terre est desendu. 
s. m. wilderness, 
prp. sg. 871 eu desert tis poples de sei fu cnnfundu : 1505 eu desert gisez (cum charoinne guerpi). 

>t t> 1385 est du desert un grant lu venu. 
V. tr. to deserve. 

app. (pft. X sg.^ 755 ke tu as deservi, luer tei est aprest€. 
„ „ (2 pl*; 4^3 seroie mari si mal eiez Id point n'i avez deservi. 
tex ▼. tr. to disinherit. 

ppp. mas. sg. 398 de parais cum fu desheritez. 
or s. m. dishonour. 

ace. sg. 545 ki es tu Id nus as fait si grant deshonur ? 
„ „ 1270 le deshonur noz deus ne larrum de venger. 
wr€ V. tr. to disiionour. 

app. (subj. plpft. 3 sg.) 1784 (ne se pout nul vanter) ke sanz vengement le eUst deshonur^. 
1 adj. uneven, rugged.^ 

mas. nom. sg. 1427 li chemins ferrez aspre e deshuel (I'alasse). 
I. s. m. desire. 

ace sg. 1227 (atdndre 1 vostre cunpainnie) dunt tant ai eO desir. 
I. (1205) under desire I. 

ujider desire ii. 
tie adj. desirable. 

mas. prp. sg. 1045 seisiz estes ja du guerdun desirable, 
fem. voc. „ 1206 croiz plus desirable k'esmeraude u safir. 
I. \ V. tr. to desire. 

j ind. pres. i sg. 1205 croiz ki tant desir ! 

>t »t 3 »» 1433 o^ ^ cs^rc desire, k'il ne va querant d. 
„ „ „ pi. 781 cist ki vcr desirent 90 ke m'est atum£. 
innn. 13 18 plus devum pur Jesu murir desirer. 
app. (pft. 3sg.) 941 voer ad desir^ (le cors A.) : 1017 ^^ gneredun) k'il tant ad desir^. 
n. ) V. tr. to tear in pieces ; intr. to be torn. 

/ ind. pres. 3 sg. 1602 cum Hun ki desire char de cors bestial, 
•t » tt pl* 1514 lur cheveus decircnt, lur dras unt dcrami. 
„ pret. 3 sg. 253 un grantz veilz du temple desira c rumpi (v. note), 
app. (pft. X pi.) 533 (I'unt pris) par la robe k'il unt tost desirde. 
It, desirer under desire. 
lU V. tr. to disjoint. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers, desjointz e esluiss^. 
-nmt V. ref. to break one's fast. 

ind. fat. 3 pi. 1362 ne se desjunerunt nis de un disner. 
mi V. tr. to unfasten. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles heumes e chapeus. 
s I Adj. disloyal, peijurcd. 

I I mas. Dom. sg. 001 (H clercs) n*est pas dcsleals, mes sa doctrine veraie est e se&re. 
ace. M 1615 lier se Icssa cum lamin desloial. 
pip. „ 6 (penduz) il loi de desloial. 
Dom. pL 1618 en croit le pcndircnt H Giu desloial. 
tt prp. •• 1487 tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns desleus. 
V. tr. to unloose. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1463 Id lie k*k plcisir li vent, e ki H plest, deslic. 
vnder desleals. 










despit I. 

despit II. 















V. tr. to tear limb from limb. 

infln. 1 340 (d'autre part veissez les tins) desmenbrer. 

s. f. want of restraint, H — , unmeasuredlv. 

prp. sg. 600 li clercs dunt ulrage as dit a desmesure.* 

adj. unrestrained, ill-regulated. 

fern. nom. sg. 510 A. vunt querant cimi gent desmesur€e. 

adj. unnatural. 

mas. nom. pi. 1476 estes durs e desnatureus. 

adv. henceforth. 

19? desore guerpis : 332 tis serfs deveng d — : 1535 desore of moi serrez : 1827 d-^penant de 

1 100 desore mais defi : 11 04 desore mais recleim : 1262 ki prechera desore mais. 

adv. henceforward (see also under mais ii.) 

584 desoremes aiir (noz deus). 

V. tr. to spend (time) ; to inflict (torture). 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 200 davant sa croiz la nuit en uraisuns despent. 
„ pret. 3 „ 232 e divers turmentz en lui despendi. 

app. (pft. I sg.) 808 despendu e perdu ai trestut mun viant. 
„ „ 2 ,, 100 en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu. 

v. tr. to defame, disesteem. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 723 ki noz deus celestiens despersone e defie. 

V. tr. to despise. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 646 (veit) k' A. lur creance e lur loi si despiist. 
„ pret. „ „ 230 despit e eschivi (sa doctrine). 

infin. 1559 ne fait pas k despire, cum meint quide. 

app.(plpft. 3 pi.) 1551 avant les urent mut despit e hat 

ppp. mas sg. 241 tu es e despit e guerpi : 919 n*est droitz k'il seit despiz. 

s. m. scorn. 

prp. sg. 239 par despit disoient H genoilluns devant li : 1396 (les cors) ke fl avant nrent en desp 

under despire. 

V. tr. to unfold. 

infin. 103 cumence Apis, sun sermunn desploier. 

V. tr. to despoil ; ref. to undress. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 698 gent ki se despoille (veisez) e nercir e suer. 

app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1598 lores I'unt setsi e despoille viimient. 

a. adv. thereafter ; b. conj. since ; (a) illative, =- seing that ; (/3) temporal, with past tenses, s 

the time that, with fut, = as soon as. 

1 10 despuis lur cuvint lur vie demener en labur. 

196 d — ke raisuns nH assent : 379 d — ke Deu ad tun quor sael6 : 1432 d — ke 1 A. aproce. 

430 d — ke il verra : 709 d — ki . . . out fait lier : 991 d — k'il ont tach€ : 

1443 d — k'A. decol6 fu : 18 13 d — ke A. refut. 

v. tr. to tear. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 631 li uns ses dras desrunt. 

s. f. destiny. 

prp. sg. 524 cist fans truantz ki k pute destin€e va par ci prechant. 

adj. (used assubst.) the right (hand). 

prp. sg. 167. 1705 (k destre) (al destre) sun pere (ester) (asis). 

s. m. war-horse, charger. 

obi. sg. 1 42 1 (palefrei) cha9iu' u fort runcin u grant destrer ignel (est muntez L e. sur). 

prp. „ 942 li princes k*ert venuz i sun destrer munt6. 

ace. pi. 1484 ki destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 

s. f. confinement, " carcere duro. 

prp. sg. 671 (fu mis) en garde e en destresce H fdim gaholer. 

V. tr. to destroy. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1516 tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubaiUL 
,, fem. sg. 1027 par tant ke destruite i seit crestient6. 

(pp. =) adj. twisted awry. 

mas. nom. pi. 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers desjointz e esluisstf. 
) V. tr. to disturb ; (infin. =) s. m. disturbance, trouble, 
j (inf ) ace. sg. 44 unt eii damage e desturber : 1300 aver par vus travail e desturber. 

periph. pres. ptcp. 832 le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant. 

^v. tr. to guara off ; to turn away, 
ind. pres. 3 pi. looi coup destument de mace, 
ppp. mas. pi. 1 108 ke soium de s'amur destumez ne flecchi. 
























GLOSSARY. xxxix 

adj. insane (v. note on 1774). 

mas. nom. sg. 1774 (ke il nc fust) desv6» u avogle, &c. 
M ace. „ 1^9 (sana) feverus, avogles, desvez e kaifs, &c. 
hamcs ^ v. tr. to slaughter. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1641 li paien Ics detrenchent tuz au brant d'acer. 
„ pret. I „ 1499 Ics detrenchames tuz au brand furbi. 

infin. 1328 sanz merci aver d*ocire e detrencher : 134 1 (veissez) abatre e detrencher. 
ppp. mas. nom. pi. 95 ke ne fuisscz detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
(p>p>) » ff> ft 1 56 1 des cors detrenchez teu mescinement (ne feist). 
s. m. God ; pagan deity. 

In two divisions ; A, deus, B, deu. 

920 li deus A. : 1019 li deus de majesty : 1462 li deus as crestiens. 
(without article) 25. 99. 105. 108. 203. 207. 211. 274. 281. 310. 472. 592. 687. 817. 
909- 943- 97*- 986. 1028. 1037. 1080. 1228. 1255. 1368. 1384. 1444. 1477. 1539. 1554. 
162a 1631. 1637. 172a. 1743. '757* '7^- 1770' i8iodeus. 
84. 128. 184. 296. 379. 655. 658. 782. 1 22 1. 1672 deu. 
806 cist est deus poestifs ; 1254 si fiz est deus e horn. 
80 Id (fu) deu : 1447 n'est autre deu. 

371* 372< 923. 1309. 1636. 1689 deu : — 36. 41. 8a 304. 422. 583 fiz deu. 
187. 282. 350 353. 485. 603. 673. 725. 802. 809. 820. 874. 925. 939. 947. 1158. 1 1 73. 
12^2. 1361. 1508. 1681. 171 1. 1789 deu. 
prp* ft t> 458. 466.622. 787. 1033. 1351. 1397. 1481 ideu: 882. 1654 au deu: 226. 403. 884 
de deu : 78. 416. 501 d'un deu : 1 7 10 en deu : 

97. 342. 366 par deu : 29. 68. 344. 382. 388. 484. 594. 1 199. 1431. 1838 pur deu. 
329. 777. 1156 deus! 
44. 49 noz deus. 

643 mal aient deu ki de metal sunt ! 
754 nus deus : 1246 des deus : 1270 noz deus. 
449. 1078. I lOO les deus : 1364. 1410. 1792 lur deus : 
419. 584. 723. 1162. 1661 noz deus: 1670. 1685 tes deus. 
566. 580 en noz deus : 1683 of lur deus : 1737 par lur deus : 1473 pur noz deu$. 
1511 chers deus celestiens. 
[I. numer. two. 

169 par numbre deus faiz sis : 17 19 es-vus deus angeres. 
, de&&t under del 

V. intr. to grieve 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 589 de tut 90 n*cst A. esmuz, ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure. 
A prep, before, a, of place, /3, of time ; B adv. forward. 
. (a) 45 devant mot : 239. 461 dcvant li : 558 devant nus : 1424 devant eus funt cure : 
200 davant sa croiz : 1365 (mener) par devant lur auter. 
(0) 527 devant Tajumte : Q54 devant jur : 1 133 devant Tenjumant : 1310 devant vespre. 
836 les denz lui fait v<Jer des genzives devant. 
ine 1 V. intr. to become. 

It I ind. pies, i sg. 332 ti serfs deveng desore : 810 mes ke ^ tart deveng sis hom e sis sergant : 
f M »» » n 1827 desore penant deveng. 

3 pi* *373 Oes cors) bcus dcvencnt e enters. 






















numer. two. 


•t f» 

pret 3 sg. 160 dcvint li solailz bis : 1256 devint hem : 1614 devint hom mortal. 

3 pL 161 devindrent JQeus mumes e pensis. 
subj. pres. i sg. 180 (si curage me prent) ke crestiens deveingne. 
pp. mas. pL 1392 ki sunt ja devenu gardcins de morticine. 
under dei. 

)v. intr. to die. 
infin. 1 1 1 f lur cuvint) doler, languir, e devier. 
pp. mas. pL 1 794 lui ancesurs ki sunt ja devi6. 
„ „ f, 1000 les mortz funt vifs parer, e les vifs devi6. 
V. tr. to foretell. 

ind. pret. i sg. 68 90 vus di e devin : 1821 ben le di e devin. 
cnt, devint under deveng. 

V. tr. to appoint, arran^ ; imagine, devise ; narrate, 
ind. pres. i sg. 143 tut issi cum vus rccunt e devb. 
„ n 3 »» 56 il devise e drcsce mun aiere e mun chemin. 

infin. 1366 la plus cruele mort k>m pumt deviser. 
app. (pft. 3 sg.) 1028 ne sevent mie cum Da»M rad devis^. 



(deviser) ppp. mas. sg. 849 (eu munt = on the hill) Id fu 1 son martire divisez e parni. 
devociun s. f. devotion. 

pip. sg. 325 ^ genoilluns se met par grant devociun : 787 (orabuns) k, Den pr6sente i devodan gra 
devor€ under devurassent. 

devum under dei. 

devurassent \ v. tr. to devour. 
















X. J 

j ind. pres. 3 pi. 1507 oisel te devurent e lu ensauvagi. 
subj. impfl. 3 pi. 1756 ke (= ut) ne les devurassent lM»ites n'oisel volant, 
ppp. mas. sg. 957 (sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas) de egles u wltors ne de las devor6. 
s. m. ravenous beast. 

nom. sg. 1357 senglantz cum liun k'i proie est devurer. 
under dire. 

s. m. day ; {Jl) tut dis, for ever, 
prp. sg. 166. 263 au terz di releva. 
(ace.) pi. 174 eu feu ki art tut dis. 
prp< tt 1796 ^ tut dis damn£ (sunt en enfer). 
s. m. devil (always without the article), 
nom. sg. 1599 euro diable les aprent. 

ace. „ 120 diable (descumfire e mater) : 921 diable vencn as. 
prp. „ 1048 del encumbrer nus gard de diable : — 
,, „ I redut6e de diable enfemal : 287 rescust de diable : 1764 soiez cuntre diable lor escu. 
nom. pi. 1674 diable mort sufi-ent el puis de enfer : 1818 ki sunt dampnd diable en enfer snster 
ace. f, 642 diables mais aiire k'en enfer sunt : 1473 diables enfemaus redamez pur dens . 
ft »t 1792 lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depec6. 
under dire, 
n. pr. Diana. 

obi. (= een.) 181 7 (de la loi) Pallaide e Diene. 
„ (= dat.) 1 261 fei ke dei Palladie e Diene la bele. 
under dire, 
adj. worthy. 

mas. ace. sg. 1630 k'il le tenc digne pur li ten peines endurer. 
under demi. 

y. tr. to say, tell ; bien dire de, to speak well of. 
ind. pres. i sg. 68 90 vus di e devin : 182 1 ben le di e devin : 

456 entenc ke jo vus di : 1077 entendez ke jo vus Ion e di. 
77 me esmerveil de 90 ke me dis tu. 

382 en suspirant li dit : 83^ ki autrement le dit, fableiir est : — 
562 * dit hom ' : 1314 * dit hem * : 1254. 1441 « 90 dit *. 
pi. 1 106 e nus diimi autel. 

523 dient en hauste voiz : 753 dient en reschisnant : 919 dient entie eos socf: 
994 dient par envie : 1555 dient veraiment : 1632 dient k bante voix : — 
1272 90 dient messager : 1492 90 dient : 151 8 dient : — 
933. 1765 si en dient *Amen'; — 
626 dient k' ^irrunt) : 1334 dient ke co est par sortz. 
239 par despit disoient : 1 168 li uns le disoient. 
616 dc tut 90 Tengami e dis H dreiture. 
828 mar unc le deis. 

77 dist: 375 silidist : 339. 1616 dist Apl. : 654uraedi8t : yi/distimspaSiis:- 
43. 215. 285. 417. 946. 1 1 23, 1245. 1644. '^* 17^ <distfl': — 
484. 592. 654. 722. 777. 805. 822. 1076. 1205. 1307. 1472 edist: — 
456 en plurant dist : 527 ^ parole simple dist : 1502 dist chescun lermant. 
433 ore frez k'i dirai: 16^8 ore fai ke te dirai. 
171 quant dirra : 439 A. vus dirra : 1570 ki bien de loi dira. 
tt tt 733 (autres) poiir eit e die: 1449 quei k'cnvius die : 1461 (n*a nnl ki) ne die. 
tt 3 pip 443 (pemez veneance) k' ( = ut) en dient trestuit. 
impfl. I sg. 1025 ne i deise &uset6 pur tut Tor Costentin. 
imper. 2 „ 1 8 1 di moi ke ferai : 278 k'est ke signifie me recunt e di : 953 di li k*il te garis 
infln. 248 savoient fere e dire : 425. 1569 nuls dire puira : 
„ i486 (sunt venuz) dire ke est venuz. 
poiphr. pres. ptcp. 829 jo en ere voir disant : 1 1 28 vus ere voirs disant. 
app. (ind. pft i sg.) 440 quancke vus ai dit. 

„ 2 „ 600 aunt as dit utrage : 1298. 1659 desdi ke tu dit as. 

M 3 » I9ir 544* 1 394 ^^ ^^ (ir^ment) (par cnniz e Imr) (par grant Ire) : — 



n 3 
>» tt 















»» tt 

subj. pres. 

tt tt 
tt tt 
tt tt 









) app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 868 en plurant ad dit : 1 155 a dit en suspirant : — 

„ „ „ „ 318 ^ jointes meins a dit e I weimentisun : 1567 a dit cum losengers. 

M „ 3 pi. 1034 bien I'lint dit e jurd. 

. (174. 1796) under di 11. 
I. numer. ten. 

152 puis ke 11 fu d'age e de anz treis feiz dis. 

under dire. 

8. m. disciple. 

nom. sg. 1090 (sa bunt€ tesmoinne) A. si deciples : 1091 le sen au maistre prove li deciples. 

(pred.) sg. 71 7 A. est sis disciples. 

prp. „ 560 estre ^ sun deaple e guarant e sucur : 1726 of A. tun deisciple seisi serras du dun. 

under dire. 

s. m. dinner, dinner-time. 

prp. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner : 1 362 ne se desjunerunt nis de un disner. 
lum, under dire. 

adj. diverse, various. 

mas. nom. pL 704 neissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 
„ ace. „ 232 divers turmentz en lui despendi. 

under deviser. 

s. m. saving, word. 

prp. pi. ^x n'oiez vers mes diz ouor dur ne ferrin : 73 de ses diz est meiiz : 478 ii ses diz obe! : 
„ „ 885 par enchantement d*A. e les charmes e diz : 165 1 par diz enganer. 

s. f. doctrine, teaching. 

nom. sg. 556 sa doctrine folage est e errur : 601 sa doctrine veraie est e seiire. 

ace. „ 230 sa doctrine despit e eschivi : 736 ki (s cujus) doctrine (e maistrie) tant prise. 

prp. „ 221 k*en vostre doctrine ne voille demurer : 
„ „ 295 n*est par autre sermun, doctrine, u language. 

8. m. finger. 

nom. pL 1779 li ^^^ ^^^^ repli^. 
oit, doitz under del* 

under doler. 

under duel. 

under deigna. 
ist under duner. 

Iadj. sorrowing ; miserable, 
mas. nom. sg. 384 dolenz en serroi : 867 des maus ses enemis dolentz est e me& : 
„ „ „ 1022 li las dolentz (en la prisun est au mauf6). 
„ ace. „ 1842 (me numer) pecchur cupable, dolent poure e frarin. 
„ nom. pL 260 furcnt [csmoilli ?] li las e li dolent : 863 fremissent e crfent dolent e irascu : 
„ „ „ 1498 nus en fumes irez e dolent e mari. 
V. intr. to suffer, to be in pain. 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 589 A. ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure. 

inifin. Ill (lur cuvint) doler, languir, e devi^. 
(periph.) pres. ptc. mas. sg. 840 li nierf li sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant. 

„ „ „ „ pi. 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf. 
under dulnrus. 
under dolurs. 
v. intr. to sleep. 

ind. fut. I sfi;. 1830 ne dormirai au vespre d io lief au matin, 
tff t> 3 pl* 1412 ne dormirunt chuccz en ut suz linceL 
inhn. 198 dormir s*en va. 

gmd. 331 quant gcH dormant en ma maisun : 795 cum gcQ ussent dormant, 
pp. (pfL I sg.) 215 mut ai dormi des hier. 
ft. m. the back. 

icc. sg. 161 2 teinte en a la peitrine le dos e flaunc costaL 
ft. ro. dragon. 

•cc. »g. 320 fcrm lie Sathan le viel sanglant dragun. 
nom. pl. 1698 fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun. 
s. m. clothes, garments. 
ace. pl. 569 engcttez ces drapeus. 

!s. ro. clothes, cloths. 
ace. pl. 611 li uns ses draz desmnt : 15 id lur dras nnt derami. 
prp. „ 981 le chief unt au cors mis, de oras envolup^. 










adj. right, proper. 

fern. nom. sg. 1383 ci*st la dreite creance. 
s. f. righteousness ; propriety ; H — , faithfully, 
nom. sg. 530 par tut ii veritcz e dreiture est pruv6e : 744 costmnme est e drdtnre ke fl seit decol< 
ace. „ 612 veritez voissez oir, bien fere e dreiture. 
prp. „ 616 de tut 90 Tengami e dis ^ dreiture. 
dreitureument adv. righteously. 

1803 bien geisent ke il a dreitureument uvr^. 

adj. righteous. 

mas. nom. sg. 108 Deus ki est dreitureus : 1477 duz e debonaires est Dens e dreitureus. 

V. tr. to direct ; raise ;— en joie, to fill with joy. 

ind. pres. 3 se. 56 il devise e dresce mun aiere e mun chemin. 

„ 3 pi. 793 li mort se drescent en seant. 
(pft. 3 sg.) 776. 938 ad vers le ciel dresc6 (le visage) (le vis). 

mas. sg. 236 en un fust dresc^ (^ clous le afierma). 
„ pL 208 en joie sunt trestuit dresc6 e esbaudi. 

fern. sg. 502 en haute croiz drescte. 
adv. straightway. 

unt droit vers W. lur chemin acoilli : 1 833 vers R. tendrai droit le chemin. 
s. m. right, propriety ; par droit, of right, by right, 
nom. sg. 196 despuis ke droitz ne raisuns n*i assent : 719 si en dnntz (v. note) k'em A. cnicifie : 

„ „ 724 droiz est ke (vifhom I'ensevelie) : 919 n'est droitz k'H seit de^nz. 
prp. ,, 139 par droit apent naistre. 
s. m. a kind of ship, galley, O. £. dromond, 
nom. s^. 638 pur tant cum portereit de fin or on dromund. 
s. m. fnend, beloved. 

nom. sg. loi tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dm : 466 1 Deu es dm choisL 
prp. „ 870 de Tewe dunas ^ Moyses, tun dm. 
under de. 

)v. tr. to redouble, 
infin. 1627 pur ses turmentz dubler. 
gmd. 824 k'avant urent ire, ore la vunt il dublant. 
adj. double (v. note). 

mas. prp. pi. 85 1 (gamiz) de haubercs dublers e de buders escuz. 
s. m. duke. 



droit I. 











nom. pi. 567 i eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereur. 
■ ■ ily. 


adv. kindly. 

785 la requcste A. ducement ad grants, 
s. f. gentleness. 

nom. sg. 580 en noz deus ad (= il y a) grant franchise e dncur. 
s. m. suffering, grief, misfortune ; mourning, 
nom. sg. 13 dunt fu grant duel e mal : 173 ii nafra jamais mortz (« mortiios) noise ne duel neestiil 

„ „ 428 grant duel ensurdera : 465 de vus seiroit grant duel : 587 li douz serroit grantz : 

„ „ 699 fu duel 4 regarder : 771 dunt fu grant duel mend, 
ace. „ 482 mut veisscz grant duel : 983 pur sa mort grant duel unt dement, 
prp. „ 1409 les meins li imt ll€ k crueutd e dud : 1501 enlermes e grant dodlnr joie conveitL 
s. m. pain, 
prp. sg. 548 fuissez H mort livrez e k dulur. 

„ pi. 9^4 se sent de ses dolurs (san6). 
adj. wretched. 

mas. nom. pi. 164 vaivez, dulurus, serfs pleintifs : 354 li las dolenis tant sunt malur<. 
V. intr. to be afflicted, 
infin. 1628 pur murir e lunges duluser. 
adj. afflicted (but v. note). 

mas. nom. pL 1350 cist simt martir de cors, cist de quor duluser. 
under demurer, 
s. m. a gift, 
ace. sg. 311 de la lei lur fist e present e dun. 
prp. „ 1726 seisi serras du dun ki garde n'a de fu. 

„ pi. 1235 pur losengerie pur duns ne pur blandir : 

„ „ 13 1 7 par duns, ne par turment ne par mort manacer. 
dnna, dunas under duner. 
done adv. i, temporal, then ; 2, illative, therefore. 








GLOSSARY. xliii 

159 dune trembla terre : 161 — devindrent muraes : 183 — respundi : 259 — fiirent [esmoilli] : 

208 taut estoit — d'age : 415 — guverna : 440 — pur voir parra ; 

858 — fu lung ki ne urent beu : 1 161 des — en avant : 1743 ^^ ^^ purvit — . 

1 23 1 plest vus — aroer : 1526 — les oceismes (v. note). 

V. tr. to give ; rcf. to give oneself up ; se duner garde, to be aware. 

ind. pres. i sg. 491 ma croiz vus doins : 663 k vus sacrifice me doins jo : 

„ f, „ „ 1267 pur ki ne doins une cenele. 

M ,f 3,, 8 1 7 hem H ki Deus dune raisun & sun semblant. 
ind. fut. „ „ 434 avant ke nus hom garde s'en dura. 

t> t> ft pl< 1416 ^ Phcbun le durrunt. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 592 si te doinst bon aventure : 660 force e estabilit^ me doinst il : 

1228 (k'a vostre cumpainnie) me doinst Deus ateindre : 

tt »> tt *t 

„ „ „ „ 1712 rk'il mei) part ooinst of vus. 

ael avoir vus en frum duner : i( 

infin. 1301 del avoir vus en frum duner : 1637 la gloire ke Deus vus veut duner. 
(prp.) „ 913 au coup duner : 1234 ne lamim pur les testes duner : 


}> 11 

\g (or portent e argent) pur duner. 
app. (pft. 3 pi.) 1604 (unt) dun£ resne ^ cheval. 
„ (ref.) I sg. 14^.2 me sui del tut dun6 ^ Jesu. 
„ ft 3 ,, iioi ^ Jesu s*est duu6. 
» ft 3 pl* 1481. 1596 ^e sunt dun£ (ii Jesu) (i Deu). 
ppp. mas. pi. 1496 tant furent ^ Jesu dun2. 
t, fern. sg. 1304 dun6e est la sentence sanz returner, 
under dun. 

adv. whence ? (v. note). 
32 ki est tu, e dunst vens ? ii penses tu aler ? 

I. adv. used for obi. case of rcL pron., and referring to antecedent (a) word (at, bv, concern- 
ing, with, which or whom), or (/3) clause, at which thing, wherefore ; 2. conj. illative, tnerefore. 
I (a) 38 1 sairacins dunt (~ quorum) tant i a plent6 : 1227 vostre cumpainnie dunt( « ^c) ^^^^ ^ ^^ desir :— 
131 Messie, — as ol lire: 600 li clercs,~utrage as dit : 806 cist, — A. va prechant, est Dens: 
1 322 la joie, — quor ne puet penser : 1 754 la lei, — li clers fu prechant : — 

394 feluns, — il sunt guetez ; 453 par aucun, — il estoit cheri : 1036 miracles,— il sunt acert€ :«- 
1 22 1 gueredun, — Dcu te plut seisir. 
I (/3) 13 dunt fu duel : 418 — mal avendra: 462 — seroie man : 536 — plus se curuce cele eent : 
77i^fuduel men£: 11 40 — damage encurumes : 1 158^ cist vunt Deuloant: 1343 — li princes de ire 
art : 1 246>-ronur besille : 1459— cist I'enmercie : 1461 — n*a nul Id ne die : 1622 — se curucent. 
[2) 1261 dunt, fei ke dei Palladie. 
adj. hard. 

mas. ace. sg. 53 n*oiez vers mez diz quor dur ne ferrin. 
„ nom.pT. 1476 trop par estes criieus durs, e desnatureus. 
fern. ace. sg. 594 pur Deu recleim pere dure : 684 roche, si dure cum acier : 1256 mort dure e cmele. 
«t prp- *> ^7 P^^ ^^c ™^rt tant cruele e dure. 
L (4^) under duner. 
tL\r, mtr. to endure, to last. 

{ ind. pres. 3 sg. 606 tant cum vie me dure : 700 dure li chautz de nmtf : 
I. ; „ „ „ „ 1576 bis. trop dure cist baratz, turmentz. 
„ pret. „ „ 708 dura cist grantz maus. 
pcriph. pres. ptcp. 1 143 veimes ke par A. fu dst mans tant dorant. 
. dufs under dur. 
under duner. 
mider dei. 
* s. f. doubt. 

prp- 'R* '377 (cunustre) sanz faille u dutance : 1563 vend est sanz dutance li snen prechement. 
V. tr. to fear ; intr. to doubt. 

tnd. pres. 3 sg. 907 ne dute mais morteus, feluns tirantz hanUz : 
„ „ „ „ 1040 ne dute mais tirantz prince ne cunestable. 
„ foL „ „ 420 mar nus en dutera. 

infin. Id2 sanz nier u duter : 206 sanz fentosme a duter. 
adj. sweet ; gentle. 

mas. nom. sg. 1477 duz e debonaires est Deus. 
„ voc. „ 868 beus, duz sire Jesu ! 
t> *t pl* 1 5 19 beus duz amis cheri. 
ntr. nom. sg. 1431 quancke il pur Deu suefre plus li est duz ke meL 






C I. 


e II. 




egle, egles 


eient, eiez 

eim, eiment 




el I. 

d II. 









conj. copul. connecting two or more words or clauses, and ; (/3) preceding the first member a. 
e — e, both — and. 

gassim (840 times). 
5. 122. 1 6a. 208. 229. 241. 283. 311. 475. 560. 603. 667. 698. 743. 74$. 850. 933. 1125. "78- * 
1381. 1538. 1634. 

(376 V. note, 380. 789. 1539) under en. 
V. tr. to embroider. 

ppp. fem. pro. sg. 12 12 (honurer e vestir) de sa robe ebruusdde. 
s. m. age, life. 

prp. sg. 529 tutz les jurs de mun 6e. 
V. tr. to afiright ; ref. to be terrified, 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 728 de la voiz se effi-^ent li sarrazin glutun. 
ppp. mas. pi. 9 16 efir^ez sunt paens de 90 e esb^. 
V. ref. to strive. 

(pp.) ind. pft. 3 sg. 768 de passer (le pund) s'est chescun eforc6, 
under aigles. 
s. m. eg&ntine. 

prp. sg. 1 67 1 ne vaut lur poisance un butun d'eglenter. 
s. f. church. 

ace. sg. 490 sa eglise sur pere fimda e establi. 
prp. „ 404 des sacramentz dlglise, cum il sunt cunfermez. 
under aver, 
s. f. island. 

prp. sg. 1836 en Teille ke cunquist Brutus e Comelin. 
under amer. 
under ainz. 
under air. 
under aver. 

ntr. adj. used substantively, anything else [aUudJ. 
prp. sg. 1289 pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter. 
ace. „ 1433 ne va querant el. 
^1675. i750' '759- '760* 1804) under en. 
(522) under iL 
under hom. 
V. tr. to become white. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1544 sancs k*avant les teint, plus ke laitz, emblanchi (y. note), 
pp. mas. sg. 477 plus Teim ke pelei9un enblanchi. 
V. tr. to attack, carry off. 

ppp. mas. sg. 956 sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas embl6. 
V. tr. to embrace. 

infin. 1 691 les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer. 
(112) under enfer. 
V. intr. to swell. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 652 fruissent os, char emfle, e la pel enpalist, 
„ „ „ pT. 706 emflent ydropis, par beivre e chaut aver, 
pp. fem. sg. 841 la char (li est)' noire e emfl^e. 
s. m. emperor. 

nom. pi. 567 k eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereur. 
adj. impenal. 

mas. prp. sg. 10 il vent k V., un liu emperial. , 
adj. enterprising. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 159 un chevaler, hardi e empemant. 
V. tr. to take (care) ; to choose (a rule), 
ind. pres. i pi. 1082 si garde ne empemum. 
app. (pft. I sg.) 387 de la lei k'ai enpris plus m*enseinnerez, 
V. tr. to fill, 
ppp. mas. sg. 1525 flecchi pur un val empli (d'or). 


ise s. f. enterprise, project. 

tec. sg. 1 1 10 il far emprise ne larmnt pur nuUi. 

prp. „ 1 146 creumes Ke de sa emprise fust repentant. 

prep, in, at, on, during ; into ; with, 8cc. 

A, space ; B, manner ; C, time, 
tf ) Place, with names of countries, &c. : — 

61. 4S4 en Beethlcem naski : 11 20. 1283 en Wales trav6, aillent : 427. 502. 1447 en Sulie mnnit : 

716 crucifix eu pais de Sulie. 
[i) frequently with these following words, (i) ciel [always with def. article], (2) croiz, (3) mund, 

(4) terre : — 

(1) 38. 167. 264. 318 eu ciel munter : 331 eu ciel vi : 352. 822. 924 eu ciel regner : 1016. 1 183 en eel r. : 
1352 vunt eu ciel : 1482 es eels : 900. 1732 porter eu ciel : 1521 eu ciel acoilli : 1693 eu eel entrer. 

(2) 37- $02' 1448. 1798 en croiz murir : 87. 1508. 1618 pendre : 157. 289 mettre : 344. 427. 759 pener : 
719 crucifie : 778 poser : 931. 1256. 1496 mort sufnr : — 

209 la vie en la croiz achever : 291 en ceste croiz veiz. 

(3) a, en terre = on earth, j3, in the ground ; y, terre = land, territory : — 

(a) i261a nuvele vint nuncier : 227 ca-jus descndi : 228 bis. fu vivant, nurri: 659 char prist : 1072 mort 
sufri : 1099 beu meri : 1 139 (en la terre) ne pluvcit : 1390 tcu merveilie ne fu veu : 1782 guerroier le 

rei de majesty : 1802 prist humanity : — 
(P) 692 flestnsent blez : 724 hom Tensevelit 

relie vif : 1015 I'unt muscfi ; 1600 un peel afichent : 1752 mist 
le cors : — 

(7) 312 en terre les mena de remissiun : 1398 en lur terre est aparu. 

(4) a, cest mund ; /3, le mund : — 

(a) 1085 en cest mund >ivantz : 11 99 sun sane espant : 13 19 regner: 1475 tant mar fustes nez : 
1623 virent la merveilie : 1680 obeissent k lur voler : 1762 vus sunt honurant. 

{p) 208 eu mund >ivre : 362 eu mund ad est^ : 848 eu mund venu : 1572 en tut le mund resplent. 
"3 generally, of rest or motion — , in, into, on, at, &c. 

(i) 45. 331 en ma maisun prechcr, dormant : 52 herberg£ en tun paleis : 63. 98 en cest pals veng, 
entrez: 66. 321. 608. 642. 1683. 1796. 1818 en enfer gist, lie S., trait, sunt, sujumer, sunt : 90. 959. 
982. 1506. (1752. 18 1 5 mist) en sarcu poser : 112. 599. 108 1 en la prisun de emfer aler, gisent, ense- 
▼eli : 113 sujumer en les i^z : 136 en toi vendra recunscr : 145. 1565 eu temple circumcis, paer lur 
dens: 159 trembla terre en tuz lius : 174 eu feu [alcz!]: 202 bis. en sun lit s*endort ki ert en 
nn soler : 223 en mun lit fu chuchez : 236 en un fust drescd : 250 en tes meins munespcrit cumant : 
301 regneras eu celestien bamagc : 323 le cruciB en sun (= on the top) : 376. 380 e (v. note) mun 
pals m*en vois : 500 en cest cuntr6e prcchc : 576 bis. marcheant en feire, chevaler en estur : 
623 en un curre estant : 653 en plusurs lius ist : 661 eu cors m'almemlst : 665 en prisun getter : 673 
en la chartre Deu urer : 676 vins gisantz en sun ccler : 711 en chartre estuer: 772 trebuch^ en 
Tewe : 789 rctraite en* sun chanel : 843 li quors eu piz batant : 845 eu sabelun gisant : 8d8 sunt eu 
mund (mountain) venu : 871. 1505 eu desert de sei fu cunfundu, gisez: 065 eu regne du ciel est 
carun6 : 988 eu tertre gisant : 1020 en la mesn6e A. est atitl€ : 1023 en la prisun est au mauf6 : 
1025 vunt en lur c\\€: 1030 hcrbcrge en muntainne : 1039 \at en gloire : Iii7bb. eu chemin 
demura, en sujur atendi : 1 172 eu munt fu cresant : i2io en sun paleis tenir : 1255. 1535 en parais 
fist hom, serrez of moi : 1259 en Tair ventele : 1347 remist en un senter : 141a ciormirunt en lit : 
1400 en sueircs les untmis: 14 13 bis. nc mangcrunt n*en tcnte, n*en ostel: 1453 remis en ceste 
▼oie : 1531 es plainnes se espaundi : 1552 en sarcuz acoilli : 1585 en la cit6 fait crier real cumande- 
ment : 1675 mort sufrent el puis dc enfer: 1709 sui en tel prisun : 1 712 part doinst of vus en cele 
regiun: 1758 bis. sunt en gloire, el regnc permenant : 1759 sunt el fu d enfer : 1813 re^ut en sun 
pdJois : 183 1 en nief me mctte : 1836 jo ai veu en Teille. 

(2) 632 ferent en face : 842 ne remeint entier eu cors. 

(3) 178 en ses establiz aprent : 1 193 en tes li>Tes lisant. 

(4) 221 en vostre doctrine demurer : ;32 ti serfs deveng en ta subjecciun : 351 murt en sun ser\'ise: 
370 : 1804 baptizer eu (el) nun de Ta trinity : 371. 1643 cunfermer en Tamur, creance : 1041 sis nuns 
est en estoire : — 580 en noz deus ad grant franchise. 

(5) mettre 1 20 en encumbrer : 491. 1057. 1539 en ubbli : 1368 en ubbliance : 1401 en escrit. 

(6) 1501 en lermes lur joie converti : — 1819 vunt en declin. 

(7) ereire 14 en Apolin : j66 en noz deus : 609. 1 383 en Jcsu : 71 7 en li : 899 eu seint nun : 1557 en 
lui : 123 bis. en autre k*en sun fiz se Ber : 1 104 en lui me fi : 662 en vus met ma esperance : 1370 
espcrance unt en lui : 1710 n' ai espomnce fors en Deu. 

Manner, gencrallv ; also materia], purpose, &c. : — 
(i) 19 en atur festival : 523. 805 en haute voiz : 541 en eel estrange atur : 597 cuntrefait en entaille. 

(2) 1446 en une cumpainnie : 1450 en une cunestablie. 

(3) 1106 teinst en sun sane : 1 201. 1451 tcinte eu sane : 1288 or portent en cofrei : itio. 1839 escrit in 
parchemin, en veeslin. 


(4) 13 14 dit hem en (by way of) repruver : 1402 en lunge remembrance seit esciit. 

(5) III vie demener en labur : 268 en joie sunt dresctf : 671 bis. en garde e endestresce : 782 regner en 
majesty : 869 r. en poest6 : 1046 r. en joie pardurable : — 

1382 sunt en balance : 1396 en despit eii : 1495 en errur endurcL 

(6) 70 recuntde en frances : 1822 translat^e en franceis. 

(7) despendre lOO tun tens en franchise : 200 la nuit en uraistms : — (j3) 232 turmentz en Im. 

(8) 47 en queu manere : 689. 1058 en teu manere. 

(9) In adverbial phrases : — 

610 en vein : 680 en liu de : 719 en droitz (v. note) : 1 138 en un tenant : 1 187 en on acordant :— 

163 de mal en pis : 1161 des dune en avant. 
C, Time or period : — 

316. 778 en avisiun : 466 en vostre jofnesce : 554 en tenegre : 61 9 en sa adantnre : 1092 en la grant 

seccheresce : 1 136 en Tendemein : 1444 ^^ ceste vie : 1703 en mortel passiun : 1 721 en sa saison: 

1 723 en tribulaciun : 1 760 el siecle puis. 
(10) With gerundive, of time or manner : — 

249 en murant : 382. 1 155 en suspirant : 456. 868 en plurant : 753 en reschisnant : 793 en seant 
en II. pers. pron. (a) of (in, by, &c.) him, her, it, them; (b) used pleonastically ; (c) with verbs of 

motion, *away' : — 
a (i) of motive and ground, — (a) anger, sorrow, anger, emotion, — (/3) astonishment, repentance,— 

(y) doubt, envy, pity, — {JSi) rejoicing, — («) thanks, accusation, vengeance : — 
(a) 384 dolenz en serroi : 537 en est csmUe : 985 en sunt ir£ : 1404 en sunt cumcez : 1498 en fnmei 

irez : 1 780 s'en est arag^. 
(j3) 796 en sunt esbai'z : 1066 s'en esmervellent : 1793 en sunt repentant. 
(7) '54* 1 3^1 ^i^ ^v<^r envic: 420 mar nus en dutera : 434 garde s'en dnra: 866. 1342. 1456 en aror 

pit£ : 1080 en aver merci. 
{Z) 918 en sunt joins : 1538 en estoium liez. 
(c) 492 Ten enmercie : 882. 1397 en unt graces rendu : 939. 1789 en averDeu merci6: — 441 s*enpcm€i 

vcngance : 1582 jo en prendtai vengement. 
(a) cause, object, occasion, /3, with comparative : — 

161 2 teinte en a la peitrinc : 428 si cunrei n'en est pris : 1416 en fmnt feste anuel : — 442 en fdt 

chastiez : 444 A. s'en murra : 588 tu t'en murs : 585. 1663 en cnnsirer gueredun : 1035 tant ne en 

serrunt requis : 1552 en devum estre repleni de joie : 1573 il en perdera le def : 1670 en pecchei. 
{p) 568 n'en serras le pejur : i624il en sunt plus aegre. 

(3) teaching, warning, — speaking : — 

9^8 en sunt apris : 1065 en unt garni : 1 132 en fu garniz : 176 li en a respnndu : 443. 933. 1765 en 
dient, * amen ' : 829 jo en ere voir disant : 1788 en oient parler. 

(4) clothing, investiture : — 

475 t'en vde vestu : 133 1 saisiz en serrez. 

(5) sharing :— 

1638 en s6um parcener. 

(6) of time, terminus a quo. 
712 pass^ en fu ja duni an. 

(7) of motion from : — 
1429 li sancs en curt. 

(b) pleonastically ; (i) agent ; — (2) material ; — (3) object ; (a) warning, (/8) mockery, (7) joy, (i) ven- 
geance ; — (4) possession ; — (5) partitive ; — (6) motion from : — 

!^) 34' P^^ ^^^ meimes en es revisits : — 880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe. 
2) 125 del angle G. en fist sun messager. 

(3) C«) 45* c^ estoit de 90 guami : 616 de tut 90 l*en garni. 
(/3) 571 ben s'en puet gabber de toi. 

(v) 1480 de tens en unt grant joie. 

(0) 1512 pemez ent vengance deceu tafur. 

(4) 588 ki en es de la cit£ la flur : 905 des angles en est li chantz oiz. 

}5) 103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil : 1301 del avoir vus en duner : 1554 en id tant des noz sdsi. 
6) 772 en sunt trebuch6 du pund : 1601 la buele en sachent da ventre. 

(c) with pronominal verbs of motion, * away * : — 

27. 63 m'en veng : 15. 424 s'en vent : — 376. 380 m'en vois : 198. 213. 553 s'en va : 503. 1025. illS* 
I3S2- 1592 s'en ^^i^^ '- 527* 1 174 s'en ala : 201 s'en est alez : 754 va t'en : 468 alez vus ent :-&- 
197* 493- loi 4 s'en part: 984 s'en partent : 1053 s'en est pard: 1458 s*en est paitie: 1025 s*ct 
sunt partiz : 347 ne vus en partez : 383 ne vus en partirez : — 554 s'en est binnez : — 1731 s'en isL 

enbeuz v. tr. to cause to drink. 

ppp. mas. sg. 89 (estre) penez e eschamiz e de fel enbeoz. 

enblanchi imder emblsmchi. 



V. tr. to register (a mnnberk. 

infin. 1546 (DOS ks cimtasiiies) e fcimes enbrercr i xiremeiit cetci« 
ion s. f. in c arnation. 

ppp. sg. 505 i sanvacxiin mist nns tnz par sa eocamacxim. 

)v. tr. to pnnne ; exile ; scare awar. 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1389 Tegle oisens endiace e ks bestes li hi. 
» t» »f F* '^^ entnr le pd renchacent cum i cbemin juraal. 
ppp. mas. sg. 735 eschacez scxt ke mais de H ne seit nvvde 6!e. 
lez V. tr. to pot into chains. 

ppp. mas. sg. 670 (mis fa en prison) enchaesnet pur san cors grerer. 
adj. hoary, aged. 

mas. nom. sg. 460 plus est paateners ke n*est hi enchani : 1548 on grant hi enchAni. 
„ „ pi. 1067 (voicnt) li jovre e enchani (le sepolcre A.). 
S y. ret to transform one self by magic. 

ind. pfL 3 sg. 1C06 tant se est par caractes e par sortz enchants, 
ement s. m. incantation ; magic art ; false doctrine. 

sec sg. 195 gnerpis k ton enchantement* : 333 reni Tenchantement Mahun. 
prp. „ 425 plus set de encbantement : 1568 tant saet d*enchantement : 
„ „ 865 par vostre encbantement snmes perda : 885 par encbantement d*A. e W% c\\Mmt\ r itl#. 
„ pi. 1 5 10 par ses encbaontements* ces mans nus basti. 
or 8. m. a magician. 

nom. sg. 571 ben s'en puet gabber de vns cist encbantur. 
itement onder encbantement. 
adj. inclined, given up. 

mas. nom. sg. 54 Jesu Crist recleim e ^ lui sui enclin. 
„ „ pi. 618 enclins avez tuz jurs esti H pecchez e ordure : 1044 sunt k vui riu Uiin v umlrtlilr 
▼. intr. to worship (ace. of pers. before whom), 
ind. pfl. 3 sg. 758 cist mot ne sune, mes les ad ending, 
under enclin. 
V. tr. to crucify. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 337 H clous le afferma, encroa e perdi. 
infin. 1660 Giu oserent encro^r (Jesu). 
rer s. m. anno)'ance ; blight 

ace- sg. MS9 «nt retta H lui cest mortel encumbrer : 1647 nus as oui ftiit trsl m'rrlrt imh mtilitf , 
prp. „ 40 sanz mort e sanz encumbrer : 120 diable mist en encumbrer ; 
„ „ 1048 (k*il nus gard) del encumbrer de diable. 
nom. pi. 704 neissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 
ant V. tr. to encounter. 

gmd. 1741 les \int encuntrant 
e adv. * obviam/ venir al — , to go to meet. 

266 vindrent al encuntre lez e esjoi. 
t V. tr. to incriminate. 

ppp. mas. sg. 157 (fu) i tort encnpez. 
nes v. tr. to incur. 

ind. pret. 1 pi. 1 140 damage encnnimes one i mil jar tam. 
V. tr. to denounce. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1131 encusez fustes andai i an cruel tiraot. 
V. tr. to sew up. 


ind. pft 3 pL 1400 en sneircs ks ant e ■» e 
rin adv. en 1 — , al — , on the morrow. 

494 al endemein par tens : 1 136 en readcmds. 
rintf \ V. tr. to instmct. 

inczj ppp. mas. sg. 4D7 fde) pfauon poinz par oat d<>« hfjm «tw ««m/, ^ A i» »^«, *-^i,^ 1. . 
„ „ " Wden5^na»iide«:«fa«^>r:i«i^: ,%r^ 

„ „ (f 5*1 P« kmame wmm h wmit ^frm « cwlr^friM ^^ X^^ **♦** ^#..^,. .m»,# 

li ) ▼. ref. to uu askcp. 

I ind. pies. 3 sg. 202 en no fit t'cvflavt. 
pp. mas. sg. 223 en mna hi H Orndkex e fer» fs 4*V>rag» 
„ „ dL ios6 pa«m le repowK cwkn « ««f<^>i 
piep. — dc, with rcfemce Hx. 
1084 chescoB eadroit de toL 
i ▼. tr. to harden ; to ooagabse, 

ppp. maa. ig. 1113 B MMi A. i fM, ain « 






enfanterez : 


(endurci) ppp. mas .pi. 1495 tant furent en emir entrez e endurci. 
endurer v. tr. to endure. 

infin. 1630 Jesu mercier k'il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 
enemi ) s. m. enemy, 

enemis / nom. sg. 458 k Deu est enemi : 742 est commun enemi. 

ace. „ 627 A. lur enemi Id venir ferunt : 14 1 5 (averunt) men6 lur enemi mortel. 

voc. „ 754 va t-'cn, his ! enemi nus deus de la cit6 ! 

nom. pi. 154 envie en urent adverser enemis : 1381 li enemi Jesu en unt e envie e pesance : 

„ „ iioi k humein lignage sunt traitres enemi : 1657 tuit sunt ti enemi. 
gen. „ 807 des maus ses enemis dolcntz est e meu. 
prp. „ 925 pur tes enemis Deu prias : 1171 Palames vengant de ses enemis lai cnntredisant : 

,, „ 1 2 1 3 pur moi de mes enemis garantir. 
s. f. period of childl)ood. 

prp. sg. 1380 unc plus beus ne estoient jur puis lur enfance. 
s. m. child. 

ace. sg. 1 191 pur Id avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant. 

nom. pi. 792 k seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant : 1765 si en dient ' amen * veil e en£uit! 
under enfanter. 
s. m. childbirth. 

prp. sg. 1253 apres Tenfantement remist mere e pucele. 
V. tr. to bring forth. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1252 enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele. 
„ fut. 2 pi. 1 30 eel ui enfanterez ki vent le mund sauver. 
innn. 139 ki (par droit apent) lui enfanter. 
s. m. hell, 
prp. sg. 38 de enfer nus rescure (deingna) : 166 d'enfer resent ses prisnns cheitifs : — 

112. 599. 108 1 en la prisun (de emfer aler) (d'enfer gisent) (d'enfer sunt ensereli). 
1675 mort sufrent el puis de enfer : 1759 (sunt) el tu d*enfer : — 
66 en enfer gist puant : 321 ferm lie Sathan en enfer : 
642 en enfer sunt parfund ! 1683 lur apent en enfer sujumer : 
1796 sunt en enfer : 18 18 sunt dampnl diable en enfer susterin : — 
608 rcni (Mahon) k*en [= into] enfer trait ki lui sert. 
) adj. infernal, 
j mas. nom. sg. 189 enfemal turment (atent). 

„ prp. „ I redut^e de diable enfemal : 287 (rescust) d'enfemal servage. 
fem. „ „ 319 delivrS d'enfemal regiun : 1449 delivrer* nus d'enfemal baillie : 

,, „ „ 1799 (nus reinst) d'enfemal poestd. 
mas. ace. pi. 1473 enfemaus diables reclamez pur deus. 
v. tr. to inflame, 
ppp. mas. sg. 1565 tut est enflambez de ire e mautalent. 
enfreidissant v. mtr. to grow cold (in death). 

pres. ptcp. fem. 846 charoinne le tenent (enfreidissant) sanz alme. 
V. tr. to break (a commandment). 

infin. 1216 il ne les vout unc enfreindre ne guerpir (scil. mes cumaoz), 
V. tr. to dash in pieces. 

infin. 1263 acurer frai u enfrundrer de teste u de cervele. 
tr. to deceive. 












engane • 






Jv. tr. to deceive, 
infln. 1295 enganer (simple gent parbarat) : 1651 deceivre e par dizenganer (simple gei 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 423 (un pelerin) ki tut engan6 Pa. 
ppp. mas. sg. 92 trop i es enganez, trop i es deceu. 
V. intr. to grow yellow (jaundiced with disease), 
infin. 705 fevres ki fimt la gent engaunir e trembler. 
V. tr. to throw away ; to deliver, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 804 engette sun brant. 
„ pret. „ „ 310 Deus les engetta de servage e prisun : 11 60 loing engetta sun brant, 
imper. 2 pi. 569 engettez ces drapeus. 

innn. 1 19 (il plut a lui) par sa grace nus d'iluec engetter. 
s. m. skill. 

prp. sg. 597 par engin est cuntrefait en entaille u peintore. 
V. tr. to deceive. 

infln. 1 659 desdi ke tu dit as pur la gent enginner. 
s. m. deceiver, 
nom. sg. 1568 cist faus enginneur tant saet d'enchantement* 

prp. pL 596 ^ SBS 'TiyHnma Tftinn^ iz ss :«?s c 

n. pr. Ea^bad. 

ace 929 ki pm B ui laczu F.Tj*»fflprg lar sanrs. 

adj. hradttroag, 

mas. Dom. s^ 722 JL 1 fnyet t. itxt^ 

T. rc£. to ham dovz. 

ind. pro. 3 sf. 145S A^ ?aef sx &£. vss m: s' 


It \r. 

prpu sg. 1 135 d'lhiec rzs :;mugit . 'hsl 6stbic Tsmmsxxc 
<mfin. ST) s. m. dsvz. 

prpu sg. 212 k wtiTT «st jr««r par isa» iZ emnmar : -»r5 x'a ^Jbat at rr*^- «• ^— ' •'•' 

tt ^ i^rr ^ c^ CES3C Tni-'if ic, xmc saxx gqnmfr- 

T. intr. to ^ sick. _ 

pp. mas. sg. 1114 xS saE3C2iaakex las mrmt ^mrciriarft 

V. tr. to thaak. 

ind. pres. 3 &g. 282 Dex ^jwirt f^iiirru g rmi jsrrs c sa^r : ^^c ss Tt 
„ „ „ 1459 mc're uuieiLJL . 

(pp. =1 a<^ svan%. 

mas. ace sg. 1 103 70 rem F^rnr TaanszL 
\ T. intr. to grov duk. be t lrvx 3C: dickaicR. 
2 j ind. prct. 3 sg. 252 «cfia£ eaoCMCxri : x>4 jbajc £ jsrs Vr-'-^Ty e 
«t vt v« v« 1055 par la sbc k: ^wraz r 27§ «si:oicaat. 

pp. mas. »g. 9x4 1x la§ r'k^f .Tt tic ess eskDOscxsxz. 

(pp. s» ad|. orpkaaed. 

mas. nam. pL 1504 franns SBioes e fxls e tzx m'r'rnT 

▼. intr. to grcyv paV. 

ind. pres. 3 &g. 652 c^ar cz3e e la pej rrpaBtf ^r. aoce^ 
„ pret. „ ^ 1115 ka parareBCxre de ie&fesce capoE. 

adj. weD- conB c tt ed. 

mas. nam. sg. 740 kar A. ert gm i Ej e Ikb r=parctt£. 

r. tr. to vomd. 

ind. pres. 3 pL 632 ftarsi e ccpezsaeo: ea face e aes e frsai. 

sab), mnpft. 3 sg. 651 a'a C3st ki ne dbau n cspesnsc n boiKi. 

ad). wmgnL 

mas. nam. sg. 990 Icggcr cmi cbd fi.;ctjrrf 

▼. tr. to carry ofil 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 572 dst rmhtnim ki u robe csporte. 

under cmpcranm. 
z to nnpriMO. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1 13S ccfnsunez fn pais sis nkob en va teaaat. 

T. tr. to iaamre, discorer br iaqmrr. 

ppp. (3 innn. pass.^ 82 ne par tines raisaas eaqais ne sea (paireii 

adj. enriched, veahbr. 

BUS. Toc. sg. 240 hai ! rois de Gxneas, poisant e enrichi ! 
nt£e T. tr. to cover with blood. 

md. pres. 3 sg. 142^ <1i chemxns) Talasse e Tenscnglante (la pel des plaatesV. 

ppp. mas. sg. 952 (porras trarer) sar Terbe le cors cascaglaat£. 
„ fern. ,, 554 dn sacher e bater li est ensanglaentce (la robe). 

adj. savage. 

mas. nom. pL 470 raisoa pins n*arrcient ke dgre ensaoragi : 1507 oisd te dctwcnt e la easaavagi 
ent I «. m. teairhing ; aothonty. 
>cnt I ace. sg. 1214 m'ensegnement ((At deingnat). 

prp. ,, 180 crcstiens dereingne par vostre enscignemcnt : 
ft ff 1316 (nus ievTer*» dc son enscignemcnt : — 
»f ff 1556 mat est cist Jesos de grant en^eignemeaL 

!v, tr. to teach, 
ind. fat. a pi. 387 de la lei k'ai enpris pins m'ensetnnerez. 

infin. 218 si ta me scz enseinner (ke signified 
adT. also, eoaally. 

186 (craire/ le pere e le fiz. scint esperit ensement. 
tc, enscnglant^ ondcr cnsanglacnt6e. 


cnsevcQi] "i v. intr. to bury. 

/ subj. pres. 3 sg. 724 droiz est ke en terre vif hom rensevelic. 



ppp. mas. sg. 261 de la croiz fu ostez e puis cnsevefli]. 
„ ,f pi. I o3 1 en la prisun d'enfer sunt enseveii : 1506 n*estes en sarcuz posez ne ensereli 
ent I. (468) under en i. 
ent II. (1512) under en 11. 
entaille s. f. intaglio, carved work. 

nom. sg. 324 ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la fa9un. 
pip* 1* 597 (ui^ d^u) cuntrefait en entaille u peinture. 
entam6 v. tr. to touch, damage. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1388 il n'unt nis un des cheveuz entam^ ne perdu, 
enten, entenc, entendant under entendre, 
entendement s. m. understanding. 

ace. sg. 192 CO ne recoit ne sen ne entendement. 

V. tr. to hear; perceive, understand ; conceive ; engage the attention of (v. note on 1594). 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 104. 175 A. I'escute e de quor i entent : a8o quant entent sun ^uor e sun cunge 
„ „ „ 322 A. de quor I'entent : 1 559 cum meint quide e entent : 1570 ki it ces mais cnten 
M tf 1594 ^ sermun entent (cresticns nuveus entur lui). 
I „ 269 lur chant rentinc e entendi; 
3 „ 445 entendi (la parole) : 15 1 7 entendi (lur gref pleinte) : 1533 chescun ben renten 

1 pi. 1 177 plusurs entendimes. 

2 sg. 417 enten 9a : 456 entenc ki jo vus di : 
556 entenc cum sa doctrine (folage est e errur) : 1669 entenc (vers moi) ! 

pi. 728 entendez ke raisuns cumande : 
„ 1077 entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 
infin. 294 tun sunge puez entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
periph. pres. ptcp. 567 ^ eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereur. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 71 ad sim oste entendu. 
i» ( i» »» npl.) 620 il Punt entendu : 1500 dstTund entendu. 
ppp. (infin. pass.) 81 ne pxureit estre entendu. 

mas. sg. 107 1 tens estoit lur chantz entenduz e oi'z. 
under enters. 
V. tr. to inter, bury. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1755 les cors ad enterrd suz bleste verdoiant. 
ppp. mas. sg. 958 (fai) ke il seit enterrd. 
adj. sincere, 
mas. ace. sg. 1844 ^ J^^^ ™c abaundun, serf loial, enterrin. 





















) I adj. whole, {a) in body, unharmed; (b) in mind, self-contained : 2 adv. wholly. 

/ mas. nom. sg. 842 ne remeinst sein ne entier eu cors : 1305 un plus ferms e plus enter (respunt). 

,, „ pT. 795 (levent) legers, enters e seins : 1373 beus devenent e enters. 

„ ace. „ 1543 (Jesus les restora) enters, seins e gari. 


entre i. 

adv. 1346 (ne failli ke un sul) ke n'i eust mil enter, 
entrail s. m. entrails. 

nom. sg. 1609 tut est escul6 I'entrail corporal. 

adv. obliquely (v. note). 

236 en un fust drescd autre entravers parmi. 

prep, among. 

147 entre nus mis : 208 entre morteus (vivre) : 854 entre espines va : 883 entre eiis (est levez cm' 

919 dient entre eus : 1018 entre les* seintz martirs (v. note : 1469 repos n'i avmt entre ens), 
entre 11. (15) under entrent. 
entrecunbatent v. ref. to fight with each other. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1 734 s*entrecimbatent li paien mescreant. 
entrejurcz v. intr. to take a mutual oath. 

pp. mas. pi. 1 1 09 entrejurez simt e lur foi unt plevi. 




)v. intr. to enter, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 15 
II II II pl- 5'' 


5 entre ^ un maistre portal. 
8 cist entrent. 
pp. (ind. pft. I sg.) 98 sui en cest pais entrez e arestuz. 
(11 II 3 II ) 72 [ki est en] sun ostel entrez e recetlz. 
(1. II 3 Ph 39» i^ il sunt ja entrez : 1495 furent en errur entrez e endurci. 
mas. (ace.) sg. 1707 veit entr€ A. sun cumpainnun. 
s. f. enthusiasm, 
ace. sg. J 724 (ot) une voiz ki reahaite mut sa entimciun. 

















crtf crcnt 


prep, around. 

1075. ' 706 entur li : 1 595 entur lui : 1606 entur le pel Tenchacent. 
V. tr. to contaminate, pollute, 
ppp. mas. pi. 998 li crestien en sunt apris e entusc£. 
i; fern. sg. 1 2 si (la cit€) ne fust entusche^ de la lei criminal. 
V. tr. to overshadow. 

infin. 137 (seintz esperitz) toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 
V. tr. to attack, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 11 16 morteu maladie le quor lui envai. 

infin. 1419 (pueple, sumuns k cenbel) d'envair ost. 
V. tr. to send. 

1722 ces i enveit Deus k sun loial champiun. 

313 sun fiz lur envea e livra i bandun. 

1 7 14 (requerez Deu k*il) m'enveit de angeres consolaciun. 

517 ke sa vertu li seit tramise e envde. 

3 sg. 

» tt 

ind. pres. 
„ pret. 
subj. pres. „ „ 
ppp. fem. sg. 
aaj. aged. 

ert, es I. 
es II. 

es III. 






mas. prp. sg. 464 de moi ki cheut, peccheur enveilli ? 
„ nom. {M. 1513 pleurent e weimentent li joure e enveilli. 

under envea. 

V. tr. to poison. 

ppp. mas. pi. 993 suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envenimd. 

y. mtr. to draw towards evening. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1054 ^ sohulz ja decline e li jurs envespri. 

s. f. envy. 

ace. sg. 154 envie en urent (adverser enemis] : 1381 li enemi J. en unt e envie e pesance. 

prp. „ 722 dist A. par* orgoil e envie : 994 dient par envie li las. 

aov. around. 

1697 ki estoient envirun. 

adj. envious. 

mas. nom. sg. 1449 quei k* emnus die. 

adj. unwilling. 

mas. nom. sg. 763 enviz va bon gr6. 
i» »» pi. 917 le poer Jesu prisent volentris e enviz. 

V. tr. to wrap up. 

ppp. mas. (ace.) sg. 981 imt au cors mis (le chief), de dras envolup^. 

unaer herbe. 

under estre. 
\ s. m. ermine. 
j prp. ^77 pelei^un d*ermine enblanchi : 1829 pur esdavine eschaung mun peli^un d'ermin. 

aav. miinediately. 

1175 li oil li sunt chaet du chef errant 

s. m. error. 

nom. sg. 556 sa doctrine folate est e errur. 

ace. „ 1567 cum losengerski sun emir defent. 

prp. „ 1495 tant furent en errur entrez e endurci. 

ace. pL 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanity. 

prp. „ 326 de ses errurs fait veraie cunfessiun. 

under estre. 

(s en les 1482. 1531) under en. 

mteij. Behold ! Look you ! 

823. 115 7 es-lc-vus. 

408. 875. 972. 1458. 1 7 19 es-vus. 

s. m. example. 

nom. sg. 551 deussez estre as autres essample e mireiir. 

prp. „ 1 226 par esample de vus. 

!v. tr. to frighten, 
ppp. mas. sg. 455 ^ sun maistre est venuz tut esbai. 
tt ft pi- 796 mut en sunt esbaiz .'916 efir^ez sunt e esbaiz : 1066 mut sunt esbai. 
fcm. sg. 133 cele ert esbaie. 
\ V. tr. to delight, 
j ppp. mas. se. 906 A. est ja seur, joins e esbaudiz. 

„ pL 268 en joie sunt dresc^ e esbaudi : 1491 sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi. 
*t tt 1097 e du eel li angcre joins e esbaudi. 

























escrit i. 


escnt II. 












V. tr. to disembowel. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1372 (les cors Id estoient) decolez, esbuelez de esp^e u de lance, 
innn. 1340 d'autre (part, veissez) esbueler. 

V. tr. to envelope. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 265 gloire e clart^ les esceint e flurL 

V. tr. to escape. 

infin. 1656 (morz es), ne purrez eschaper. 

V. tr. to mock, to scorn. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 233 repniva, laidit e eschami 

app. (ind. pft. ,, „ ) 945 par felunie Pat eschami e gabb^. 

ppp. mas. sg. 89 penez e eschamiz (fu) : 920 mortz est e eschamiz. 

s. m. mockery. 

ace. pi. 961 de (oir) eschars ne gas n*ai soing ne volunt^. 

V. tr. to exchange. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1829 pur esclavine eschaung mun peli9un d'ermin. 

V. tr. to reject. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 230 (un pople) vint, ki sa doctrine despit e eschivi. 
\ V. tr. to perceive ; to choose; (ppp. =) adj. choice. 
J app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 346 eschoisi vus a, e vus lui de bon gr6, 
„ ( „ II ' pl«) 1522 les eiimes tmvez e eschoisi. 
if ( n „ 3if) 1069 ben unt paens les angles veu e eschoisi. 
iniin. 1229 citoiens ^ keus plest eschoisir. 

ppp. mas. pi. 904 (curune) de jaspes, esmeraudes e safirs eschoisiz. 

s. m. knowledge ; men escient, ace. to my knowledge, * quod sciam,* methinks. 

1560 ne feist, men escient, (teu mescinement). 

V. tr. to light up ; to beautify, (= beatify). 

ppp. mas. sg. 225 (li eels se desclot) beus e delitables e purs e esclarci. 
„ „ 1068 (voient) le sepulcre A. ke tut fu esclarci. 
fem. ,, 1445 (fere deingna Deus vertuz) pur I'alme esclarcie. 

s. f. coarse pilgrim's dress. 

ace. sg. 470 jo ta esclavine, plus I'eim ke peleicun d'ermine. 

prp. „ 519 de (= propter) I'esclavine (k* A. ad afubl6e) : 1829 pur esclavine eschaung mun pdi^ 

s. f. schoolroom. 

ace. sg. 393 (d'une maisun 3Utive) unt fait lur escole. 

s. m. scholar. 

nom. sg. 219 tu serras mi maistres e jo tis escoler : 1335 kant il ert escoler. 

v. intr. (and ref.) to shout ; to shout at, drive away by shouting. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 826 uns paens haut s'escrie : 884 s'escrie un paens : 1436 i haute voiz s*escrie. 
„ „ „ pi. 864 maudient A., e escrient cum lu : 1425 escrient e I'ahiient plus viument k'un cba 

ppp. mas. sg. 555 (s'en est binnez) cum luz u cum gupilz escriez de pastur. 

V. tr. to write. 

app. (ind. pft. i sg.) 1820 (la geste ai) escrit en parchemin. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1402 k'en lunge remembrance seit escrit e leu. 

„ „ „ 1839 musterai i mun livre, escrit en veeslin. 

s. m. writing. 

prp. sg. 1 04 1 (sisnims est en) escrit remembrable : 1 401 en escrit unt mis le numbre. 

ace. pi. 397 lors li ad desclos escriz d'antiquitez. 

s. m. shield, protection. 

nom. (pred.) sg. 57 escu m'est plus ke chastel perin : 94 n'um mortal escu ne te serroit : 
„ „ „ 1764 soiez cuntre diable lur escu e guarant. 

prp. pi. 851 (vestu sunt) dfe buclers escuz. 

V. mtr. to flow, ooze out. 

pres. ptcp. II 86 en sun sane, (esculant) de sun cors. 

pp. mas. sg. 1609 (batent) ke tut est esculd Tentrail corporal. 

s. f. scourge. 

prp. pi. 234 (bati) de escurgies (gesk*au sane espandre). 

V. tr. to hear. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 104. 175 A. ben I'escute e de quor i entent. 

under escu. 

V. tr. to behold. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 409 ^ une fenestre par unt les esgarda. 

app. ( M pft« It $t ) 1788 al oil ( = with their eye) Timt esgarda. 

adj. bdated. 




mas. Dom. sr, 1087 qmst, cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri 

T. tr. to hei^ten, magnify. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1440 ne laist cist ke ses criz ne eshauce e multiplic. 

ppp. mas. sg. 992 par unt le los Jesu ders est e eshauc6. 

▼. mtr. to be gbid ; (pp. » ) adj. joyous. 

infin. 962 ne deiissez esjoTr. 
(pp.) mas. nom. sg. 912 n*est mie de sun fait lunges esjoltz. 
„ prp. „ 471 prendrai de bon quor esjof. 

nom. pL 266 vindrent Icz e esjoT : 1063 chantant e csjtil : 
f> *» 153S nus en estoium e liez e esjol. 
fem. ace. sg. 35 lanuvele esjoie precher e nuncicr. 
s. m. the elect. 

prp. pi. 909. 1019 Tacoflt Deus (of ses desmeine eslitz) (of* sen cfilit/}. 
1 ) V. tr. to divorce, detach. 

] ind. fut. 3 sg. 431 une brebiz malade d*autres esloinnera. 
ppp. mas. pi. 409 ke ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulli 
V. tr. to luxate, dislocate. 

ppp. mas. pL 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers, desjointz e cn\ui%%i. 
V. tr. to enlighten. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 340 seint esperitz ad tun quor e^lum^. 
▼. tr. to enlighten. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 184 si Den tant ton quor eslumine e e^prcnt, 
V. tr. to choose. 

ppp. mas. pL 169 (apostles) Id estoient eslnz par numf^re dmit (aU «i«, 
r V. tr. to maim (▼. note). 

infin. 1344 (li frere) le vent esmanker. 
le \ s. m. emerald 
ies I nom. sg. 1206 croiz plus desirable k'esmeraode o tafir. 

prp. pT. 904 (curune) dejaspes, eiimerande^ e vafir* ev.hM^i/. 

}T. tr. to refine ^metals), 
ppp. mas. sg. 077 plus clers ke n*est ar^entz t%m^*:7, *: dtrutu 
prp. „ 903 curune d*or ameri tvimtz, 
\ \ V. ref. to wonder. 

Uer r ind. pres. i sg. 77 trop me ennerreil de c/> kit m^ '^i* ^i 

lent I „ „ 3 pL 549 de tus s*e4mer»«^IUnt li ariat t U tt,^»ttf i//A ttftt * ».u « «»•« Jv li< nl 
Her / innn. 4a cumence e^mervotiler dft r^r, . ty^^ rtN**tt/*. k fi*ttt*-tf-ilUf 

:z T. ref. to moderate one's self, 
imper. 2 pL 1518 e^me^urez ros ! 
V. tr. to agitate ; intr. to set oat, itirt • fr'vm a ^7^> . 
ppp. mas. sg. 521 plus est che«:?n.4 eirc«*-i/ . ^V^ '^ *v y* /^'«w A ^ %***■* f 
„ „ pL 364 oe \r^/tz tsa^erii ya irt>t v;->*rii.*4, 
(PP-) ». ft '45^ niil f33i*« -i J v« 'inrrjer^ ♦?, \t^ ' yf^^^A.^AtA 
ppp. fem. sg. 537 la citi «a «« Mot v-«t ^tmwt *. v. v-A* 
s adj. refined. 

nuft. nom. sg. 901 Ti csp-sncz^ yin e *:«•.»«.•.**►■» '.:v.v. '/.ufsU ;/'/..•/ 
▼. tr. to softca. 

infin. 205 (doinse^ Is tuxnrXLJx ^ -.yw^r y%f «-> ^11 v. 
smuz under esmeuz. 

}adj. cMer. 
maj. nam. sjj yf, Caia, n *r*r» •^.^.^^ ''-j- t 

„ pT. 7 j> I: itLliTi t •.-..lit u* , k.-.: >'fj v/-*^ 
V. tr. to asar«nr. 

s. an. sfjftce of '..zlt. 

3kC«: tj- i*>7 LuiE *.-iT^ I ..x: ;n»-f •-■-,'.j-.» v.-v.*', 

^. tr. t<# ffie^ '-tar?. '.n>-/: ; *::i ••*' .. •,•'•.'': • *\' ' J » ,»^a^^^ *,^m* **•/ 
r i!>i. prw- 3 *^- :': ^'r-ru- § i •-•v.."-i '-'..■ - . *. • .^».%.; -• *;/ ■• •-*'■' -^ ' 1..,, ...< 

„ „ _ _ f • : •■.•,-•^1. t"*.v «• x" ■''■•»■•' • v* .« • » ■ ^ . t '-//<• ;^w //«.* »*A »•«- t..j^,«. 

,. .... - r*^^, •.>'■ »--,»i.;if -. I . • «• , .<r .-•'*■ -« '•§.'* 

^ P'^ — - 2^; V "a l#» lUiit-r* #/.. •*- • -, ,.m'. 

„ « . . ;;^ I -..::«■ -ui; Ml '.*.#■-- *. ,•*. ....'. .j« • -y 





i V. ref. to bloom, open (as lily) ; pp. = full-blown. 


















ind. pres. 3 sg. 1721 (plus blancs ke) quant sc espanist lis en sasaison. 

pp. mas. sg. 1070 (plus beus) ke n'est lis espani. 

imder espan(&e. 

V. tr. to spare. 

ppp. mas. sg. 451 pur lignage ne serra espami : 1528 pesa al darreinner k*il tant fu esparni. 

V. tr. to spare. 

app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 922 ta char ne espamias. 

inHn. 108 (Deus) nes vout espamier : 1280. 1653 sanz (nul) espamier. 
espaundi, espaunt under espandre. 
especieus adj. especial; = s. particular (friend), 
mas. nom. sg. 9 ert amis Jesu espiciaL 

,, „ pi. 1479 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus. 
"i s. f. sword. 

/ ace. sg. 504 (portantz) hache u esp6e : 888 sache Pesp^e. 
prp. ,, 1372 esbuelez de esp6e u de lance : 1443 (decol6) k la esp6e furbie. 
ace. pi. 1 326 sachent les espies, 
s. f. nope, 
ace. sg. 662 en vus met ma esperance e m*amur : 1370 en lui imt amur c esperance : 

„ ,, 1710 jo n'ai esperance fors en Deu e vus nun. 
s.m. spirit; (Holy) Ghost, 
nom. sg. 136 Seintz Esperitz en toi vendra recunser : 168 fu as apostles li Seinz Esperitz tramis : 

>» i» 340 Seint Esperitz ad tun quor eslume : 

„ „ 900 est portez eu ciel li esperitz : 1016 li esperitz santz fin regne ea eel estdU^ : 
ace. „ 186 (craire) le Pere e le Fiz, Seint Esperit ensement : 
250 en tes meins mun esperit (jo cumantj : 
893 le Seint Esperit reclaime e le Pere e le Fiz. 
adj. spiritual. 

mas. ace. sg. 1047 proiez pur nus pecchurs le roi esperitable. 
adj. spiritusd, heavenly, 
mas. prp. sg. 161 3 pense du rei esperital. 

„ nom. pT. 1480 de tens en unt grant joie liangre espiritcus. 
under esperit. 
s. m. spur. 

ace. sg. 1008 tut ne li vaudra un esperun roilld : 1 150 il ne prisa tut un esperun vaillant. 
s. m. sparrow-hawk. 

ace. sg. 50 ceu Jesu h^ent cum aloue esperver. 
V. tr. to spy. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 410 de eus ne fu veil ke les espia. 
under especieus. 
s. f. thorn, 
prp. pi. 161 7 i curune de espines : — 

M fj 238 de espines curuna : 854 entre espines Id va e les caillbz menu, 
adj. spiritual (v. note). 

fem. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) espirable e seinte e nette e pore, 
under esperital. 
V. intr. to be successful, effective. 

pres. 3 sg. 648 ne ren n'i espleite hom par peine k*em i mist. 

infin. 664 ne poent par tant esploiter : 1 289 ne poent par el espleiter. 
adv. perhaps. 

13 1 o 90 purrez vus, espoir, devant vespre espruver. 
(pp. =) adj. frightenea. 
mas. nom. pi. 486 ne soiez ja espouri ! 


)v. ii 





iv. tr. to light up, inflame, 
il " 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 184 si Deu tant tun quor eslumine e esprent : 1597 grant ire les esprent. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1243 li princes, espris de ire, art e restencele. 

V. tr. to have proof of, experience. 

infin 134 kar ne vout espruver (cumpainnie de barun) : 13 10 (90 purrez vus) espruver. 

V. tr. to expurgate, wipe away. 

infin. 675 sa penance i meine pur ses maus espurger : 1324 (recever batesme) pur voz maus espur^ 

„ 1692 par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger. 
under esample. 
under estre. 


under ester. 

s. f. steadfastness. 

ace. sg. 660 force e estabilit^ me doinst-il ! 

adj. luting, steadfast. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 147 raed fa e estable cum fcr u aimant. 

fem. prp. „ 1039 vit en gloire remenant e estable. 

▼. tr. to establish, assign ; ppp. = determinate. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 490 ki sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 
(app.) ( „ pft. „ „ ) 472 (prcndrai) quancke Deus m'a purveii e establi. 
ppp. mas. (prp.) sg. 1545 mis les cmitasmes tuz k cert cunte establi. 
s. m. rule, ordinance. 

prp. pi. 178 (ne sai) ke Jesus en ses establiz aprent. 
8. m. story, room. 

prp. pL 1 7 i solers e estages e celers grantz aval. 
s. m. stoppage,— prendre estal, to stand still (^to take breath), 
ace. sg. 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal. 
under ester, 
under estre. 
adj. starry. 

mas. prp. sg. 1802 cist est sires de terre e du eel estoill^. 
,, „ „ 1016 regne eu eel esteill6. 
▼. intr. to become extinguished, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1678 feu ki pas ne esteint. 
\ V. tr. to stretch out ; (intr.) to extend. 
j ind. pres. 3 sg. 1585 partut ii sun poer estent 

pp. (ind. pfi. 3 sg.) 1 691 les braz ad estenduz tuz tens pur embracer. 
V. intr. to stand ; to stand fixed (of a judgment), 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1320 90 est nostre sentence k'esta sanz ja fauser. 

infin. 1657 vciz ci ester : 1705 al destre sun pere veit ester Jesun. 
pres. ptcp. 623 (image) en un curre estant. 
z, estoie, estoient under estre. 
under esteill6. 
s. f. story, history. 

nom. sg. 1822 la estoire ert translat6e. 

ace. „ 1202 de li I'estoire unt cunt£ : 1845 la estoire de A. ci finis e tcrmin. 
prp. „ 1812 de ceste estoire vi le cirnien^all e fin. 
„ ,y 104 1 sis nuns est en estoire e escnt remembrable. 
>ium under estie. 

adj. foreign ; strange. 

mas. nom. sg. 27 trcspassant sui estrange : 552 nn estrange tafurfra prechant). 
„ prp. „ d26 d'un deu tel estrange par ci sermunant va. 
„ „ „ 03 (en cest pals) estrange : 541 en eel estrange atnr. 
(adj. =) s. m. stranger. 

i^cc. sg. 1541 n*i pciist hem cunustre priv6 ne estrangi. 
▼. intr. to be, to exist ; auxil. 

A, with past ptcpp., — (a) intransitive, (/3) reflective, (y) passive ; B, with adjectives, (/J) periph. 
pres. ptcpp. ; C, with general predicate, or denoting sim])ie existence. 
pre«. I sg. sui A (a) 98 i—<p) 1442. 1826. 

B 54. 834. 964. 
C 27. 1441. 1709. 
es A (a) 243 es j)cri : 1656 morz es : — (y) 92 bis. 241. 242. 342. 343 (v. note). 

B 550:— (/5) 1 130. 
C 32. 466. 545. 588. 1 193. 1652. 
€st A (a) 74. 201. 212. 39»-455-495- 554- 876. 878. 883.888. 896.912.914.920. 968. 069. 
1014. 1029. 1053. 1 128. \iiyb. 1242. 1385. 1386. 1398. 143a 1458. i486. 1566:— 
(/3) 768. 775- «o38. iiOi. 1780:— (v) i. 73. 86. 167. 251. 367. 405. 407. 419. 428. 
508. 515. 521 tcr. 530. 534. 537. 53»- 574 577- S^Q- 597- 605. 633. 734. 741. 745. 
75i- 7SS- 774- 78i. 87c. 886. 892. 897. 90a 903.905. 915.937. 94''*95»- 953- 9<»i- 
1006. 1020. 1052. 1098. 1199. 1304. 1565. 1609. 1702. 
B 108. 271. 348. 349. 363. 448. 573. 593. 601 bis. 661. 724. 732. 807. 830. 867. 877. 
906. 919. »>92. 1005. 1029. 1049. 1050. 1051. 107a 1090. 1356. 1357. 1176. 1431. 
1454. 1459. 1470 bis. 1477. 1563 1574. 1619. 1620. 1627. I686:-H(i9) 816. 1170. 
1 1 78. 1194. 





ind. pres. 







(3 sg. est) C 34. 57. 81. 84. 206. 210. 278. 295. 355. 420. 4?8. 459. 460. bis. 487. 524.556. 

561.578.596. 598. 717. 742 bis. 744. 784. 806.807.833. 853.869.874.93a 

965. 1002. 1023. 1041. 1042. 1073. 1183. 1200. 1254 bis. 1258. 1309. 1320. i3}4. 

1338. 1342. 1361. 1383?. 1422. 1447. 1449. ^4^2. 1518. 1556. 1579. 1676. 16;;. 

1693. 1 7 13. 1776. 1802. 
I pi. sumes A (a) 865 :— (7)457. 461. 

B 1085. 1089. 1188. 1 195. 1504. 

c 932. 

A (y) 1045. 1506. 

B 550- 577- i»68. 1472. 1476. 1650. 

A (a) 392. 479. 539. 773. 796. 848. 913. 914. 984. 1025. 1066. 1079. 1 154. ii;5. 

1392. 1485. 1667. 1794. 1808: — (fi) 1033. 1272. 1481. 1483. 1596. 1655. (7)268. 

341. 394. 404. 713. 738. 747. 772. 780. 845. 850. 880. 916. 954. 975- 993- 998- 

]o8i. 1 109. 1374. 1491. 1516. 1520. 1521. 1536. 1777. 8. 9. 
B 354- 855. 918. 985. 1044. 1114. 1333. 1405. 1430. 1624. 179s :--<)3) 567. 143a 

1762. 1783. 
C 307. 566. 599. 643. 786. iioi. 1299. 1350. 1382. 1418. 1464. 1479. 1655.1661. 

1758. 1796. 
impft. I. I sg. estoie C 1811. 1816. 

3 „ estoit A (a) 263 :— (y) 262. 400. 452. 453. 1151. 
B 222. 769. 1059. 1071. 1564:— (J3) 1142. 
C 288. 727. 1703. 
iipl.estoium'R 1538:— (/3) 1177. 
3 „ estoient h. (7) 169. 
B 1380. 

C 23. 1371. 1697. 1760. 
A (a) 288. 942 :— (7) 2. 133. 894. 
B 740. 760. 788. 860. 1060. 
C 9. 202. 224. 321. 1335. 
B i72o:_(/3) 1750. 1753. 
A (a) 223 :— (7) 223. 
A (a) 351. 396. 712. 976;— (7) 5. 145. 155. 168. 222. 261. 398. 401. 539. 67a 7 

II. 3 sg. ert 

ind. pret. 

3 pi. erent 
3 »»/« 



759. 760. 771. 849. 944. 1068. 1 132. 1 136. 1138. 1144. 1173. ^19^ 1443* '4 

1528. 1591. 1838. 
B 24. 764. 772*. 975. 1147. 1466. 1591. 1742. 1751. 1766:— </8) 228. 832. It 

1 143. 1153. 1172. 1754. 
C 13.80. 152.272. 304. 621.674.699. 869.890. 1053. 1088. 1169. 1292. 1 


1 i^\. fumes B 1450. 1498. 

» 9jfuimes A (7) 1003 tuit fuimes alass£. 
C II 25 tuit fuimes citoiens. 

2 ^y fustes A (o) 1475:— (7) 1126. 1131. 

3 „ furent A (a) 1495:— (y) 259. 793. 1495. 1524. 1815. 
B 1070. 

c 309- 403- 564- 

fut.(i.)2sg. J^mw A (7) 1726. (II.) i sg. ere B 03) 829. 1128. 

C 219. 366. 568. 
3 „ serra A (7) 339. 451. 3 „ ett A(y) 389. 1021. 1455. 1537. l^^*' 

B 1274. 
C 869. 
ip\,serrumC 1082 

2 „ serrez A (7) 1331. 

C 1535. 

3 „ serrunt A (v) 1035 (^rr), 1492 (r). 
isg.serroi B 384. 

seroie B 462. 
3 „ serroit B 587. 

„ C 94«465. 
subj. pres. i sg. soie A (7) 485 proiez pur moi ke nc soie fiecchiz. 

3 „ seit A (7) 442. 497. 517. 649. 735. 744. 873. 919. 958. 1027. 1303. 1402 :— 
•B. 743- 
C. 279. 

cond. I sg. 


jbj. prcs. 3 se. soit A (y) 270. 735. 

1 pL soium A (7) 1 108 : — (a) 1083 {sHum), 

B 1765 : 1638 {shim), 

2 „ soiez A (a) 1696 :— (7) 469. 489. 

3 „ soient A (y) 75. 

„ impft. 3 8g. fust A (a) 612 :— (7) 12. 540. 557. 761. 1549. 1769. 1772. 

B 194:— (i3) 1 146. 
C 790. 1560, 

2 pi. fuissa A (a) 465 :— (7) 93. 95. 548. 
„ „ feus{s)ez B 611 (jj). 962 (j). 

3 f. fu{s)sent A (a) 1497 (-f). I744 (•f-^)- 

in{)er. 3 sg. sett A (7) 270 benoit seit ! 735 enchacez seit ! 

C 298 aliance seit batesme ! 

1 pi. soium C 1 106 soium freres uni ! 

2 „ saUt A (a) 96 :— (7) 364. 375. 377. 486. 

B 1043. 1542 :~03) 1 1 24. 
C 345- n^f 

soient A (7) 731 li oil crev6 li soient ! 

- («) - - - 


nlin. estre A (a) 558: — (7) 81. 87. 193. 406. 467. 778. 1030. 1264. 1553. 1787. 1807. 

B 378. 1297. 1321. 1338. 
C 114. 551.560. M32. 
pp. esti 362 ad est6 : 618 enclins avez est6. 

estet 752 ii orent ainz estez. 

s. m. quarrel, strife. 

nom. sg. 173 ii nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrifs : 
ft »t 1733 s^tant surt une noise e un estrif mut grant, 
prp* »* 77^ ^ grant estrif i passent e nul i volenti, 
s. m. stiiTup. 

acc.^sg. 1266 tant cum vif e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele. 
t \ adj.* narrow. 

tz I mas. nom. sg. 764 estroit lur fu le champ : 769 li pountz estoit estroitz. 

1 V. tr. to shut up (in a coffin, a prison) ; to keep, preserve, reserve, 
r ) app. (ind. pft. 3 pL) 982 pos^ i'unt (e estu£) en marbrin sarcu. 

ppp. mas. sg. 367 (averez le regne) ki vus est estu6. 

infin. 711 (out fait A. uer) e en chartre estu£r. 
s. m. afiny, frav. 

nom. sg. 1746 fores cumence 11 bruit e un estur pesant. 
prp. >f 576 (perist) chcvaler en estur. 

I. (44. 857. 866. 1227, 1396) under aver. 
II. under en. 

s, eurent, edssez, eOssum, eust under aver, 
under 11. 
\ 1. f. water. • 

I. I nom. sg. 257 du cors sane e ewe hissi : 788 Tewe va si apetizant (v. note) : 
814 Tewe, i toi obelssant (prove ta vertu) : 1094 (H Id obel) Tewe : 
1429 li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de ruisseL 
772* (passent i nou) Tewc (ki parfiind fu e 16) : 
780 fai I'ewe descrestre : 926 1 ewe lur secchis. 

69 i Teuue du rin : 765 H une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gu6 : — 
168 de Tewe dcmande : 870 de Tewe dunas H Mo3rses : — 
61. 1824 ki fist (de TewcJ (d*ewe) vin : 
880 recunfortez en sunt de Tewe e sustenu :— > 
772 du pund en Tewe sunt trebuch6. 
acic pi. 999 les ewes funt secchir. 

II. Tu pr. Eve. 

ace. 105 quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe siie per. 
^r V. tr. to exile, thrust out 

tfjfin. 109 de Parais les ruva ambesdeos exuiller. 

» tt 







•f ff 
ft ft 



fable s. f. story. 

nom. sg. 1042 de lui n'est ja chan9an ne fable. 
,, „ 1258 tnifle est e contruvure fable ^ rote u viele. 
fabletir s. m. story-teller. 

nom. sg. 833 ki autrement le dit, fableur est mentant. 
face I. s. f. face. 

nom. sg. 515 des lermes est sa face aniste. 

pip> )> 235 k la face criiemnent feri ; 632 (ferent) en face e nes e fhmt. 
face IT. facent, facez under faire. 
fa9un s. f. fashion, shape. 

nom. sg. 324 ke signifie la entaille e la fa9un. 
fai under faire. 

faiele adj. faithful. 

fem. nom. sg. 1254 90 est la lei faiele. 
faillance s. f. deficit ; sanz — , fully. 

prp. sg. 1374 les menbres lur sunt restores, pez e braz sanz faillance. 
faille s. (f. ?) error. 

prp. sg. 1377 cunustre les pout hom sanz faille u dutance. 
faillent \ v. intr. to be deficient ; to fail (in helping one) ; — (pp. =) adj. faithless, 
failli I ind. pres. 3 sg. 1 189 (mil sumes par numbre) mes ke un suls i faut. 

faillir 1 „ >, ,» pi. 127 1 mil citoien nus faillent. 

failliz / ft pret. 3 sg. 1346 ne failli rundement ke n*i eiist mil enter : 1547 (milcors) mais ke unsoliiai 

infin. 955 cist ne vus deit faillir : 1238 crere sanz faillir. 
pp. mas. nom. sg. 1088 ore pert ben k'il ne fu ne truan ne failli. 
„ „ voc. f, 827 tu mentz, vassal failli puant ! 
tt ft Pn^* ft 1512 pemez ent vengance de ceu tafiir failli. 
,, ,, voc. pi. 887 fous, cuardz faiUiz. 
faire 1 v. tr. to do, act, make, render, form ; perform ; inflict Tevil) ; repay (benefits) ; faire — de—, 

fait > make one thing of another, to transform ; with inf. follg., to cause or compel to (do an^rthio 

faite ) often used, as in English " do," in place of repeating the principal verb ; — ^u*. faire k, within 

act. follg. " to be worthy to be — ed " ; faire cler, fau-e chaut, to be clear, to be hot. 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 129 ki tant faitz i aimer. 

317 (relever le veistes) cum fait li liunceus : 332 Pentent cum derc fait sa les^ 
326 de ses emirs fait veraie cunfessiun : 350 ki sert Deu e fait la siie volunt6 : 
430 90 ke fait li pastureus : 669 (plus sent demurance pener) ke ne fait angiusse 
688 (venger) le tort k'em fait : 836 les denz lui fait voler des genzives : 

if ft O ft 

ft ft ft ft 

tt ft ft ft 

i» »i ft ft 

f) tt ft ft 

tt tt ft It 

888 prent A. cum fait lu la berbiz : 895 au coup li fait voler le chef du piz : 
1259 ne fait plus k creire k'au vent : 1336 I'eir fait k sun talent rebondir : 

„ „ „ „ 1408 pns Tunt cum li lu fait aignel : 1559 ne fait pas i despire : 

1 584 lores fait crier real cumandement : 161 1 li sancs raa cum Cait li roisscos : 
1694 90 fait hom renaistre : 1 704 fait sa oraisun. 
3 pi. 62 1 au jur quant feste funt : 705 fevres ki funt la gent engaunir : 
„ „ 999 les ewes funt secchir : 1000 les mortz funt viK parer : 
„ „ 1002 veirs fiint parer (fausetd) : 1 192 cum funt cist autre tuit, batesme demant ' 
„ „ „ 1424 devant eus funt cure Apl. : 1500 mut funt grant noise : 1804 baptizer se ^ 
impft. 3 sg. 1 1 70 teu solaz nus feseit. 
pret. 3 sg. 61. 1 824 ki fist de Tewe vin : 85 ki fist les elementz : 122.283. 1 634 ki fist etenreeff 

»i )} ft tt 

ft ft tt ft 

»» ft 

tt tt 

tt It 


„ t> tt It 125 del angle G. en fist sun messager : 148 vertuz fist grantz : 

„ „ „ „ 247 noise ne fist : 31 1 de la lei lur fist e present e dun : 603 ki fist le mood : 

„ „ „ „ 656 k lui meimes semblable le fist : 691 la tant fist chaut e cler : 

,, ,, „ „ 1255 en parais fist hom : 1345 tant fist k loer : 1474 k sun semblant fist nus tai 

tt tt 
ft tt 

„ „ 1757 ki fist solail raant : 1770 merveilles fist Deus. 

I pL 1546 feimes enbrever. 

„ „ 2 „ 1 1 29 A. feistes guerpir la lei T. 

„ „ 3 „ 3i4il neli firent unc pur ses bens, simal nun: 1079 si firent noz parentz. 

„ fut. I sg. 181 di moi ke ferai : 390 partut frai tutes tes volentez : 

„ „ „ „ 1263 acurerfi-ai: 1265 prendre le frai. 

„ „ 2 „ 188 de toi li fras sacrifice. 

»» »» »» 

tt »» 

»» »f 


tt tt tt 




(ind.) fut. 3 sg. 429 co fra : 450 du bu le chief li fra voler : 

„ 462 nunte vus fra : 1578 uncore fra il plus. 
„ I pi. 1301 del avoir vus en frum duner : 1367 ocire le ferum. 

2 tt 433 01^ ^^^ ^'i dind. : 1668 ferez grant saver. 
II 3 tt 027 A. lur enemi U venir ferunt : 1416 en frunt feste anuel. 
condit. 2 pi. 385 trop friez crueutez. 

subj. pres. 3 sg. 36^ pur nule adversity ke hem vus face au cors : 
tf It ti 430 (la vostre maisn^) 9a venir les face. 
pL 499 lacent 4 eus venir (lui e sun hoste). 
impft. 3 se. 1 560 si il fust boiseiiri ne feist teu mescinement. 

„ „ pi. 1 745 (purvit Deus ke . . . . ) ne lur voler feisent. 
imper. 2 sg. 297 fai lui lingance e humage : 780 fai Tewe descrestre : 
tt II It 958 fai ke il seit enterr6 : 1668 fai ke te dirai. 
„ ,, pi. 635 de glace fates pund. 

innn. 1 24 4 fere si grant Dusoinne : 182 bis. ke fere deverai, e ke fere i apent ? 
248 quancke il savoient fere : 297 cum fere deiz : 578 fere purrez retur : 
612 voissez bien fere e dreiture : 958 cum fere doitz : 

1 195 pretz sumes tuit 4 fere (v. note) : i I96ne lairum de fere le tuen cumant : 
1444 (vertuz) fere deigna Deus : 1473 de la busoingne J. faire (v. note), 
pres. ptcp. 1 121 Apl. unt truv6, grantz vertuz ifesant. 
app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 5^5 nus as fait si grant deshonur : 1647 tant mar as fait cest encmnbrer. 
{ tt 11 3 II ) 281 Deus Tat fait aignel d'un I6un : 327 4 lermes fait ad sa oraissun : 
( tt tt tt tt ) 967 a fstit vertu : 1237 un sermun lur ad fait : 
( ti II tt ti ) 1384 un autre miracle ad fait : 1577 trop nus ad fait damage. 
{ tt II I pl*) 457 CO ke nus avum fait ici. 

i tt It 3 If ) 393 a'une maisun sutive unt fait lur escole : 620 grant cri e bruit fait unt : 
( ti tt II tt ) 1206 ill unt fait aparer le solail. 

( „ ant. 3 s£.) 105 quant Deus out fait Adam : 710 despuis Id li tiranz oat fait li& A. 
(subj. pft. 3 pl.) 1363 einz ke 4 V. aient fait mener le derc. 
ppp. mas. sg. 86 par Id li mundz est faitz : 577 4 tei n*est fait premur : 
„ „ „ 1052 li martires de A. fait est. 

„ fem. „ 605 ik de J. est faite la figure, 

s. f. workmanship. 
596 de nns engiimurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture : 933 (nus) Id sa faiture sumes. 

129), faitz II. (a factus 86) under faire. 
i. m.deed. 

•cc. pL 41 1 lur faitz e lur cnnseilz ol e avisa. 
pn>* •* 3^2 solum les faitz du cors. 
onder feit. 
adj. hongiy. 

mju. ace sg. 60 ki pest le famillus, ki sustent Torfanin. 
under faire. 
\ adj. false. 

I mas. nom. sg. 524 ti est cist fans truantz ? 1568 cist fans enginneiir tant saet d'enchantement. 
(ntr.*) ace. „ 1 168 mes fans cuntruvant (v. note). 

mas. prp. pL 1571 (ki 4 ses mais en tent) fans pauteners, ki vus mentent. 
fem. M sg* SS7 0^° P^) ^*^ fause fust pruv6e (sa doctrine). 
\ V. intr. to act falsely ; tr. to falsify (a judgment). 
I ind. pfti 3 pl. 748 autres jugementz unt desdit e faus^. 

infm. 1 2 1 7 ne pur lunge prisun (vout) fauser ne flecchir : 
„ 1231 amer sanz fauser u trahir : 1320 nostre sentence k'esta sanz ja fauser. 

(s. f. falsehood, 
nom. sg. 370 feintise u fanset6 ke n'i seit ja : 562 fanset6 se soille au chef de tur. 

If ft 598 semblance est e fausset6 purpens e cuntrevure : 

M „ 1002 veir funt tut parer chose K*est fanset6. 
ace „ 1825 ne i deise fauset6 pur tut Tor C. 
prp. H 361 sanz nule fauset6. 
under faiuir. 
t. f. tale, 
prp. sg. 1349 plus set d'enchantement, d*art e de favele. 

„ ,,80 sulom ta favele. 
adj. feeble, 
mas. nom. sg. 1454 le cors m*est feble e anienti. 







feblesce s. f. feebleness. 

prp. sg. II 15 Id par aventure de feblesce enpali. 

under Phebum. 

(pp. s) adj. enfeoffed, possessed of land, wealthy. 

mas. nom. pL 357 li autre prince tant riche e tant feff6. 
„ prp. „ 1032 (mil) des plus honurables, riches e feff6 (citoiens). 

s. f. faitn. 

ace. sg. 1 109 lur foi unt plevi. 

obi. „ 1007 fei ke nus aevum Mahum : 1261 fei ke dei Palladie : 
„ „ 1572 fei ke dei Phebum : 1824 fei ke doi porter,lui (ki fist d'ewe vin). 

pip* *» 372 de la fei Deu la summe apris e demustr6. 

s. f. hunger. 

ace. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e fireit au soir e au disner. 

under faire. 

V. ref. to delay. 

ind. fut. 3 sg. 435 la vostre maisn€e ki pas ne se feindra. 

s. f. false pretence. 

nom. sg. 279 (ke) feintise u fauset6 n*i seit. 

prp. ft 1 197 fere santz feintise partut le tuen cumant. 

s. f. fair, market. 

prp. sg. 576 (perist) marcheant>n feire. 
feisent, feist, leistes under faire. 









feluns, felz 










\ s. f. time, occasion. 

) (ace.) sg. 574 (n'est nul) ki n'est aucune feit susduit par foleiir. 

„ pi. 152 de anz treis feiz dis : 169 (apostles) par numbre deus faiz sis. 
s. m. gall. 

ace. sg. 238 tendi fei ^ boivre. 
adj. fdon; fell, scoundrd. 

mas. nom. sg. 496 li fels tirantz cumande : 709 li feluns tiranz pautoner out fait lier A. 
„ „ 1 7^1 li prince feluns (ne vout tant atendre). 
ace. „ 300 le pueple ke veistes tant crud e felun (v. note), 
prp. ,f 414 ^ un prince felun ala : 458 descuverz sumes A un tirant fdun : 
„ „ 071 (mis 1 fii en garde) k Fdun gaholer : 1583 cum de itel felun traitre prendre ap 
nom. pi. 259 furent li fdun tirant fesmomi] : 353 li felun cheitif (sunt malur6) .- 
„ „ 664 ne poent li felun esploiter : 1682 li felun guerroicr : 

„ „ 1 7 15 ne me flecchissent cist mescreant fdun : I759li paen fdun (sunt) el fu d'et 
ace. „ 907 ne dute mais morteus, feluns tirantz hardiz. 
Pn^* tt 394 pur les grantz fertez des sarracins feluns. 
s. f. rascality. 

prp. sg. 727 dituns paens Id estoit de grant fdunie : 945 par fdunie Pat eschami. 
under felun. 
s. f. woman. 

prp. sg. 87 ddngnast de femine naistre. 
adj. female. 

ace. sg. 1255 en parais fist hom, masle e femmde. 
V. intr. to burst. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1566 tant par est irascuz, k pou de ire ne fent. 
pp. mas. sg. 875 du munt k'est crevez e fendu. 
s. f. window. 

prp. sg. 409 (avis6 les a) k une fenestre par unt les esgarda. 
under fendu. 
s. m. foolish fancy. 

prp. sg. 206 (avis) sans fentosme u duter : 294 (entendre) sanz fentosme u folage. 
s. m. iron. 

nom. sg. 1 147 raed fu e estable cum fer u aimant. 
prp. „ 7iofaitlier a de chaesnes de fer. 
ad^. fierce. 

mas. nom. sg. 708 dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant fer. 


pi. 1333 tant sunt il plus crueus e plus fier. 
feral, fere, ferez under fau-e. 
ferent \ v. tr. to strike. 

feri I ind. pres. 3 sg. 835 le fert du poin e du bastun pesant : 13 14 cist sc fert ki ne veit. 

ferir ) ,. „ ,. pi. 632 ferent e enpeinnent : 1608 ierent, batent e poinnent : 




ind. pfes. 3 pL '174B ferent, nafrent e traient. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 235 des paomes ii la face crueument feri : 1 1 74 cist Id le feri : 
J, „ „ „ 1529 Teisezkelepere le fiz au quor feri. 
app. (pit. „ „) 804 li paens Tad leni du brant. 

ppp. mas. sg. 80 du glaive aa quor femi (estre) : 158 an queur fern (fii) du chevaler L. 
infin. 1234 ne lamim pur les testes doner au brand ferir. 
* adj. finn;—<adv.) fast, tightly. 

ma*- Dom. Sg. 1305 li tin des crestiens plus ferms e plus enter (respunt). 
adv. 223 fenn fu endonni : 320 ferm lie sathan. 
t adv. firmly, steadfastly. 

185 tn la trimt6 voz craire fermement. 
\ adj. hard, 
j mas. nom. sg. 1427 lichemins ferrez aspre e deshuel (l*alasse). 

„ ace. „ 764 estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferr6 (v. note). 
adj. of iron. 

ma<- ace. sg. 53 n*oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin. 
under ferir. 
s. f. cruelty, 
pip. pi. 393 pur les grantz fertez des sarracins feluns. 

under ferir. 
unt, fesant, fesdt under (aire. 
s. f . a festival 

ace. sg. 621 au jur quant feste funt : 1416 en fnmt feste anuel. 
adj. festive, 
mas. prp. sg. 19 nobile citoien en atur festival. 

s. m. fin^ 

nom. sg. 1095 (i Id obeit) feu ki II sa tumbe lut : 1678 (h est) feu, ki pas ne esteint : 

„ „ 860 li solailz les greve ki plus ert chautz ke feu. 
ace. „ 85 fist les elementz, terre, unde, air e fu. 
prp. „ 1060 (se arestut un rais) de un feu ki plus ert clers ke solailz de midi. 

,t tf '7*7 {^"^ ^ garde n*a de fu, de verm, ne de lamin. 

„ „ 174 (alez) eu feu ki art tut dis : 1759 (sunt) el fu d*enfer puant. 
issex under estre. 
adj. sick of a fever. 

n fta« ace. pL 1^9 sana paraletics, feverus, avogles. 
s. m. blacksmiUi. 

nom. sg. 1250 (plus set d'art) ke ne set de tenaiUes fevre ki martele. 
s. t /ever. 

nom. pi. 705 (neissent) fevres ki funt la gent engaunir e trembler. 
adj. certain ;— adv. de fi, surely, 
mas. nom. pL 276 bien seiez certz e fi. 

zav, 964 bien le croi de fi e bien sui acert6. 
„ 1089 ben sumes certz de fi : 1542 bien soiez ccrtz de fi. 
(1 104) under fier. 
(ppp. s) adj. fixed. 

mas. nom. sg. 1062 (un rais) sur la tumbe A. se arestut fichi. 
V. ref. to trust, 
ind. pres. 1 sg. 1 104 (Jesu recleim), en lui me fi. 

„ „ 3 „ 717 A. est sis disciples : en li creit e se fie. 

infin. 123 en autre k*en sun cher fiz ne se vout fier. 
(1333) under fer. 
s. m. fief. 

ace. pi. 586 (tu en purras consirer) fiez, chastens e tur. 
s. f. unage, figure. 

nom. sg. 605 (croiz) ti de Jesu est faite la figure. 
V. tr. to shape out. 

ppp. fem. ace. sg. 291 cum veiz en ceste croiz figur^e la image, 
under fiz. 

adj. fine (of goldj ; sincere (of the heart) ; subtle Tof reason). 
mas. prp. sg. 618 tant ami portereit de fin or un dromund. 

„ t» H '043 batesme 1 requorai de quoer verai e fin. 
fem. ,. pi. 82 (par fines rabuns ne purreit estre) enquis ne sei\. 
•. f. end. 




(tin II.) 





























flot, flotz 

acc. sg. 190 (tunnent) sanz fin prendre : 1676 tuz jurs sanz fin aver : 

ff ft 1812 de ceste estoire vi le cumen9ail e fin. 
prp* tf 366 k la fin serras martir : — 

55 regnera sanz cumen9ail e fin : 352 regnera eu del sanz fin : 
10 1 6 santz fin regne eu eel esteill6 : 1352 (eu ciel demurer) sanz fin : 
1228 (It vostre cumpainnie) me doinst Deus ateindre sanz fin u resortir. 
V. intr. to cease (always negative), 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1629 e cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier. 

ff ,f n pi. 1290 ne finent a jum^es tut serr6 chevauc her. 

ft pret. 3 sg. 673 A. en la chartre ne fina Deu urer. 
under fin i. 
V. tr. to finish. 

ind. pres. i sg. 1845 la estoire de A. ci finis e termin. 
ppp. mas. sg. 915 le jur A. cumence e li suens est finiz. 

,, M f, 1537 le regne averez du ciel ki jamais n'ert fini. 
infin. 1224 k'il m*ottreit par sa grace ceste vie finir. 
under faire. 
s. m. firmament. 

acc. sg. 1575 par Jo\'inki guie terre e firmament, 
under faire. 

Is. m. son. 
nom. sg. 80 Deu e fiz Deu fu : 304 le fiz Deu meimes fu : 

271 benoit seit le pere e sun fiz ki li est parilgal e uni : 1354 ^ ^^ ^^ Deus e hem. 
186 (craire) le pere e le fiz, seint esperit ensement : 
893 le seint esperit reclaime e le pere e le fiz : — 
313 sun fiz lur envea : 659 Deu du ciel tramist sun fiuz : 

583 reni Jesu ke claimes fiz Deu le sauveur : 1230 (plest eschoisir) Jesu le fiz Marie: 
1328 (ocire) fiz, frere, nevu : 1529 veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri. 
102 al nun le fiz Marie. 

422 (cum il se humilia) h un Jesu, fiz Deu : 1343 li pere au fiz la plaie va bender. 
1442 me sui del tut dun6 a Jesu, fiz Marie. 
36 (la nuvele precher) du fiz Deu : 41 (Pot parler) du fiz Deu : 
79 nuyeles d'un deu fiz d'une pucele : 123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz ne se vent ficr. 
1 503 fiz, frere, nevu ! 
nom. pi. 1622 paien se curucent, li fil Belial ; 1716 ne part ne eient de moi fiz de perdicium. 
prp. ,, 401 par Noe e ses fiz cum puis fu restorez (limundz*). 
V. intr. to blaze, fiame. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 691 du solail ki flamboie : 902 solailz ki flamboie ^ midiz : 1061 un rais ki flanlx^ 
„ ,, M pi* i698fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun. 
V. intr. to gush forth. 

pp. mas. sg. 896 sane glorius ki du cors est flaschiz. 
s. m. flank, side. 

acc. sg. 16 1 2 teinte en a la peitrine, le dos, e flaunc costal. 
V. tr. to bend, subdue ; intr. to yield. 

ind. fut. I sg. 607 ne flecchirai pur nule mort tant cruele e dure. 
. •» »» 3 pl* 1034 ki ne flecchirunt, bien Tunt dit e jur6. 
^subj.pres.,, „ 1715 ke ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun. 

„ plpft. I pi. 1525 n'eussum un de eus flecchi pur un val d*or emplL 
ppp. mas. sg. 485 proiez ke ne soie flecchiz : 633 A. n*est flecchiz : 892 de ren n*est flecchiz: 
„ ,, pi. 1108 ke soium de s'amur destumez ne flecchi. 
infin. 667 ke sun voler pousse e flecchir e changer: 
„ II 48 veintre ne flecchir nel pout hem vivant. 
„ 1217 ne pur lunge prisun fauser ne flecchir (vout). 
V. intr. to fade, wither, 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 692 flestrisent blez en terre. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 1 142 flestri c anentti quancke estoit verdoiant. 
pp. fem. sg. 1454 le cors m'est feble e anienti, la char pal e flestrie. 

infin. 999 (funt) flestrir Terbe du pr6. 
s. m. wave, water ; body of water (river), 
nom. sg. 1 153 au passer de un pund ii li flotz fu bruant. 

acc. „ 832 le flot ad tut secchi ki nus fu desturbant : 1 158 (es-le-vns) le flot tut secchi. 
prp. „ 788 (I'ewe) est parfunde e raedde 4 flot briant : 
1029 fort est k cunbatre A flot k*est surundd. 


















(i~> adv. afloat. 

790 ke n*i fiist nos i flote, ne batel ne chalant. 

s. f. flower. 

nom. sg. 349 (trespassables) cum est la flur du champ : 588 ki es de la cit6 la flur. 

ace. pi. 699 as reims muiir (veisez) les flurs. 

▼. tr. to bc^atify, adorn. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 265 gloire e clart6 les esceint e fluri 

ppp. mas. nom. sg. 1073 martirs est glorius curunez e fluri. 

f> »f pip* *> 1535 desore of moi serrez en parais fluri. 

„ „ „ pi. 1018 entre les* seintz martirs fluriz e curun6. 

„ fem. nom. ,, 145 1 of la croiz, k*en sane A. fu teinte e flurie. 
s. m. lock (of hair) v. note. 

prp. pL 891 les cheveus A. lie par les focuns crespiz. 
under fet 

5. (f. ?) leaf (of tree), 
ace sg. 695 foille veisez blanchir. 
t. n. extravagance. 

nom. sg. 550 entenc cum sa doctrine folage est e errur. 
prp. „ 394 (tun sunge puez) entendre sanz fentosme u folage. 
s. m. foolishness, 
prp. sg. 579 repentir te purras de cest grant foleflr. 

„ „ 574 Id n*est aucune feit susduit par foleur. 
s. f. folly. 

prp. sg. 1806 pement confessiun de folic e pecch6. 
(1447) under lors i. 
s. 1. vigour, power. 

ace. sg. 660 force e estabilit€ me doinst il. ' 
prp. „ 84 (Deu) Id tant est de force e de vertu : yji* de force (v. note) e poest6 (patsent Tewe). 

t* t* 1393 P^ ^ force Jesu. 
adj. out of doors : maisun — , out-house, 
fem. prp. sg. 75 of lui est venuz k une maisun foreine. 
V. intr. to commit a crime (a forfeit) 

ind. pret 3 sg. 657 puis par traisun de la saerpent forflst (v. note). 
1. prep, except ; save. 

359 n*unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesur6 : 1423 nuz tut fors d'un mantel : 
1447 n*est autre Deu for cist k*en Smie (murut) : 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin : — 
1 7 10 jo n'ai espcrance fors en Deu e vus nun. 
It. adv. out. 

1265 prendre le frai e fors sacher du ventre la buele. 

adj. strong; difficult. 

mas. nom. sg. 573 n'est nul tant sage, tant fort ne tant seur. 

(ntr.) „ „ 1029 fort est k cunbatre i flot k'est surund6. 

mas. ob. „ 142 1 muntez (i. e. sur) fort nincin. 

„ ace. pi. 1484 destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 
adj. foolish, 
mas. nom. sg. 1571 (ki les ot e i assent) plus est fous ke beste. 

„ voc. pL 807 k'alez vus demurant, lous cuardz failliz. 
under faire. 
1 adj. French (language). 

/ prp. sg. 70 cunt6e en frances e latin : 1822 translat€e en franceis e latin. 
s. f. kindness. 

nom. sg. j^8o en noz deus ad [« il y a] grant franchise e du^ur. 
ace. „ 872 ore requor ta franchise : 1689 la franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcunter. 
prp. „ lOO en franchise e almosne as tun tens despendu : 779 pur tQe franchise e deiionncret^. 
aoj. noble. 

mas. nom. sg. 969 mais li francs chevaler A. est demurs. 
\ adj. miserable. 
) mas. ace. sg. 59 ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin : 

„ „ „ 184a (ne me os numer mes pecchur) poure e frarin. 

„ nom. pi. 1504 frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfani. 
under faire. 

(adj. cold, 
mas. ace. sg. 987 k'il urent cum freit mord guen>i. 







fem. nom. sg. 1 167 (est surse) funtainne freide e clere. 

s. m. cold. 

ace. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner. 

\ V. intr. to yell, roar with anger, 
ji] ' 



frez, friez 



fnint I. 

S nc 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 825 fremissent cum liuns : 863 fremissent e crient : 1698 fremissent e llamboient. 
„ pret. 3 sg. 446 dire e raautalent tressua e fremi. 

m. brother, 
nom. sg. 399 Cairn si frere esnez (l*ocist) : 1344 li frere li curt sure : 

tt M 1530 li freres main tendi (as plaies bender), 
ace. „ 335 Jovin descunus e son frere Neptun : 1328 (d*ocire) fiz, frere, nevu. 
voc. ,, 1503 fiz, frere, nevu ! 
adj. ashen, of ash(wood). 

mas. nom. sg. 1827 desore penant deveng e preng burdun fresnin. 
under faire. 
adj. fresh. 

mas. nom. sg. 1470 si cors est las, mais sis bons quors tut frois est e nuveus. 
\ V. intr. to burst, crack. 

) ind. pres. 3 pi. 652 fruissent os, char emfle e la pel enpalist. 
„ pret. „ „ 254 froisirent peres, e la lune enpali. 
s. m. fruit. 

ace. sg. 106 d'un arbre lur defendi le fruit h manger : 1093 fruit ne herbe demi an nerendi(Iatene); 
„ „ 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant. 
under faire. 

!s. m. forehead, 
prp. sg. 632 ferent e enpeinnent en face e nes e frunt. 
„ „ 1 702 tut est debris^ du frond gesc* au talun. 
frunt II. (1416) under faire. 
fu I. (85. 1727. 1759) under feu. 
fu II., fu III. (223 bis.) under estre. 
fuie s. f. flight. 

prp. sg. 613 ^ vus 9a fust li clers venuz sanz fiiie e cuverture. 
fuimes, fuissez, tumes under estre. 
funda V. tr. to foimd. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 490 sa cglise sur pere funda e establi. 
fundu I V. intr. to melt. 

funt I. ) ind. pres. 3 sg. 644 pere perist e depece, fiist art, e metal funt. 
pp. mas. sg. 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz esmerez e fundu. 
funt II. under faire. 
funtaine ) s. f. a fountain. 

funtainne j nom. sg. 1 167 est surse funtainne freide e clere d grant ruissel curant. 

861 funtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 
876 d'une bcle funtainne est li roisseus hissu : 
„ ,f 1611 (li sancs raa aval) cum fait de la funtainne li roisseus cursal. 
voc. „ 330 ai Jesu, funtainne de remissiun ! 
V. tr. to furbish (swords). 

ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 894 Tad fem du brant Id ert frirbiz. 

„ „ (prp.) „ 450 fra voler de brant furbi : 1499 les detrenchamesau brand furbi. 
„ fem. { y, ) , 1443 A. decol6 fu 4 la esp6e furbie, 
under estre. 
V. tr. to form, make. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 655 Deu k*Adam furma. 
^PP' ( »» pft* * sg.) 777 Deus ! ki as le mund funn€, 
ppp. mas. sg. 5 de fust i fu furmez uns cors d*um mortel. 

inhn. 11 56 Deus ! ki hom furmer deignas k tun semblant. 
fusent, fussent, fust i. under estre. 
fust II. s. m. wood. 

nom. sg. 644 pere perist e depece, frist art e metal funt. 

. „ 5 de fust 1 fu furmez ims cors d*um mortal : 88 4 nn frist cloufichez : 

„ 236 en un fust dresc6 : 643 mal aient deu pere u fiist u ki de metal rant (v, note). 
fustes, fut under estre. 

















gabb6 \ V. tr. to mock ; ref. id. 

gabber ) app. (ind. pft. ^ sg.) 945 par fdunie Tat eschami e gabb6. 

inui. 571 ben s'en puet gabber de vus cist enchantur. 
Gabriel n. pr. id. 

prp. 135 del angle G. en fist son messager. 
gaholer s. m. gaoler. 

prp. sg. 671 (fh mis en garde) k felun gaholer. 
gainnnr s. m. husbandman. 

nom. pi. 1 141 perdirent blez e fruit li gainnur paisant. 
Galilte n. pr. Gralilee. 

prp. 501 Jesu de Galilte. 
gambes s. f. leg. 

ace. pL 839 brisent braz e gambes par lui li trespassant. 
gant s. m. glove. 

ace. sg. 834 H 90 pruver sui prest ploier le gant. 

prp. „ 1 1 62 ne prisa mais noz aeus k valur d'un gant, 

under garder. 

V. tr. to protect. 

infin. 1 2 13 pur moi de mes enemis morteus garantir. 
L under garder. 

s. t wara (b watch) ; heed (= fear) ; care, anxiety ; — se duner, to take note of, be aware. 


gard, garde 
garde 11. 











ace. sg. 434 avant ke nus hom garde s'en dura : 
„ „ 1002 si garde ne empemum : 1727 (dun) ki n'a garde defu, de verm, ne de larrun. 
prp. „ 671 (mis fu) en garde e en destresce k felun gaholer. 
s. m. guardian, 
nom. pi. 714 li prince de la terre, li bailli e gardein (sunt assembly). 

fi » 1393 (sunt devenu) gardeins de morticine. 
V. tr. to guard, protect. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 59 ki guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin. 

subj. „ „ „ 26 (Deus) vus benoie e guard ! 528 celui le gard ! 1 123 Jesus te* gard ! 
„ „ „ „ 1048 (proiez) k*il del encumbrer nus gard de diable. 
imper. 2 sg. 9^6 e sun cors gar ben ke ne soit pas embl6. 
app. (md. pit 3 pi.) 1387 les cors unt as gentilz martirs gard6 e defendu. 
innn. 707 de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garder : 
„ 1296. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes (sortz) (Gi9uns) garder* 
„ 1548 as cors garder (« it garder les cors) v^nt. 
s. m. garden. 

nom. pi. 6gx li bois e li gardin (perisent). 
▼. tr. to heal 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 151 euari les ydropics. 

subj. pres. ,, „ 953 di (a die) li k*il garisse tun cors k'est depesc6. 

infin. 9i66 garir me puet : 1673 mun cors, garir e reestorer (snl Deu puet). 
pip* f > 131 1 (90 espruver) par aucun langurus garir e restorer (v. note), 
app. (ind. ptt. 3 sg.) 270 benoit seit le pere ki tuz nus ad guari. 
ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 467 meint hom purra uncore par vus estre gari : 
„ », „ „ 1090 saufe est e gari : 1 199 gariz est k'en cest mund pur Deu ran sane espant. 
„ „ (ace.) pi. 1543 (Jesus les restora) enters, seins e gari. 
„ fem. (nom.) „ 975 gsoies sunt ses plaies e sis cors restore. 
▼. tr. to warn ; watch ; niniish. 

unt garni (aguetes e posturs pafos). 
sg. 202 u sepulcres estoit ben dos e ben garni : 45a en estoit de trestut 90 guami : 

„ 734 ki par autres est gamiz, dst beu se chastie : 

„ 1 132 en fu gamiz par un sun bien voillant. 
pL 850 de roba sunt trestuit e pamiz e vestu. 












gent I. 
gent II. 








(gab) s. m. mockeiy. 

ace. pi. 961 (n'ai voluntQ de eschars ne gas olr : 1298 desdi ke tu dit as par tes gas cu n tr u v e r {y.noit 

under gendre. 
1 V. tr. to afiirm, assert. 

) ind. pres. 3 pi. 1803 bien geisent ke il a dreitureument uvr6. 
infin. 1236 (les ot) 90 de quor geir. 

s. f. gem. 

nom. sg. 4 n'i out (= il n*y eut) acaston^e, ne gemme, ne cristal. 

V. intr. to groan. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 483 A. de tendrur gent, plura e pali : 775 gent de piet6 : 

M i> >t 892 cist ne gent, ne grundille ne de ren n'est flechiz : 1348 plore e gent de quoer. 
pret. 3 „ 589 de tut 90 n*est A. esmuz ne geenst ne deut ne plure. 
infm. 1204 de gendre e de lermer ne se puet retenir. 

k — , adv. on one's knees. 

239 4 gonoiUuns devant li : 514 i genoilluns suvent Tad aiir6e : 

325 ^ genoilluns se met par grant devociun : 775 & genoilluns s'est mis. 

s. m. Imee ; k — , in a kneemig posture. 

pip. pi. 940 k genoilz e 4 cutes aa le tertre munt6 : — 1 1 73 fu A. decolez i genoilz Dea urant. 

(483. 775. 892. 1348) under gendre. 

s. f. people, folk, multitude ; followers. 

nom. sg. 506 (s'en vunt) ami gent ki s'atume k morteu medl6e : 

510 A. vunt querant cum gent desmesur6e : 536 dunt plus se cnruce cele gent malorte : 

539 (venuz k curt) ik fu gent aun6e : 611 si feussez gent de sen, de nusnn e mesut : 

15 1 7 quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi : 

1589 tant i a gent li chemins nes (= ne les) cumprent. 

1739 lur gent veant [= illomm gente vidente]. 

698 (yeisez) gent Id se despoille e nercir e suer : 705 fevres ki fimt la gent engaunir e trembla 

II 65 veimes grant gent de sei laburant : 1282 lors ad mand6 sa gent, centeines e miller; 

1295 simple gent par barat enganer : 1446 assemblame pur 90 gent en one campainiiie: 

1452 batesme Id la gent seintifie : 1^87 tant ad gent trani par ses sermans desleos : 

I C77 trop nus ad tokit- gent : 165 1 deceivre simple gent e par diz enganer : 

1659 pur la gent enginner. 

1268 a vus cunsel sur90 demant, ma gent k'estes loide. 









\ adj. noble (of birth, character, &c.). 

> mas. 




nom. sg. 740 A. ert gentilz e bien enparent6 : 743 seit de parage e gentilz e bien n6 : 

797 uns chevalers eentilz (cniet as piez A.) : 898 la croiz mus9a ons crestieiis.gentiL 
980 le gentil chevsQer unt sdd€ : 1424 devant eus fimt cure le gentil juvenceL 

prp. „ 1208 bien me deit d'A. le gentil suvenir. 

voc. „ 417 ai, princes gentilz ! 921 ai, martir gentilz ! 1708 ai, gentil banm ! 

nom. pi. 546 guerpi as ke tindrent ti gentil ancesur. 

ace „ 1378 queus gentil de nesance : 1785 (le eust deshonur6) e ses martin gentilz. 

prp. „ 1387 les cors unt as gentilz martirs gaxd€ e defendn. 

voc. „ 171 mes leaus amis gentils ! 1229 citoiens gentilz ! 1472 gentilz chevalers ! 
s. f. gums. 

Xrp. pi. 836 les denz lui fait voler des genzives devant. 
prep, up to, (of place, degree, time) ; B conj. until. 
A 48 passer geske 9a : 1702 tut est debris6 du fhind gesc'au talun : 

234 gesk'au sane espandre de escur^es bad : — 1815 gesk* k tant kVSL furent mis en nrcu marbca 
B 1118 (langui) iluec, geske Apl. repeira. 
s. f. story, incident. 

ace. sg. 1820 la geste ai (escrit en parchemin, cum la vi). 
V. tr. to throw (into prison) ; heave (a sigh); utter (aery), 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1203 ApL lors gette de parfund un suspir. 
„ pret. „ „ 249 en murant getta un cri. 

infin. 665 en prisun obscure le ctmiandent getter, 
geii, geiisent under gisent. 




s. m. sl^.front. 

nom. sg. 1376 (les cors) plus blancs ke de chemise n'est girun ne mance. 

under gisent. 

8. f. batde-axe. 

ace. pi. 852 portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 

}v. intr. to lie down, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 66 en enfer gist puant. 



(grant I.) 




fern. nom. sg. 264 grant turbe : ^80 grant franchise : 730 grant partie : 
1597 grant ire : 1077 grant tenebrur. 

760 la presse ert grant : 1751 si fu la presse grant : 1766 grant fa la bataille. 
124. 1284 grant busoinne : 518. 1500 grant noise : 857 grant chalnr : 
857 grant sei : 972 grant merveille : 1 165 grant gent : 
1342 grant piet6 : 1480 grant joie : 1706 (veit) line grant legiun. 
3^8 ^ grant mine : 369. 960. 1 797 it grant humility : 765 k une ewe grant e parfiind : 
787 k devodun grant : 1732 k grant processiun :— 727 estoit de grant felmue : 
1462 (est) de grant seignurie : 1491 de grant joie (sontrefait) : — 
1092 en la grant seccheresce :— 
307 (par) lor grant mesprisun : 325 par grant devodun : 1294 par grant ire. 


(pred.) „ 

clCC* )• 




grant IL 





acc. pi. 148. 447. iiai. 13 13 giantz vertuz (fist) (jure) (fesant) rsavez). 

prp. ,, 565seingnurdegrantzten:es: 1 769 on des giantz merveiues: 393 pur lesgrantzfierteL 









!v. tr. to gra; 
ind. pres. 3 
subj. „ „ 

s. m. grant, gift. 

ace. sg. 1 135 vostre croiz retenir de vus avoit le grant 
3 sg. 30 dst bonement li grante (ostel). 
, 1050 (proiez lui k*il) nos grante la joie. 
imper. 2 pi. 1220 ^ntez mei (par martire venir par ta aie au gueredon). 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 785 la requeste A. ducement ad grants, 
grantz, granz under grant, 
s. f. gravd. 

ace. sg. 635 gravde semmez, de glace fates pund. 

s. m. good pleasure ; adv. bon gr6, de bon gr^, willingly, venir i gr6, to please, 
(ace. sg.) 763 enviz va bon gr6. 
prp. „ 1012 unt acumpli quanke lur vint 4 gr6 : — 

„ „ 346 (eschoisi vus a) de bon gr6 : 1771 ki Tust mesdit a mesfait de gr6. 
adj. grievous. 

fern. ace. sg. 15 17 (entendi) lur gref pleinte. 
adj. (compar. of grant,) greater. 

mas. ace. sg. 587 (li doilz serroit grantz, — )ne veimes unc greinnur. 
V. tr. to grieve, annoy, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 729 (langur e maladie) plus nuit e greve ke mort : 860 li solailz les greve. 

infin. 670 enchaesnez pur sun cors plus grever : 1360 les brae li unt U6 pur lui pin» grefcr. 
ppp. mas. sg. 774 A. marriz est e grev6. 
adj. big, huge. 

mas. prp. sg. 1607 (ferent) de gros bastun poinnal. 
V. intr. to moan. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 892 dst ne gent, ne grundille, ne de ren n'est flechiz. 
s. m. gage. 

ace. sg. 292 (ne mist) pur nus ran^un ne guage (d'or ne d'argent). 
under Wsdes. 




1 s. m. guarantee, protection. 

nom. sg. 57 escu m*est e guarant plus ke chastel : 1 14 guarantz ne pout estre, ne nos aver mestcr : 
„ „ 560 estre k sun deciple e guarant e sucur : 1764 soiez cuntre diable lor escu e guarant 
guard, guarde under garder. 















under garir. 
under garni. 
s. m. ford. 

prp. sg. 765 k une ewe venent grant e parfund sanz gu^. 
s. m. guerdon, reward. 

nom. sg. 363 (grantz est) li guereduns (as bons atum^). 

ace. „ 585 tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur : 1725 uireceverez pur ton travail guerdmi. 
prp. „ 1 22 1 par martire venir au grant gueredun dunt Deu te pint seisir:^- 
„ „ 908 de gueredun saisiz : 1017 du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desir6 : 
„ „ 1Q45 seisiz estes du guerdun desirable : 1098 de sun gueredun est hautement seisL 
adv. hardly, scarcdy. 
1 1 une cit^ nobile, sanz gueres paringal. 
V. tr. to give up, renounce ; abandon ; forsake. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. ^85 situ sulmeguerpis, tropfriezcrueutez: 1685 si tune guerpis tesdeos sanz demnrer. 
„ 3 pf. 845 pur mort le guerpissent eu sabelun gisant : 
„ „ „ 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanit6. 
pret. 2 sg. 922 gloire du mund guerpb. 
It 3 II 413 cuiQ il guerpi Mahum e Jesu reclama. 
„ fut. I „ 606 90 ke m*apnst ne guerpirai tant cum vie me dure. 





(goerpissez) ind. fut. a sg. 65 pur Jesu guerpiras la loi Apolm. 

imper. a „ 195 des ore guerpis le tun enchantement. 
n », pi. 819 bis. kar guerpissez Mahom, guerpissez Tervagant. 

infin. 203 Deus nel vout ne guerpir ne ubblier : 1 2 1 6 il ne les vont nnc enfreindre ne guerpir . 
„ 1 129 A. fdstes guerpir la lei Tervagant : 1323 guerpir vus cuvent Mahum. 
app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 546 qyii guerpi as ke tindrent ti gentil ancesur. 
,9 i „ n 3 M ) 4'9 Ki ad guerpi noz deus : 449 il a (guerpi les deus) sarrazinois (v. note). 

pi.) 1 191 pur ki avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant. 
( „ ant. 3 „ ) 987 k*il urent cum freit mord guerpi e less€. 

ppp. mas. se. 241 ore pert ke tu es e despit e guerpi. 
f, ft pi* 1505 c^ desert gisez (guerpi) cum charoinne : 
>» ft tt 1549 gurent par ces c^unps defulez e guerpL 

ffumii ) ▼. oppose in nght. 

guenroier I. ) infin. 1782 en terre guerroier le rei de majesty (n'a mester k nul). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1768 Deus (k'U tant unt guerroi6) prent de eus vengance. 
gneiToier n. s. m. wamor. 

(pendens) nom. pi. 1682 li felun guerroier. 
gnetex ▼. tr. to watch, spy, lie in wait for. 

ppp. mas. se. 150 fti (guetez, truvez e pris) par Jueus. 
»f *9 pl' 394 (d^ Sairacins) dunt il sunt guetez. 
gugement under jugement. 
gme ) ▼. tr. to guide, rule. 

giuer ) ind. pres. 3 sg. 1293 cist ki les autres guie (= the leader). 

91 V ft t» 1437 Jesu, Id del e terre guie : 1575 par Tovin ki guie terre e firmament, 
ixifin. 102. 1315. 1636 ki tut ad & guier (Deu) (Jesu) (le fiz Marie), 
gnnele s. f. gown, dress. 

prp. sg. 1248 vestuz de vin gunele. 
gopilz s. m. K>x. 

nom. sg. 555 cum luz u cum gupilz escriez de pastur. 
gorent, gat under gisent. 
guTenia \ v. tr. to govern. 

goremant f ind. pres« 3 sg. 782 Deu ki tut guveme. 
gnveme 1 „ pret. „ „ 415 ki dune guvema (la cit^ V.). 
gnvemer / infin. 25. 46 ad tut le mund ^ guvemer (Deus) (Jesus). 

periph.pres.ptcp. 11 78 Jesus est e cd e terre guvemant. 


hiche 8. t axe. 

ace. sg. 504 (portantzj u hache u esp6e. 
hai inteij. 2da 354. 572. 811. 1646. 1795 under ai i. 

hjJ ▼. tr. to bate. 

ind. pres. 3 pL 50 ki ceu Jesu h€ent cum aloue esperver. 

„ pret. 3 sg. 647 de quor les hal. 
app. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 1551 cist k'avant les urent mut despit e haT. 
ppp. fem. prp. sg. 1453 suspris de langur remis en ceste voie haie. 
haid under aide, 

bale under hal. 

hardi \ adj. hardy, daring. 

hardiz j mas. nom. sg. 229 un poples cuntre lui e cruel e hardi vint : 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi : 

tf ff >» 1074 uns S. des autres plus sages e hardi : 1 159 Ar. un chcvaler hardi e empemant. 
ace. pL 907 ne dute mais morteus feluns tirantz hardiz. 

haipe6xe s. f. harp-playing. 

ace. sg. 615 ne F e&sez plus entendn ke asne harpeiire. 
lent adv. hastily. 

213. 414. 1590 (aler). 
hanbeics s. m. haubo-k. 

a p. pi. 85 1 (de robes sunt gamiz) u de haubercs dublers. 
Ij. high, loud. 

bant I mas. nom. sg. 21 un haut mareschal : 1 22 li haut pere du del : 

haute ) „ „ „ 593 queus est plus haut, li creaturs u siie creature ? 1361 lur deu k'est li plus haut : 





»» i> 




mas. nom. sg. 1449 pur ki A. haut martirs* est. 

„ ace. „ 1582 JO en prendrai si haut vengement. 

» pip* » ^^45 (^cz) al haut rei de gloire ! 
fern. ace. sg. 1800 biien unt ja recunu sa haute deit^. 

prp. „ 1436. 1633 k haute voiz (s'escrie) (dist) : — 370 eu nun de la veraie e haute triuittf:- 
,, 502 murut en haute croiz dresc6e : 523 dient en hauste voiz : 805 dist en haute vol 
t> pi* 505 (s'en vunt) k hautes manaces e grant bruit e cri6e. 
adv. 219 haut getta un cri : 826 haut s^escrie : 1353 haut chantent e der. 
adv. amply, richly. 

784 — soud^e ki de lui est priv6 : 1098 de sun gueredun est — seisi : 1492—^ dient. 
946 under ai I. 
under hai. 
under horn, 
s. f. herbage, grass. 

nom. sg. 349 (trespassable est li mundz) cum Terbe du pr€. 
ace. „ 999 (funt) flestrir Terbe du pr^ : 1093 la terre (ne rendi) fruit ne herbe. 
s. m. herb-garden. 

nom. pi. 693 (perisent) li praiol e herber. 
s. m. dwelHng-place. 
nom. sg. 1030 herberge en muntainne ne puet estre cel6. 



herberg6 ^ v. tr. to hart>our, give shelter. 

herbergez ) app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 52 herberg€ m*as ja en tun paleis marbiin. 

ppp. mas. pi. 1 126 ii (fustes) herbergez ches A. 

heumes s« m. helmet. 

ace. pi. 1468 deslacent aventailles, heumes e chapeus. 
hier adv. yesterday. 

215 mut ai dormi des hier. 
his, hissi, hissu under issi. 

















s. f. fright. 

ace. sg. 570 (engettez) cele croiz ketu Ih tens dunt as tu hisdur. 

}s. m. man, liege-man, servant ; people, "on." 
nom. sg. em 79 k'em claime Jesu : 648 k'em i mist : 688 (venger le tort) k'cm fait : 
719 k'em A. crucifie : 1366 k*em purra deviser : 1678 k'em ne puet tuer. 
365 ke hem vus face : 815 ke hem desdit 1817 hem [pendens ? or vocat. ? v. note] 
1 148 veintre nel pout hem vivant : 1314 dit hem en repmver : 
1541 n*i peust hem cunustre : — 
147 1 la busoingne Jesu faire cum sis hem leus : — 

345 soiez amis verais e hem de lealt6 : 1 2 ^4 si fiz est Deus e hem : 1 256 puis derinthan 
horn 227 uns hom (9a-jus desendi) : 368 hom h ad port6 (ewe) : 
406 par unt doit hom estre sauvez : 

434 avant ke nus hom garde s'en dura : 467 meint hom estre gari : 562 dit hom ; 
648 ne ren n'i espleite hom : 724 droiz est ke en terre vif hom Tensevelie : 
718 autrement ke li maistres sis hom ne muira mie: 
741 hom k*k mort est jug6 [pendens] : 

791 il avant passer ne pout hom : 80^ il nuls unc hom ala avant : 
1342 n'est hom ki n'en peust grant pietfi aver : 1377 cunustre les 
810 deveng sis hom e sis sergant : 1614 devint hom mortaL 
94 ne te serroit or ran^um, n'um mortal escu. 
120 ki mist hom en encumbrer : 1 156 ki hom furmer deignas : 
1255 k'en parais fist hom, masle e femmele: 1694 90 fait hom renaistre. 
338 met hum k grant mine e k perdiciun. 
725 cele mort apent 4 home ki le suen deu renie. 
5 uns cors d'um mortal : 668 (pener) le cors d'um. 
141 sanz cunoissance d'umme u repmver. 
„ „ humm€ 121 par humme cuvint descimifire : 341 par humme sunt li autre apris. 
ace. pi. hummes 1244 ki ses hummes e amis e ses privez apele. 
prp. „ „ 639 ne pur tuz les hummes ki vivent e murunt. 
s. m. homicide. 

nom. pi. 1682 avoutre e homicide, 
s. m. nonour. 

nom. sg. 1246 Tonur des deus suvereins ja besille e chancele : 1819 mes le honur Jesu crest 
ace. „ 585 tu en purras consirer gueredun e honur : 1663 granz •* ben e honur " omsirer : 
„ ,, 1757 Deus lirendeTonur. 



. hom 



















pout hom :— 



prp. 8g. 909 d honor I'acoflt Dens of ses desmeme eslitz : 

ff f, uiome deingnat i si grant honur en sun palois tenir : 

„ „ 152 1 ^ honor sunt e ^oire eo del acoOli : 1552 i honor les ont en sarcoz acoilli. 
tes adj. honoorable 

prp. pL 1032 (mil u plus) des plos honorables, riches e feffi5. 

▼• tr. to honoor. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 608 Mahom reni k'en enfer trait Id loi sert e honure : 

„ „ f, „ 1369 einz les honore toz jurs, cherist e avance. 

f» »> it pl* 92^ (Sathanas n'eit part) de ceus ki toi honurent. 

infin. 12 12 (me dein^nat) de sa robe ebruosd6e honorer e vestir. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 520 la croiz nuvde k'il ad tant honor6e. 

»» ( »» »» »» 0-) '395 1^ CO" ^^^ honur6, redot6, e cremu. 
ppp. mas. ace. sg. 303 (cdoi ke veistes) servi e honar6 de anglin legion. 

•> »f 8^^' *» 973 ^^ seint cors tocher le martir honor6. 
periph. pres. ptcp. 1762 ceos k'en cest mond^vos sont honorant 
adv. outside. 

750 hors de la dt€ l*ant trait. 
s. m. goest, host, 
ace. sg. 71 ad son oste entendo : 498 (facent venir i eos) loi e son hoste : 

„ „ 1 8 14 despois ke A. re^ot son oste Apl. 
prp. M 213 (s*en va parler) i son hoste. 

voc „ 51 A. bel hoste ! 215 beos hostes ! 277 beos ostes e ami : 377 beos ostes ! 
under hom. 
8. m. homage. 

ace. sg. 297 fai loi, com fere deiz, lingance e homage. 
.6 8. C homanity. 

ace. sg. 1 80 1 de virgne prist en terre homanity. 
nent adv. hombly. 

183 (respundi) tut umblement : 939 en ad umblement (merci6 Deo) : 

1457 mot homblement por loi reqoert. 

aaj. homan. 

mas. ace. 8g. 286 (ki rcscost de diable) homein lignage. 

If prp* *> '^^^ ^ homein lignage sont traitres enemi. 
▼. ref. to bow down. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 421 (ben vi) com il se homilia (i on Jeso). 
t 8.f.hummty. 

prp. sg. 369. 960. 1797 i g«»^ humiht6. 
, hommes under hom. 

V. tr. to dishonour. 

ppp. mas. 8g. 242 autres de toi sauvas, — ^tant es le plus honi. 

„ n I»* 4^ ^ °^ ^^^ ^^^ (^^ c^ paens criieus). 
8. f. shame. 

ace. sg. 831 veit la hontage de loi k* h* laqoelle] alom vengant. 

prp. sg. 290 tant soM de peine e de hontage :— 1557 de honuge defent ceos ki en loi croient. 
s. f. disgrace, 
ace. sg. 462 vos fra honte. 


adr. I there, (a) in that place, (fi) on it, (<r) in that matter (those circumstances) ; a thither, to that 


nnt truv6 : 770 i passent : 771 i perisent : 706 i fust i flote : 853. 1422 sol 1 est : 857 sei i ont eil 
943 i oot ovr6 : 97 a Deos iad mostr^ : 1027 destroite i seit : 1 182 i aparorent : 1469 repos n*i avoit 
1541 i pciUt cunostre: 1547 i truvasmes: 1564 i estoit present: 1839 musterai imon livre 
1843 hatesme i requoraL 

(^ 5 de fust i fo furmez : 951 par les cheveos i pent : 1 1 1 3 11 sancs A. i pert a^rs. 

{c) 92 bis. trop i es ennnez, deceii : 279 faoset6 ke n1 seit : 463 mal ki point n*i avez detern : 
648 bis, ren n*i espldte par peine k em i mist : 672. 702 ni post (pout) aver mester : 
995 trop i a sun barat scm6 (▼. note) : 1825 ne i deise iaoset^. 


(a) 630 A. i trainent : 650. 1699 ^ acurent : 1276 nos i imiin : 1722 ces i enveit Dens. 

(3) 104. 175 i entent : 182 i apent : 196. 1574 i assent : 441 i apendra : 

1 189 on sols i faut : 1547 un sul i failli 
(4) 381 tant i a plenty : 1589 tant i a gent : — 

4 n'i out acast : 22 n*i out plus cuneuz : 769 i out plenty : 1766 meint en i out blesc< :— 
1325. 1639 n*i out ke curucer ^nothing but anger) : 1771 n*i out Id (not one who). 
1340 ne railli ke n'i eiist mil enter ke un sul. 
ignel adj. swift. 

mas. ob. sg. 1421 muntez [sur] grant destrer ignel. 
„ ace. pi. 1484 ki destrers avoient plus fortz e plus igneus. 
ignelement adv. swiiUy. 

1593 pur tost venir poinnent ignelement. 
igneus under ignd. 

il pers. pron. he, (she), it. 

Mas. nom. sg. il 10. 56. 152. 319. 373. 413. 421. 422. 430. 440. 45^. 475. 515. S*0- 527- SP- 557- 

561. 744. 783. 807. 91a 919. 932. 953. 958. 970. 991. 1017. 1048. lO&S. 1094. 
1099. 1150. 1185. 1216. 1224. 1239. 1335. 1431. 1433. 1477. 1528. is6a 1573. 
1579. 1580. 1581. 1587. 1621. 1630. 1703. 1711. 1772. 1803. 
following its verb : — 

43. 215. 285. 417. 946. 1 123. 1245. 1644. 1669. 1708 dist il : 660 doinst il 
ace. sg. l€ 24. (107 or ntr. ?) 198. 264. 284. 315. ti6. 481. 528. 655. 656. 665. 823. 835. 
844. 845. 846. 9*1. 1004. 1130. 1157. 1104. 1174. 1265. 1344. 1367. I4i6.i42i. 
1439* 15^7* 1597* i^iS* 1630. 1729: — (before vowels) 237. 1599. 1784. 
-/ 203 nel vout guerpir: 687 nel vout pas ublier: Ii48flecchir nel pout hem: 

1569 nel croi : 1626 nel volent parocire. 
r 31. 41. 74. 104. 146. 175. 281. 322. 371. 399. 421. 423. 431. 492. 531. 541.615. 
616. 620. 629. 724. 726. 749. 750. 753. 757. 894. 909. 945. 955. 971. 982.989. 
1009. 1015. 1019. 1022. 1042. 1096. 1 122. 1170. 1408. 1425. 1428 Ins. 1459. 
1500- 1533' 1598. 1603. >6o6- '610. 1668. 1700. 1735. 174a 1771. 1788. 
lui 139 lui enfanter : 346 vus Cavez eschoisi) lui : ^37 susprendra lui e snnmikxe: 
490 lui e sun hoste facent venir : 733 nul ne voie mais autres lui : 
7U lui suit grant pueple : 1370 lui eiment : 1723 lui reconfofter. 
li 162^ li turmenter. 
dat. sg. li 30 h grante : 1 76 li a respundu : 188 li fras sacrifice : 191. 544 li ad dit : 

204lidemustrersunsegrei: 271 liest parilgal: 284 li ad mustr6 : 3i4lifirentmal: 
368 li ad port£ : 391 li avoit proiez : 397 li ad desdos : 517 li sdt tramise : 
953 di li (tell him) : 1008 ne li vaudra un esperun : 1 149 li ofrimes : 
1 134 li curt sure : 143 1 li est duz : 1463 k pleisir li vent: 1463. 1673 li plest : 
1 757 li rende Tonur. 
/mi 581uipri: 206 avis lui est : 211 lui ad mustr^: 297£uloihiimage: 6o8hiisat: 
61 7 Im recuntai : 966 lui vent 4 volenti : 1 1 7 1 lui cnntredinnt : 1222 proiez Im : 
1 798 lui aurent : 1864 lui porter fei. 
as dat, of personal reference^ in place of possess, adj. ;— 
li 256 la curaille li ovri : 534 la robe li est ensanglaentte : 731 li oQ ciev^ li soieot: 
840 li nierf li sunt rumpu : 895 li fait voler le chef: 913 li sunt li oO saiDiz: 
1013 li ad le chief sevr^ : 1175 li oil li sunt chaet : 1360. 1409. 1604 les bnt 
(meins^ li unt li6 : 1430 doillant li sunt li neif : 
lui 205 lui esmoiller le quoer : 836 les denz lui fait voler : 1 1 16 le qiior lid emraL 
prp. sg. li 720 4 li: 720. 1202 de li : 239.461 devantli: 7i7enli: 1075. iTObentorli: 
1630 pur li. 

480 ofiiokes lui : 839 par lui: 300. 529. 658. 1124. 1335. 1457 par lid: 219. 
1456 vers lui. 

nom. pi. il 107. 248. 315. 392. 404. 509. 519. 620. 622. 824. 987. 1012. 1036. Ilia it/S^ 
y96'^S43» 1586. 1624. 1738. 1760. 1768. 1785. 1793. »®'5' 
following its verb : — 
1333 tant sunt il plus crueus. 
ace. pL les 109. 265. 310. 312. 408. 409. 410. 438. 647. 694. 758 [dat?] 1241. 1216. 1136k 
1241. 1275. 1351 bis. 1353. 1369. 1400. 1499; 1522. 1526. 1542. 1544. I54S- 
1551* 1552* 1574- 1597* 1599* i^i* i^s* 1665. 1741. 1756. I79i3. 1795. i8ia 


following its verb : — 

1377 ke cunustre les pout horn. 
- J 108 nes vout espamier . 1589 li chemins nes cumprent. 
dat. M l*t^ 106 lur defeiidi ii manger: 115. 117. 1322 lur cuvint Memener, &c.) : 116. 

1337. 128/ lur plut (escuter, &c.) : 31 1 lur fist dun : 313 lur cnvea : 764 estroit 

lur fa le champ : 881 lur tramist : 926 bis. Tewe lur secchis e puis la lur dunas : 

1012 lur vint A gr6 : 1076 lur dist : 1374 les mcnbres lur sunt restorez : 1398 lur 

est aparu : 1683 lur apent. 

of personal reference^ in place of possess, adj. ;— 

1779 les Is^ngcs lur ardent (their tongues bum), 
prp. „ rur 499. 567 ii eus : 256. 410. 721. 1481. 1493. 1525. 1527. 1592. 1768 de eus. 

1424 devant eus: 883. 919. 1469 entre eus: Iit2 of eus: 1525 par eus: 

1329 pur eus [but v. note]. 
Fern. nom. sg. eU 522. 

ace. „ la 13. 135. 231. 442. 492. 509. 824. 926. 173a. 1820. 

» M 477. SM. 535- 879. 1533. 
Ntr. nom. „ V used with impersonal verbs : — 

1 18 cil, ^ k'il plut k lui (v. note) : 388. 1276 s*il vus plabt : 441 cum il i apendra : 

967 puis k*i] fut ajum^ : 1679 li cuvendra il demurer. 

,. ace. M ^ 107 il le trespasserent [id or eum f^ : 388 le m'otriez ! 828 mar le deis : 833 ki 

antrement le dit : 964 oien le croi ... ke est martir: 1168 ledisoient . . . 

ke 90 fu, Sec. 15 19 n'est pa: ti cum vus le quidez : 1562 le pdum saver: 

1743 le purvit : 1821 ben le oi. 

- / 273 bb. quors nel puet penser, ne jo nel vus pardi. 

/' 83 jo ne rai apris . . . Deu deingnast : 142. 478. 737 Tottreit : 561 ben Tad 

pruv6 ke il est boiseur : 828 mar Talas cuntruvant : 1028 cum Deus Tad devis6 : 

1034 bien Tunt dit : 1 1 30 si tu Tes recordant : 1 193 apris Tas. 

f (Mowing its verb : — 

276 descuverir ne V os. 

adv. there ; d'iluec, from thence : (always precedes the verb, and generally the auxiliary also, save in 

448. 479. 1 4 JO where it comes between). 

395' 440. 738. 1 1 18. 1467. 1783 iluec. 

119. 168. 17a 227. 479. 984. 1053. 1133* '450 d'iluec. 

s. f. image. 

ace. sg. 291 cum veiz en ceste croiz figur^e la image. 

ob. », 624 on image d'or bruni (v. note). 

) adj. angiy. 

I mas. nom. sg. 1566 tant par est irascuz, i pou de ire ne fent. 

»* M pl> ^ nc soiez irascu : 863 fremissent e crient dolent e irascu. 

s. f. anger. 

nom. sg. 1597 grant ire les esprent : 1627 tele est lur ire. 

ace. „ 502 n averunt vers toi plus ne ire ne rancur : 824 k*avant urent ire, ore la vunt U dublant. 

prp. „ 446. 543. 1565 de ire e mautalent (fremi) (tut mue la culur) (tut est enflambez) : 

993 suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envenim6 : 1243 (ait e restencele) de ire : 

1566 tant par est irascuz, i pou de ire ne fent : — 

197 s*en part par ire e mautalent : 1294 ad dit par grant ire. 

^ adj. angry. 

J mas. nom. pL 1 J56 (pa£ns) plus crfleus e ires ke n'est urs u sengler. 

ft tf ff 9^5 (p^n) en sunt trop ir6 : 1498 nus en fumes ires e dolent e man. 

ent adv. angrily. 

191 A. B ad dit irdement. 

, ifmnt nnder aler. 

t. BL ingcr. 

pip. 9g. 544 pou U ad dit par curuz e irur. 

I. achr. thus. 

127 tot ini sala<br : 1^3 tut issi cum vus recunt. 

II. ) V. intr. to come out, issue, go out. 

I tud. prct. 3 sg. 6$3 du corsli sancs ki s'espand, ist : 837 du nies e de la bocbe li sancs ist c espiuit : 
>f M ff »t I73> l*Alnie atant 8*en ist de sa chamel maisun. 

C* ft ff >57 ^^ <^c apertement sane e ewe hissi : 480 A. de la cit6 oluokes hii isai. 
er. 2 sg. 754 va-t-en ! his ! enemi nus deus de la cit6 (▼. note), 
pp. nas. sg. 876 d*ane bele fontainne est li roisseus hissu. 


tt tf 
tt >f 
«• *f 





adj. such. 

mas. prp. sg. 1583 (prendrai vengement) de itel fclun traitre. 

s. f. ivory. 

prp. sg. 3 (ne ert adubb^) dc ivoire ne real. 






ja adv. of asseveration ; already, in truth, of past or future time. A, with simple tenses, (a) following, 

(b) preceding the verb ; B, in compound tenses, as below. 
A {a) 243. 279. 299. 427. 491. 641. 906. 928. 931. 104a. 1 107. 1 146. 1331. I637. 

(b) 172. 247. 347. 443. 733. 1054. 1246. 1320. 1464. isog. 
B (a) averysiptcp, 319. 629. 1552. 1653. 1800 : aver ptcp. ja 750: ptcp. aver ja 52. 
(/3) estre ysi ptcp, 93. 251. 392. 407. 486. 539. 848. 883. 937. 948. 1 392. 1 794 : 
estre ptcp. ja 95 : ptcp. estre ja 419. 712. 1045 : ptcp. ja estre 133 1 : 
ja estre ptcp. 389. 451. 102 1. 1035. 1536. 

(In this last case, where ja precedes both auxil. and ptcp. it is only future), 
adv. formerly. 
309 ki jadis furent serfs, 
adv. (with or without ne), never. 

173 il nafra jamais mortz : 220 jamais ne nus purra sevrer : 

1 537 ki jamais n'ert fini : 1580 plus ne mangera jamais : 1635 sanz jamais returner, 
adv. certainly [cf. note on 1536 J. 
548 ne fiiissez citoien, jas fuissez \ mort livrez. 
s. m. jasper stone. 

prp. pi. 904 cunine de jaspes, esmeraudes, &c. 
n. pr. Jesus. 

nom. 46. 178. 487. 609. 935. 1057. 1123. 1178. 1542. 1556 Jesus: — 
165 Tcsu (only instance without s). 

9. 286. 516. 917. 992. 1190. 1381. 1393. 1437. 1460. 1472. 1643. I7'7* 1797* 1S19 Jesu:— 
899 Jesu Cristz (in rime). 

50. 79. 146. 308. 413. 583. 609. 637. 654. 759. 801. 820. 947. 1104. laja 1252. 1457. 1629. 
1634. 1650. 1660 Jesu. 

491 Jesum : — 1 705 Jesun (in rime) : — 54 Jesu Crist, 
(dat.) 022 proiez Jesu: 1267 Jesu ne aurai. 

prp. 377. 422. 1 161. 1315. 1442. 1496. 1596. 1632. 1790. 1826. 1844 i Jesu : — 
36 du fiz Deu, Jesu Crist : 501 d'un deu, Jesu : 605. 1531 de Jesu : — 
609. 1383 en Jesu:— ^5. 1072. 1318. 1482. pur Jesu. 
voc. 330. 811. 868 Jesu ! &3 Jesu Crist ! 
adj. fresh (but v. note). 

fem. nom. sg. 1466 une pleinne ki vertz fu e jieus. 
pers. pron. I. 

8j. 172. 258. 272. 273. 456. 471. 594. 614. 616. 829 bis. 1077. 1207. ISS<< 1710. 1761. 
1830. 1841. 
follcnuing its verb : — 
663 me doins jo. 

separated by relative clause from its verb : — 

476 jo ta esclavine, ke 9a porter vus vi, plus Teim : 181 1 jo, ki estoie S., vi le cvmcDfail. 
as disjunctive pnmoun : — 

219 tu serras mi maistres e jo tis escoler : 1835 jo, peccheres orikiiiii. 
me 179.218.385.429.609.610.966.120^1715. 

moi 661 ki moi cria : 1213 pur moi garantu- (v. note) : 1709 regardez moi* (mm MS.). 
mei 1717 mettre mei k connisiun. 
m* 52. 97. 387. 606. 689. 1 184. 1534. 

with pronominal verbs : — 
m{e) 77. 663. 1104. 1208 1442. 1826. 1841. 18^4 ivm; 27. 63. 376. 380 m*. 
dat, „ me 77 me dis tu : 78 me portes nuveles : 274 bis. me mustra, descavri : 278 me recnat : 
660. 1228 me doinst : 1281 me plest. 
m* 57 escu m*est : 8 1 m'est vis : 224 avis m*ert : 388 le m'otriez : 472 quancke m*a puneu : 
781 m*est atum6 : 1 224 il m*ottreit : 1714 m*enveit. 






nom. sg. JO 



(jo) mot i8i di moi. 

met 1 2 20 grantez mei (venir) ! 171 1 k'il mei part doinst. 

of personal refer encey in place of possess, adj\ : — 
m{e) 1454 le cors m'est feble : 606 tant cum vie me dure, 
prp. „ moi 251. 383. ^64. 1438. 1716 de moi : 45 dcvant moi : 386. 1535. 1840 of moi : 

485. 822. 073. 1455. 1620 pur moi : 1077. 1669 vers moi. 
nom. pi. nus 457. 1007. 1002. iioiS. 1 184. 1187. 1275. 1276. 1498. 1538. 1545. 1634. 1637. 176a (v. note), 
ace. „ nus 29. 36. 38. 39. 1 1 8. 1 19. 220. 270. 305. 832. 932. 933. 1048. 1309. 1316. 1448. 1474. 1799. 
dat. ,, nus 545 nus as fait deshonur : 1050 nus grante : 1094 Tewe k*il nus sustrait (for our sakes) : 
if70solaz nus feseit : 1271 nus faillent: 1447 vis nus fu: 15 10 nus basti maus : 
157 1 ki nus mentent : 1577 bis. nus ad fait damage, nus ad toleit gent : 
1647 nus as fait encumbrer. 
prp. „ nus 91. 927. 1194 de nus : 558 devant nus : 147 entre nus : 1321. 1324 of nus : 
144. 292. 759. 93a 1047 pur nus : 11 24 vers nus. 
jofnesce s. f. youth. 

prp. sg. 466 si fuissez peri en vostre jofnesce. 
joiant adj. gkd. 

mas. prp. sg. 1 195 pretz sumes tuit k fere i, quor baud e joiant. 
joie s. f. joy, gladness. 

nom. sg. 272 la joie ki i fu e ke jo i o7, quors nel puet penser (v. note), 
ace. „ 172 recevez la joie ke jo ja vus promis : 1050 nus grante la joie ki par est delitable : 
t> »> 1354 pur joie demener : 1480 de teus en unt joie li angre : 
„ „ 1501 en lermes e grant duel lur joie converti. 
pip* t> 1322 (parcener of nus) de la joie du del dunt quor ne puet penser : 
„ „ 1491 mut sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi : 1553 devum tuit estre de joie repleni : — 
„ „ 268 en joie sunt dresc6 e esbaudi : 1046 regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable. 
jointes (joindre) v. tr. to join, clasp (hands). 

ppp. fem. prp. pi. 328 ^ jointes meins a dit e i weimentisun. 
joins adj. joyfuL 

mas. nom. sg. 906 A. est ja seur, joius e esbaudiz. 

» If pi* 918 li un en sunt joius e li autre mariz : 1097 li angere joius e esbaudi (I'unt serv-i). 
joure \ adj. young. 

joures ] mas. nom. pi. 746 cele sentence unt joure e viel conferm6 : 7 7 1 * li joure volentrifs (I'ewe passent ^ nou ) : 

„ „ „ 1067 voient apertement li joure e enchani : 15 13 weimentent li joure e enveilli. 
„ ace. „ 1378 queus joures, queus veuz (cunustre les pout hom, v. note). 
Jovin n. pr. Jupiter. 

ace. sg. 335 Jovin descunus e sim frere Neptun : 11 02 (reni) Jovin e danz Phebun : 
» »» 1301 jurent Jovin lur deu. li plus haut k'est sanz per. 
gen. „ 1817 estoie de la loi (A. P. D.) Phebun e Jovin. 
P>P* » 1575 P^ Jovin ki guie terre e firmament 
juant aqj. playing, living [cf. '' aUve and kicking"]. 

mas. nom. pi. 794 de mort resuscitez vifs levent e juant. 
Judas n. pr. id. 

prp. 155 trahi par Judas : 931 (fu quis) par Jueus e Judas le traitre. 
Joeos I. (155. 101) under GSu ii. 
jueos II. 8. m. jewel, gem. 

ace. pi. 1 149 ascz U ofrimes,-jueus, argent, besantz. 
jage 8. m. judge. 

nom. sg. 645 (li princes) ki presentz juge i sist. 
jvgf onderjuger. 

jugement ) s. m. judgment, 
jngementz / ace. sg. 761 pur ver le gugement au queu chief fust men6. 

prp. „ 40^ du grant jugement ki tant est redutez : 1573 il en perdera le cief par jugement. 
ace. {^. 740 autres jugementz unt desdit e faus6. 
juger 1 V. tr. to judge ; to adjudge, condemn. 

jngeras > ind. fat. 3 sg. 39 ki puis jugera nus tuz au paraler. 
jugez ) infin. 1 70 d'iluec vendra juger les mortz e vifs. 

ppp. mas. sg. 741 hom k'i mort est yig€ : 1151ft mort estoit jugez e amenez avant. 
jnr 8. m. day, time, period ; tuz jurs, always. 

nom. 8g. 454 quant li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri : 1054 li solailz ja decline e li jurs envespri : 

»• f» 915 le jar A. cumence e li suens est finiz : 1821 uncore vendra le jur. 
(ace) „ 603 jur e nuit aure (Deu) : 674 90 fu jur e nuit sun mester : 

857 ceu jur (unt eu) grant chalur : 976 ne fu unc plus deUvres jur pais k*il fu nt : 

k 2 

»t tt 





















(acc.) sg. 1380 unc plus beos ne estoient jar puis lur enfance. 

prp. „ 145 fu au jur oitisme circumcis : 621 (fu) au jur quant feste fimt : 
M >f 858 au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent befl : 1 140 damage encurumes unc k nul jur tint. 

(acc.) pi. 163 tuz jurs declinerent : 301. 924. 1046 tuz jurs regneras : 

321 en enfer il ert tuz jurs sa mansiun : 360 ralme tuz jurs viit : 
618 enclins avez tuz jurs est6 i pecchez : 818 tei tuz jurs apele : 
1023 en la prisun est tuz jurs au mauf6 : 1369 les honure tuz jurs : 
1676 14 est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver : — 
529 pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun €e. 

V. tr. to swear, adjure. 

ind. pres. 3 se. 447 jure les grantz vcrtuz Mahommet sun ami. 
M f> ,} pi. 1 36 1 jurent Jovin lur deu. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1034 bien Tunt dit e jur6 : 14 10 jur6 unt Mahomet e lur grantz dens dc ccl. 
„ ( „ ant. „ „ ) 1736 jur6 eurent avant. 

adj. daily (v. note). 

prp. sg. 1606 entur le pel Tenchacent cum i chemin jumal. 

s. f. daily journey. 

prp. pi. 1 290 ne finent k jum6es tut seir^ chevaucher. 

under jur. 

adv. below, here below. 

227 uns hom d'iluec en terre 9a jus desendi. 

V. tr. to rule, moderate. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 590 justise par sage atempreiire (sun curage e quor). 

s. m. youth. 

acc. sg. 1424 devant eus funt cure le gentil juvencel. 

prp. pi. 1483 adunc se sunt muntez li uns des juvenceus. 


k' I. under ki. 

k' II. under ke. 
k.iiTs adj. epileptic (? v. note). 

acc. pi. 149 (sana) . . . desvez e kails, 
kancke, kant under qant. 
kar conj. causal, for, because ; except before imperatives, where it s M. F. done. 

97. 134. 189. 198. 206. 217. 251. 276. 288. 300. 346. 366. 420. 432. 438. 470. 487. 587. 668. 728. 
74a 964. 1 177. 1260. 1266. 1492. 1518. 1520. 1671. 1689. 1735. 1796. 
with imperatives : — 

485 kar proiez Deu pur moi : 819 kar guerpissez M. : 1043 ^^ soiez sucorable : if 57 eel mal kar 
restorez : 1638 kar requerez J. 
ke I. conj. that, Sec, 

A, in adversative sentences ; B, in noun sentences ; C, in adverbial sentences I, of time, — 2, place,— 
3, of cause, (a) causal, (b) hypothetic, (c) concessive, (d) consecutive, (e) final, — 4, of manner, after 
comparatives, &c. 

[Examples under two rubrics, (a) followed by verb in indicative, (/3) subjunctive.] 
A mes ke, except that : — 

(a) 1 1 14 mil sunt mes ke li uns remist : 1189 mil sumes mes ke uns suls i faut : 1547 mils cors itnnras- 
mes mais ke un sul i failli. 
B in case sentences ; r, mw(., 2 acc, 3 gen., 4 dat. (5 other cases) : — 

(B) I (a) 224 avis m*ert ke li eels se desclot : 241 ore pert ke tu es despit : 

965 sui acert6 ke eu regne du ciel est martir : 1088 ore pert k'il ne fu tnian : 
1528 pesa al darrcinner k'il fu espami : 1579 damage est k'il ne pent. 
<i3) 557 k*i fause fust pruv6e, ben pert. 

{&) 719 [est] droitz k*em A. cruciiie : 724 droiz est ke en terre vif hom Tensevelie : 
744 custumme est kc il seit decol6 : 919 n'est droitz k*il seit despiz. 

k'au temple irrunt : 646 veit k'A. lur loi despiist : 1068 voient le sepulcre ke tut fa esdard: 
1 143 veimes ke par A. fu durant : 1 169 disoient ke 90 fu la vertu du solail : 1 178 entendimes ke J. 
est eel guvemant : i486 dire ke est venuz : 1494 eunta ke cist furent sumuns : 1529 vdsez ke lepere 
fori : 1738 jur€ eilrent k'il amerroient : 1803 gelsent ke il a dreiturenment u\t«. 


with subj, after negative principal clauses : — 
3) 84 jo ne I'ai leu ke Deu 'ddngnast naistre : 99 ne vout D. ke soiez damnez : 194 ne purroit estre 
priiT6 ke on fust trois : 730 ne voudroie ke A. perdist la vie : 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis 
poples perdu : 1316 ne place ft J. ke nus puissez sevrer* : 1784 ne se pout nul vanter ke le eiist 

after verbs of commanding, P^^yi^^gy ^c, :■ 
(/3) 279 lauset6 ke n*i seit ja, ^o pri : 489 ft lui ^ 

vus cumant, [beseeching you] kc ne soiez de lui esloinnez : 
497 cumande ke la musun A. seit cerch^e : 594 quidez ke jo recleim : 649 cumande lue batu seit : 
1146 creumes ke fust repentant : 1283 cumande K'en W. aillent : 1586 fait crier cumandement ke 
tuz li sivent : 1762. 1765 jo viis quoer ke nus . . . ke [pleonastic] sauf soium. 
with subj, after imperatives, of prayer, request : — 
(p) 485 proiez D. ke ne soie fleccniz : 932 proiez k'il nus ne perde pas : 953 di li k*i] garisse : 958 fai 
ke u leit enterr6 : 959 (fai) ke soit le corps pos6 en sarcu : iOd8 proiez k*il nus gard : 1227 proiez k'ft 
vostre cumpainnie me doinst D. ateindre : 1638 requerez J. k*en s6um parcener : 1 71 1 requerez D. 
k'Q mei part doinst. 

(3) (a) 963 ne deiissez esjoir ke par vus est A. Iivr6 : 1539 esjo! ke D. n'avoit mis en ubli : 1554 de joie re* 

pleni ke D. ad tant seisi. 
(a) 1630 Jesu mercier k*il le tenc digne : 1793 sunt repentant k*il les unt tant am6. 
(/}) 180 curage me prent ke crestiens deveingne (v. note). 

(4) (c) 1 1 10 lur foi unt plevi ke il lur emprise ne larrunt. 

(5) eUipticaify, introducing substantivized adjectivc'clauses iv. note on 557) : — 

557 ben pert k*il out poiir (by this that he had) : 816 tesmoine le element ke ft toi est atendant. 
(i) tem p ora l , a, until, — b, whilst, during the time that,—c, before that, — d, after that, since : — 
a (c) 315 tant ke il le mistrent ft mort : 512 tant k'une chambre unt truv6e : 181 5 gesk* d tant k*i] furent 

mis en sarcu. 
b (p) 667 tant 1ft demurer ke sun voler pousse flecchir (v. note). 

1811 ne dormirai ... si 1ft k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 

808 ai perdu mun viant ke ne I'ai servi (v. note). 

1530 tant k*as plaies bender li freres main tendi : 1750 ke sarrazin ne erent apercevant. 
c (c) 434 avant ke nus hom garde s*en dura. 

S429 avant ke plus avenge, 90 fra : 1^63 einz ke ft V. aient fait mener A. 
373 apres 90 ke il out trestut cest achev6. 
(a) 147 apres pou de tens puis ke out entre nus mis : 152 puis ke il fu d*age * 

967 puis k*il fut ajum6 : 976 puis k'il fu n6 : 1522 puis ke les eiimes truvez. 
(a) 379 despuis ke D. ad tun quor sael6 : 430 despuis Ke il verra : 999 despuis k*il out le cors tuch^ : 
1432 despuis ke ft A. aproce : 1443 despuis k" A. decol6 fu : 1813 despuis ke A. re^ut. 

(2) loail, in phr. deci If d, from here to : — 

169 d k*a Teuue du Rin : 1264 de ci k*ft Burdele. 

(3) a causal; because, since, for : — 

(a) 196 despuis ke raisuns n*i assent : — 

{m) 451 ke ia pur lignage ne serra espami : 1292 ke 90 fu sun mester : 
1309 k ami estle Deu verai : 1433 k*il ne va querant el. 

iff) 1027 achev6 lur voler par tant ke destruite i seit crestient^. 
b hypothetic, provided that : — 

(fi) 475 piu' quei k*il t*en vde vestu. 
c concessive, — et^er, even though : — 

(A 1449 quei k*envius die (in euiptic clause) : 810 ore . . . mes ke ft tart, deveng sis hom. 
d consecutive, that, so that, to such an extent that : — 

(a) 185 tant tun quor eslumine ke tu voz craire : 656 tant le cheriit ke a lui meimes semblable le li&t : 
751 tant lui suit grant pueple k'ft poun'cst void6 : 788 sunt tant ke Tewe va si apetizant : 1 120 tant 
vunt querant ke Apl. unt truv6 : 1216 tant leument obeir k'U ne les vout nnc emrdndre : 1334 tant 
sunt plus crueus ke dient : 1 377 les cors plus blancs . . . ke cunustre les pout hom : — 1 388 fcs com 
unt defendu k'U n'unt entam6 : 1406 cest travail si grant ke unc n'avoient tel : 1473 cstcs vus itVLs 
ke vns redamez: 1699 batent ferent ke tut est escul6: 1610 I'unt batu ke li sancs raa aval : 
1702 batent ke tut est debris^. 

ifi) 790 va si apetizant ke n'i fust nus ft flote : 1744 ^^ ^^ purvit Deus ke tuit fussent parjure. 

(A 1 106 ne larrum . . ke soium flecchi : 1 440 ne laist ke ses criz ne eshauce. 
modal-consecutive (« sans que) : — 

(/I) 95 n'om mortal [ne te serroit escu] ke ne fuisnez dctrenchez : 115 ne pout estre guarantz ke tu/ nc 
lor cvvtnt aler : 22 1 ne nus purra sevrer k'cn vostre doctrine ne votlle demurer. 

(fi) ic8i ke il ne cunpere cert ovre cherement : 1771 kc il ne fust du cors cuntrait. 
c final, iff order that : — 

OS) 491 ma croiz vus doini ke ne mettes (?) J. en ubbli : $17 ad reclame b let J. ke sa vertu li ^it 

Ixxviii GLOSSARY. 

tramise : 672 mis i fu enchaesnez k*aie n'i pust aver mester : 1402 en escrit unt mis le nombre k'en 
lunge remembrance seit leu : 1549 as cors garder vunt ke nul ne fust blesmi : 1696 vus puryoier ke 
ne soiez del tut peri : 17 15 m'enveit consoUiciun ke ne me flecchissent : 1756 les cors ad enterr^ke 
ne les devurassent. 
after imperatives : — 
{P) 443 pemez vengance, k'en dient : 469 alez vus ent, ke ne soiez huni : 735 enchacez seit ke mais de 
li ne seit nuvele oie: 1083 penance demenum ke ne seium peri: 1299 desdi . . . ke peusum 
(4) madalf after comparatives with plus, verb of clause being (1) omitted, (2) expressed, [in which case 

it is alwajrs accompanied by a negative] : — 
(i) 470.477.615. 729.860. 1009. 1060. 1070. 1206. 1259. 1319. 1405. 1417. 1425. 1431. 1544. 1569. 

1574. 1720 plus . . . ke. 
(2) 425. 460. 521. 669. 877. 1070. 1250. 1356. 1376 plus . . . ke ne — . 
with other expressions of comparison or difference : — 
637 ainz purra mer secchir ke Jesu treshublie. 
123 en autre k'en sun cher fiz : 718 autrement ke li maistres. 
after negative clauses^ = except, save : — 
1325. 1639 n'i out ke curucer. 
ke II. under ki. 

kemeus s. m. embattlement. 

ace. pi. 1465 (ja veient) tureles e kemeus (de lur temples e paleis). 
keus under queus. 

ki I. pron. interrog. who ? what ? — ^ntr. used as interrog. adv., why ? 

mas. nom. sg. 32. 464. 545 ki ? — 881 ki (dependent), 
ntr. „ „ 278 k' est ?— 181. 182 bis. ke (dependent), 
adv. 818. 887. 1295. 
ki II. pron. rel. who, which ; often used as demonstrative-relative, he who, that which. 

mas. nom. sg. ki 9. 16. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 36. 39. 55. 59. 60 bis. 61. 78. 80. 84. 85. 97. 102. 108. 

118. 120. 122. 126. 130. 132. 137. 174. 202. 204.230. 243. 263. 270.271. 283.286. 

^ ^ .. . ,^. 43-»o3 

304. 367. 405. 408. 415. 419. 423. 424. 442. 459. 466. d&i, A87.49a 49a. 50a 513. 

;. 637. 645. 

726 {?} 727. 742. 759. 760. 
J. 854. 856. -"'--- 

931* 937- 944- 971* 9^* 1021. 1022. 1038. 1042. 1053. 1057. 1060. 106 1 bis. 1064. 

524. 528. 545. 550. 553. 572. 574. 578. 588. 591. 603.637. 645. 653. 654. 655.661. 
687. 691 bis. 723. 725. 726 (?) 727. 742. 759. 760. 774. 777. 782. 783. 797. 799. 
830. 832. 849. 854. 856. 858. 860. 869. 870. 878. 890. 894. 896. 899. 902. 921.925. 

1072. 1086. 1090. 1095. 1115. 1122. 1132. 1156. 1172. 1 174. 1209. 1222. 1244. 
1247. 1250. 1293. 1303. 1314. 1315. 1342. 1344. 134J. 1348. 1351. 1368. 1386. 
1420. 1434. 1435. 1437. 1438. 1442. 1452. 1461. 1463. 1474. 1487. 1496. 1509. 
'337- iSSO- 1557- 1558 bis. 1564. 1567. 1572. 1575. 159A. 1602. 1613. 1614. 1634. 
1636. 1642. 1678. 1686. 1709. 1727. 1 741. 1757. 1783. i8fi. 1824. 1837. 1838. 
k' 61. 66. ICO. 362. 452. 458. 478. 484. 502. 511. 608. 655. 659. 741. 875. 930. 942. 
953. 1029. 1 160. 1199. 1255. 1259. 1357. 1361. 1375. 1398. 1447. 1508. 1544. 
qui 546. 1087. 

ke 650 (n'a cist ke). 1051. 1170. 

ki (s celui qui) 138. 189. 350. 608. 610. 734. 784. 833. on. 1200. 1262. 1338. 1383. 
1463 bis. (ki) (k') 1570. 1574. 1591. 1775.— 1771 (n*i out ki). 
gen. sg. ki 116 ki cunseil : 736 ki doctrine : 948 la chief, 
ob. „ ki 1309 ki nus plut tuz crier (v. note), 
ace. „ ke 275. 302. 306. 422. 542. 583. 622. 755. 830. 91a 986. 1099. 
k' 688. 811. 987. 1017. 1678. 1768. 
ki 331. 427. 463. 788. 1003. 1237. 1287. 1660. 
prp. „ ki 118. 498. 817.1091.1308^10: ii9odeki: 1433 of ki: 44. 86. 1489. 15 15 pir 

ki: 920. 1191. 1267. 1444. 1449. 1494 pur ki: 40sanzki. 
nom. pi. ki 50. 163. 169. 260. 307. 309. 353. 358. 563. 564. 566 bis. 581. 620. 63a 639. 643. 
738- 753- 772. 773- 781. 793- 802.825. 848. 857. 858 (v. note). 928. 932. 954. 
1033. 1034. 1044. 1045. 1049. 1066. 1079. 1080. 1081. 117a 1271. 1296 (v. note). 

1329- «353- 1370. 1371. 1382. 1392. 1482. 1484. 1534- '536. 1557. 1571. 1593 

1649. 1661. 1667. 1680. 1697. 1719. 1735. 1794. 1818. 
^ 14. 599. 642. 855. iioi. 1209. 1551. 1596. 1654. 1720. 1753. 1762. 1788. 
ke 1717. 
qui 1795. 
ace. „ ke 267.634. 1037. iioo. 1396. 1631. 1657. 
k' 319. 1273. 1785. 


^ 93^* 1330- 1511* 1674* 
fern. nom. sg. >h' I. 129. 272. 284.435. 506. 595. 596.669.690. 698. 701. 772*. 788. 952. 1050. 

1055. 109V 1252. 1345. 1405. 1460. 1714. 1769. 
>' 495. 1002. 1268. 1320. 1451.— 337 ke(y. note), 
ace. „ ke 172. 365. 476. 570. 972. 1007. 1 185. 1238. 1261. 1571. 1824. 1836. 
** 79- 387- 5»9- 533- M- 824. 831. 897. 1094. 1366. 
ki 1205. 
nom. pL ki 705. 
ace. „ k(e) C15. 787 k\— 943 ke. 
ntr. nom. tg. kt 81 (a id quod« v. note) : 781. 11 28. 1194. 
i^cc- N ^ 77* 43<^ 457* ^^6. 619. 815 (k*). 1184 90 ke. 

[a* 90 ke] 178. 218. 278. 324. 433. 439. 448. 456. 546. 728. 1077. 1298. 1658. 1659. 


]\ U I. under il. 

\\ b II. nnder li. 
li adv. there, always precedes the verb, and generally, immediately. 

570. 627. 666. 76a 856. 890. 1053. 1587. 1676. 1679 1684. 171a (v. note), 1739. 1831. 
labor s. m. labour. 

prp. sg. 1 1 1 cnvint lur vie demener en labor. 
labnrant \ v. mtr. to toil ; to be afflicted. 
labore j ind. pres. 3 sg. 610 ki reapeler me veut sacez k'en vein labure. 

pres. ptcp. (fem. ace sg.) 1 165 veimes apres 90 grant gent de sei labnrant. 
la^ims s. m. snare. 

pip. pi. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes la9ims garder. 

V. tr. to treat injuriously. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pL) 757 tir6 I'unt e sach^, batu e laidang^. 
Udir \ V. tr. to revile. 

lasdist > ind. pret. 3 sg. 233 lia e repruva, laidit e eschami : 647 de quor les ha}, de paroles laidist. 

bidit I infin. 71 1 (out fait) laidir e batre A. 

app. (ind. pfL perf. 3 pi.) loi i (lors Tund) e leidit e nafr6. 

ppp. mas. sg. 157 (fu) leidiz e en croiz mis. 
laist under lesser, 

bits s. m. milk. 

nom. sg. 1544 (li sancs . . . emblanchi) plus ke bitz. 

P^P* »» <375 ^ uncs k*avant les cors out teint, de leit ad ja semblance. 
bnce ) t. f. spear, 

baces } prp. sg. 258 au saucher de b bnce : — 137s de esp6e u de lance : 

„ „ 1426 de lance e de cutel : 1747 de maces e cuteus e de bnce e de brant. 
„ pi. 1607 de lances e cuteus e gros bastun poinnal. 
bages s. f. tongue. 

nom. pi. 1779 les langes lur suxlent. 
bagetter ▼. tr. to mouth, speak of constantly. 

iniin. 1650 n'estes las ne saAl de Jesu bngetter. 
bagnage s. m. language. 

ace. sg. 1823 ne sai autre bnguage fors le mien barbarin. 

pq>. „ 395 n'est par autre sermun, doctrine, u bnguage, mes par avisiun. 
bagocras onder bngurus. 
bagni I ▼. intr. to languish. 

bagair { iad. prcL 3 sg. 1 1 18 fluec, ^eske Apl. repdra, lan^L 

infin. Ill (lur cuvint) doler languir e devier. 
bagv t. m. languor. 

aom. 8^ 739 langur e mabdie (plus nuit e greve ke mort). 

prp. „ 1153 suspris de langur (jo) remis en ceste voie hale, 
baganis acQ. skk, abeasea. 

Bias. aom. sg. 1434 li bnguerus (k haute voiz s'escrie). 
„ ace. „ 131 1 par aucun bngurus garir e restorer. 

adv. largely, plentifully. 

1278 par tresor brgement abaunduner : 1301 del avoir vus en fnim mut largemeat duner. 














f ) 








• I 



lamin s. ni. robber. 

nom. sg. 742 ki est commun enemi mes n*est leres pruve. 
ace. „ 16 1 5 lier se lessa cum larrun desloial. 
prp. „ 1727 ki garde n'a de fu, de verm, ne da larrun. 
larrunt under lesser, 

las I. inteij. alas ! 

I Q02 dist chescim lermant — ** las ! purquei nasqui ?" 
las Ti. adj. weary; miserable; — (s. m.) wretch, caitiff. 

mas. nom. sg. 28 (m'en veng) las, ki palefrei n'ai a chevaucher (v. note). 

„ 91 1 li las cheitifs peritz n'est mie esjoitz : 1022 li las dolentz ert en la prisun : 
„ 1470 si cors est las : 1650 n'estes las ne saM de Tesu langetter. 
pi. 260 furent [v. note] li las e li dolent : 354 li las dolerus (sunt malur6) : 
„ 994 dient par envie li las, li malur6. 
„ prp. „ 927 f>iet6 te preinne de nus tuz pecchurs las. 
s. f. weariness. 

prp. sg. 674 ^o fu sanz lassesce jur e nuit sim mester. 
acg. L^tin (language). 

prp. sg. 70 la [estoire n*ert] cunt6e en trances e latin : 182a la estoire ert translate en (ranceis e latin, 
la/. s. m. bond, snare. 

prp. pi. 113 (sujumer) en le& laz le adverser, 
le I, under il. 

le II. under li. 

le adj. wide. 

fern. nom. sg. 772* I'ewe passent k nou ki parfund fu e 16. 
leal adj. faithful, loval. 

mas. nom. sg. 686 mut deit pur sun seignur suMr leal chevaler : 1 1 79 A. (est) of lui cum si leal wernai : 
„ ,, i33isaisizjaenserrezcumloialchevaler: 147 i(£urelabusotngneJesu) cum sishm lent, 
ace. „ 1844 i Jesu me abaundun serf loial enterrin. 
voc. „ 1644 alez, leus chevaler. 
prp. „ 1722 ces i enveit Deus A sun loial champiun. 
voc. pi. 171 venez, mes leaus amis gentils ! 
fem. nom. sg. 1268 ma gent k*estes loiele. 
s. f. loyalty. 

prp. sg. 345 soiez amis verais e hem de lealt^. 
adv. loysdly. 

1315 ^ mes cumanz tant leument obeir : 1232 leaument aervir (Jesu). 
under leal. 
) adj. light, nimble ; fickle. 

j mas. nom. sg. icx>5 ore est seins e ligger cum uns osturs mn€. 
ace. „ 299 ne eiez vers lui quor ligger ne volage : 

II II 990 (or Tunt veil) deuvre e tut legger cum oisd enpenn6. 
nom. pi. 795 (levent) legers, enters, e seins. 
s. f. legion. 

ace. sg. 1 706 (veit) une grant legiun (des angles entur li). 
pf« fi 303 ^crvi e honur6 de anglin legiun. 
nom. pi. 267 les legiuns des angles (en joie sunt dresc^). 
prp, „ 905 des legiuns des angles en est li chantz oiz. 
s. f. law ; ^ loi de, like, in the fashion of. 
nom. sg. 1254 90 est la lei faiele. 

49 il noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer : 65 pur Jesu guerpiras la loi Apolin : 
177 ne sai vostre lei ne cuntenement : 337 (Tovin descunus) e tnte la lei paene : 
51 1 (le crestien) k*ad lur lei avil6e : 516 la lei Jesu suvent ad reclamfe : 
646 A. lur creance e lur loi si despiist : 1 129 A feistes guerptr le lei Tervagant : 
1 24 1 lors les ad baptiz6 pur la loi acumplir. 
6 i loi de desloial : 1 753 erent obeisant i la lei crestiene: 
12 entusch6e de la lei criminal : 311 de la Id lur fist e present e dun : 
387 de la lei k'ai enpris plus m'enseinnerez : 525 prechant de la lei contiuvde : 
1 262 ki prechera de cele lei nnvele : 1808 (endoctrin6) de la lei crestiene : 
1816 estoie de la loi Apolin : — 
923 tun cors i martire pur la lei Deu livras : — 
„ „ 741 sulum la lei de Rumme. 
leidit, leidiz under laidir. 
leit under laitz. 



























i J V. tr. to give up, renonnce. 

ir 3 ind. pret. 3 sg. 492 ki pas ne la lenqui 

infin. 1230 (i kens plest eschoisir Jesu) e Mahmnmet lenquir. 

adj. slow. 

mas. nom. sg. 1591 blasmez fu li daireinner e ki d*aler fu lent. 
sse s. f. lioness. 

nom. sg. 522 plus est esmeuz ke n'est leonesse quant est bers^e : 
t» »» 1405 (curucez) plus ke leonesse Id pert sun KunceL 
i adj. leperous. 

mas. ace. pi. 150 (sana*) lepras e cuntrez, &c. 

under larrun. 
nt \ V. intr. to weep, 
r ) infin. 1204 (ne se puet retenir) de gendre e de lermer. 

grnd. 1502 dist chescun lermant. 
s 8. f. tear, weeping. 

nom. pL 786 les oraisuns e lermes de vertu simt tant. 

P^P* »» 327 ^ lermes e suspirs fait ad sa uraissun : 515 (sa face est arus^) des lermes k*il espant : 
>» »« 1 501 (converti lur joie) en lermes e grant duel. 

under fl. 

[. f> le. 

1 s. f. reading, lesson. 

ace. sg. ^22 A. de quor I'entent cum clerc fait sa lescun. 
\ V. tr. to let; permit; leave; — intr. cease, leave off; faiL 
aes ( ind. pres. 3 sg. 1440 pur tant ne laist ke ses criz ne eshauce. 

„ pi. i( 

»» »» 

pT. 1605 ncl lessent reposer. 

It / ,t pret. 3 sp, 161 5 licr se lessa cum larrun desloial. 

„ „ I pT. 1 164 cum mort le lessames au p^ du munt gisant. 
„ fiit 1 pi. 1 107 ne larrum pur pour (ke soium desturnez) : 
„ „ „ „ 1 197 ne larrum pur loscnge (de fere le tuen cumant) : 

„ „ „ „ 1 234 ne larram pur les testes duner : 1 270 (le deshonur noz deos) ne lairum de venger. 
„ „ 3 „ mo il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nulli. 
app. (ant. 3 pi.) 987 k'il urent cum freit mord guerpi e Ie8s6. 

)adj. learned, clerldy. 
mas. nom. sg. 283 cum lettrez e sage : 996 cist pelerin lettr^. 
under lire, 
rnt, Icus „ leaL 
I6uncel „ Hun, Hunceus. 

^ v. tr. to raise ; — intr. to rise up, rise (of sun, dawn) ; be stirred up. 
ind. pres. 1 sg. 1830 ne dormu^ au vespre il jo lief au matin. 
3 pl- 794 <lc "^^'^ resuscitez vifs levent e juant. 
sg.) 1152 vers solail levant 
sg.) 513 (veient A.) ki ad sa croiz lev6e. 
pp. mas. nom.lg. 212 (A) est levez (le matin) par tens al enjumer : 
„ „ „ „ 883 cntre eus est ja levez noise e brait e criz. 
„ „ prp. „ 1286 1 penuncel lev^. 
„ fem. nom. „ 495 du solail parat la clart6 k'est lev^. 
I. adj. glad. 

mas. nom. pi. 266 vindrent al encuntre lez e esjol : 1538 nos en estoium e lies e esjol. 
II. prp. near, beside. 

67 en enfer gist lez Sathan le maufg. 

def. art. the. 

mas. nom. sg. with final sibilant ;— 

li 7 li sancs cural : 15. 24. 183. 493. 613. 1754 li ders: (600. 15C8 li dercs :) 4a 
252 tut li mundz : 86. 348. 400 li mundz : 14^ li reis : 160. 83a 86a 1054 ^ 
solailz : 168 li seinz espentz : 222 li tens : 224 u ceb : 262 li sepnlcres : 317 li 

ma. pres. 1 sg. ; 

> „ » 3pi- ; 

pres. ptcp. (pq>. 
J app. (ina. ph. 3 

ter. 1013. 1 1 14 li uns : 587 li doilz : 593 11 creaturs : 653. 837. Ii 13. 1375. 1439. 
1531. 1610 li sancs : 700 li chautz : 709 11 feluns tmiu : 718 U matitret : Tsa 
A. li engres : 752 li temples : 769 li pountz : 843 li Quon : 876 li roisseos : 894 
li paens : 900. 1016 li espentz : 905 li chantx : 911 u Us chdtifii pcrits : 915 tt 
faens: 92a 1019. 1461 li Dcus: 935 UchenJcn: 959 li con: 96911 fiincs 


(li) chevaler : 1022 li las dolentz : 105a U martires : 1053 li poples : 1053. 1059. 

1092 li airs: 109 1 li deciples : 1 153 li flotz : 1392 u aigles : 1427 li chemmi 
ferrez : 1434 li languerus : i486 li traitre orienteus : 1539 li freres : 1589 b 
chemins : 161 1 li roisseus cural : 1613 li martirs : 1 741 li prince feluns. 
without a final sibilant : — 

51 li pelerin : 122 li haut pere : 356 li redut6 : 807. 1123 li tut poissant : 89711 
tertre : 1305 li un : 1338 li dairener : 134^ li pere : 1344 li frere : 1361 li plus 
haut : 1309. 1391. 1408 li lu : 1430 li cervel(orpl. ?) : 1563 li suen prechemoit: 
1591 li darreinner : 1746 li bruit. 

/' 482 Tun : 12^6 1'onur : 1389 1'egle : 1609 1'entrail corporal. 

U 370 benoit seit le pere : 304 le fiz Deu fu : 306 le pueple ke veistes . . . Gtuen 
sunt : 764 bis. estroit lur fu le champ e le chemin ferr6 : 816 tesmoine le ek* 
ment : 840 tut le cors (li est) doillant : 841 tut le vis (li est) senglant : 91 c le ju 
A. cumence : 992 le'los J. clers est : 1014 le cors est trebach6 : 1 1 12 rale cm* 
cifi : 1454 le cors m*est feble : 1529 veisez ke le pere le fiz au quor feri: 1787 
ne puet mais le poer J. estre cel6 : 1819 le honur J. crest : 1821 vendra le jur. 

ace. sg. U 18. 25. 46. 59 bis. 60. 106. 130. 132. 186 bis. 195. 205. 212. 2x7. 296. 32a js]. 

336. 367. 374- 436. 450- 5"- 603. 637. 668. 688. 725. 761. 776 bis. 777. 799. 

801. 820. 832. 834. 838. 853. 893 ter. 895. 910. 917. 938. 940. 941. 947.952. 

970. 980. 981. 992. 1013. 1021. 1047. 1068. 1091. 1 103. 1 1 16. 1 135. 1 137. 1158. 

1196. 1230. 1270. 1287. 1291. 1364. 1401. 1407. 1424. I460. 1508. 1515. 1529. 

1537. 1573. 16 12. 1701. 1738. 1749. 1752. 1782. 1812. i8j2. 1833. 
/' 60 Torfanin : 333 renchantement : 1103 Tennerci : 1336 reir : 1757 roniir. 
lu 58 bis. lui pri . . . lu soir e lu matin, 
gen. „ le 102 al nun le fiz M. : X13 en les laz le adverser : 583 fiz Den le sauvenr: 798 

au puier le pendant : 973 cors le martir : 1709 ami est le vend Deu. 
„ ,t lu 62 as nosces lu ber Architriclin : 992 le cors lu martir. 
(dat.) „ [U] 1007 devum M. le redut6. 
prp. ,t al 18 al uis : 212. 707 al enjumer : 266 al encuntre : 1718 al enfonal M. : 1788 

al oil : 1809 al apostoile : — 

1528 al darreinner : 1645 ^ ^^^ ^ •' ^7^5 ^ destre. 
au 39. 88. 145. 158. 166. i8x. 234. 258. 263. 365 bis. 56a. 621. 626. 683 bis. 7O3. 

761 (auqueu) : 773. 803. 845, 858. 881. 895. 913. 971. 977. 981. 1023. 1051. 

1091. 1 153. 1 164. 1185. 1220. 1234. 1259. 1271. 1334. 1343. 1499. 1529. 1603. 

1641. 1655. 1702. 1749. 1830 bis. 1831. 
[le] 1482 k As aproce, le seint martir. 

del 125 del angle : 1048 del encumbrer : 1301 del avoir: 1558 del orient. 
[le] 1208 d*A. le gentil. 
au 69. 122. 138. 158. 207. 317. 36a. 367. 405. 450. 487. 405. 564. 622. 658. 691. 

760. 800. 835 bis. 837. 838. 875. 88a. 894. 895. 896 ois. 913. 948. 965. ^. 

1013 bis. 1045. 1061. 1094. 1 164. 1 166. 1 169. 1 175. 1 1 80. iaa6. laSj. 1303. 

132a. 1391. 1445. 1537* xooi. x6i^. 170a. 1726. 177a. i8o2. 1838. 
en I* 37 1 en Tamur : 1 136 en Tendemem : ia59 en Tair. 
eu 38. 146. 167. 174. ao8. 264. 301. 318. 331. 352. 36a. 370. 661. 716. 82a. 84a. 

843. 848. 871. 899. 900. 934.965. 988. 11x7. 1172. 1183. 1201. 135a. 1365. X451. 

1505. 1521. 1693. 173a. 
el 1675 el puis : 1758 el regne : 2760 el siecle : 1804 ^ nun. 
[le] 1572 en tut le mund. 

after other prepositions : — 

A^) (7) 67. 155- 245- 400. 878. 937. 938. (1253. 1497O «6o^- 178^- «8a3. (i8a5.) 

lu 1704 vers lu ciel. 
nom. pi. li without a final sibilant : — 

350 li felun tirant : a6o bis. li las, li dolent : 289 li Glue : 341 li autre : 353 K 
fehm cheitif : 354 li las dolerus : 357 li autre prince feff6: 533. 1337 li autre: 
549 bis. li grant e li menur : 664 li felun : 69a li verger : 693 ter. li bob, fi 
gardin, lipraiol: 713. 11 19 li citoien : 714. 73*1 li prince: 7i4litMu3]i: 731. 
910. 1x75. 177S U oU. : 738. 978. li parent : 739 li veulard : 747 bis. li grant eK 
petit : 792 li petit enfant : 703 li mort : 796. 1734 li paien mescreant : 839 li 
trespassant : 840. 1430 li luerf : 879 li mescreant : 918 bb. li un, li autre : M4 
bis. li las, li malur6 : 998 li crestien : 1067. i5i3lijoure: 1096 li qoatie de- 
ment : 1007. 1353 li angere: 1141 li gaixmur paisant : 1330]! mien ami: 133a 
li ^lut adverser: 1381 li enemi: 1404 li Sarrazin cruel: 1408. 15 j^. 1641 li 
pa(i)en : 14a a li precheur Apl. : 1481 li plusur : 1600 li paien crimixuJ : 1618 

GLOSSARY. Ixxxiii 

li Giudesloial: 1622 li fil: 1682 li fdun guenroier : 1728 li Sanazin glutun : 
1744 ^ traitre senglant : 1759 li paen felun : 1779 li doi. 
with final sibilant : — 

763. 767. 772. 1168. 1483. 1592 lions: 77i» li joure volentrife : io64libeus 
angeres : 1480 li angre espiriteus. 
Us 1371. 1376 les cors: 1374 les menbres: 1467 les Sarrazins crfiens : 1479 les 
pecchurs repentantz : 1 758 les* (MS. U) martirs : 
ace. pi. les (always with final sibilant) : — 

85. 151. 170. 243. 449. 675. 688. 696. 763. 802. 853. 891. 1000 bis. 1069. 1078. 
iioo. 1203. 1339. 1349. 1360. 1368. 1375. 1387. 1395. 1464. 1539. 1550. 1672. 
1690. 1691. 1755. 
(abs.) „ M 805 les Sarrazins ouant. 

prp. „ as 168. 363. 529.551. 699. 804.847. 951. 988. 1037. 1075. 1341. 1387. 1462. 1548. 
des 93. 267. 394. 404. 676. 720. 844. 867. 900. 905. 936. 1031. 1032. 1074. 1388. 

1439. 1461. 1483. 1554. 1706. 
[les] 402 de A. e M. les veillardz alosez. 
es I482 es eels. 
Us after other prepositions :^ 

362. 532. 639. 85^. 885. 891. 951. 1018. 1036. 1299. 1684. 18 16. 
fern. nom. sg. la 153. 108. 222. 226. 254. 272. 324. 349. 435. A39. 494. 495. 497. 537. 569. 588. 

605. 652. 737. 760. 841. 886.897. 1093. 1 160. 1254. 1257. 1274. 1304. 1383. 
1403. 1439. 1455. 1517. 1532. 1693. 1751. 1760. 1786. 
before vowels : — 

291 la image : 324 la entaille : 1822. 1845 la estoire. 
r 349 Terbe : 360. 1014. 1731 1'alme : 538 rachesun : 788. 814. 1094 Tewe. 
ace. „ la 35. 65. 126. 128. 172. 185. 200. 209. 256. 286. 323. 337. 350. 372. 415. 416. 
445- 516- 528. 540- 543- ^96. 705- 730- 731- 785. 831. 889. 898. 977. 1050. 1058. 
1112. 1122. 1129. 1180. 1185. 1201. 1241. 1242. 1287. 1343. 1394* 1428. 1452. 
147 1. 1488. 1601. 1612. 1623. 1637. 1689. 1797. 1809. 1820. 
P 772*. 780. 926 Tewe : 829 rachesun: 888resp6e: 999rerbe: 1202 Testoire: 
1493 Taventure. 
(dat.) tt la 1261 fei ke dd DiSne, la bele. 

after other prepositions ;— 
pip. „ l{aS 1235. 366. 412. 499. 1366. 1754 tt : — 1443 i la esp6e 1—69 ft Teaue. 

12.21.245. 258.261. 311. 370. 372. 387. 453. 480.520.425. 588.657. 714. 
726. 739. 750 (hors). 837. 1 144. 1238. 1322. 1394. 1580. 161 1. 1728. 1780. 1790 
1807. 1816 de ;— 61. 368. 870. 880 de Tewe : 519 de TesclaTine. 
112.209.599.673. 1020. 1023. 108 1. 1092. 1 139. 1585. 1643^11: — 772 en Tower 
1836 en I'eiUe: — 190. 1445 api"^: — ^527 devant rajnmCe: — 1152 dehors: — 1451 
of:— 317. 503. 531. 533. 1055. 1166. 1302. 1393 par:— 923 pur: 1445 pur 
Talme : — 741 sulum : — 1062. 1181 sur. 
\kC\ 1441 de V. sui» la cit6 enrichie: 1833 vers R. la dt€. 
nom. pL les 267 les legiuns : 786 les oraisuns : 1778 les buches : 1779 les langes. 
ace. „ les 447. 699. 836. 943. 099. 12^4. 1326. 1389. 1409. 1604. 
pip. „ as 62.507.879: 1530 (v. note). 

des 235. 396 (p^it. ace. temp.). 424. 515. 836. 905. 1610. 1769. 
es 1531 es pleinnes se espaundL 

afUr other prepositions : — 
Us 393 pur :— 432 par. 
ntr. nom. sg. U 726 le plus de la curt. 

(ace.) „ U 242 tant es le plus huni : 568 n*en serras le pejnr (▼. note), 
prp. „ del 1442. 1696 del tut (adv. ■ wholly.) 

IL under 

III., li (488), lia, lie, li€ under lier. 

V. tr. to bind. 

ind. pres. i sg. 488 ft lui vus cumant, e abandun, e IL 

I* f% I n 330 f<c'™ lie Sathan : 891 les chevens A. lie par les focuBi cretpii : 

t* t* »» ft 1463 lie k*ft plcisir li vent e ki li plest, deslie. 

„ pret ., „ 233 (ki) lia e repruva Qesu). 

tnfin. 710 out fait lier A. de chaesnes de fer : 1615 li^ le lesta cum laimii detlolal 
app. (ind. pft 3 pi.) 749 (iHrnt) de chaesnes li6 : 136a 1409. 1604 les mehu li ont li^. 

1 2 

















livre I. 




livre II. 




loial, loiele 




ppp. Cmas. ace. sg.) 666 (le getter en prisun) \i€ de chaesnes : 590 (tmver sun chief) it tin arbre hi: 
ti ft tf V 1 160 (mena A) li6. 

under lez. 
•f leger. 

s. m. lineage. 

ace. sg. 286 (rescust de diable) humein lignage. 

obi. „ 113 (lur cuvint sujumer) e trestut lur lingnage en les laz le adverser (v. note). 

prp. y, I lOi ^ humein lignage sunt traitres enemi : — 563 pens de tun lingnage : — 
If »> 451 P^ lignage ne serra espami : 658 pur lui e sun lignage (Den tiamist sun finz). 

s. m. linen sheet, bed-clothes. 

prp. sg. 1412 chucez en ht suz linceL 

s. f. (oath ofj allegiance. 

ace. sg. 297 tsd lui, cum fere deiz, lingance e humage. 

under lignage. 

V. tr. to read. 

infin. 131 dunt as 01 lire e prophetizer. 

gmd. 1 193 clers es e apris fas en tes livres lisant. 

app. (ind. pft. i sg.) 83 ne jo ne Tai apris ne pruv€ ne leu. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1402 k'en limge rememorance seit escrit e leu. 

s. m. lily. 

nom. sg. 1070 plus furent beus ke rose u ke n'est lis espani : 1721 quant se espanist lis en sa saisnn. 

under Ure. 

s. m. bed. 

ace. sg. 682 de soie coiltes pointes n*a mais lit au chucher. 

prp. „ 202 en sun lit s'endort : 223 en mun lit fu chuchez : 141 2 ne dormirunt chucez en lit suz lined : 

„ ,, 684 pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 

s. m. place ; — nul liu, nowhere ; en liu de, in lieu of. 

ace. sg. 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul Uu prendre estal. 
prp. „ 10 il vent a V. un liu emperial : — 

„ „ 680 manicles e buies en liu de buus d'or cler. 

„ pi. 159 dune trembla terre en tuz lius e pais : 653 en plusurs lius du cors (ist) li sancs. 
s. m. lion. 

nom. sg. 1357 senglantz cum Hunk'^ proie est devurer : 1602 cum liun ki desire char de cors bestiiL 
prp. „ 281 Deus I'at fait aignel d*un I6un sauvage : 317 par la voiz du liun. 
nom. pi. 825 fremissent cum liuns ki vimt proie sivant 
s. m. hon-cub. 

nom. sg. 317 cum fait li Himceus par la voiz du liun. 
ace. „ 1405 plus ke leonesse ki pert sun Uuncel. 
V. tr. to give up. 
ind. pret. 2 sg. 923 tun cors k martire pur la lei Deu livras. 

„ „ 3 „ 313 sun fiz lur envea e uvra ^ bandun. 
infin. 1218 ne pur sun cors Uvrer^ k torment, 
app. (ind. pft. 2 sg.) 1648 tu as ^ mort livr^ tant meint prude ber. 

•9 it* )f 3 plO 1785 ses martirs gentilz k*il unt i mort livr^. 
ppp. mas. sg. 745 ^ ceste mort est A. e livrez e damnez : 963 parvus est A. h martire livr<, 

,, „ „ 548 jas fuissez ^ mort livrez e k dulur. 

„ (ace.) ,, 847 charoinne le tenent, i luus e chiens livr6.* 
s. m. book. 

ace. sg. 1839 musterai i mun livre, escrit en veeslin. 
prp. pi. 1 193 apris Tas, en tes livres lisant. 
under loer. 
s. f. praise. 

ace. pi. 1354 (chantent) "gloire e loenges" pur joie demener. 
V. tr. to praise ; to recommend, 
ind. pres. i sg. 1077 entendez tuit vers moi ke jo vus lou e di. 

„ „ „ „ 1692 par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger : 1695 vus Ion par tens de vos pnnroki; 

„ „ 3 „ 1460 lot e glorifie le grant poer Jesu. 
mfin. 1345 cumpainnie ki tant fist i loer. 
gmd. 803 Id venent Deu louant : 1 158 dunt dst vunt Deu loant. 
under lei. 
under leal. 

adv. to a distance ; de loing, by far. 
1 160 loing engetta sun brant : — 1620 n*est de loing paringal. 

GLOSSARY- ^ Ixxxv 

dn adj. distant. 

mas. prp. sg. 715 smnuns depais lointein. 
\ adv. temp, then ; always begmning the clause ; and always (save 649, q. v.) the first word in the line. 
j lores 649. 1584. 1598. 1746. 

^^' 397* 531- 749* 977* 1009. 1303. 1241. 1282. 1326. 1621. 1699. '7^9* 

s. m. praise, glory. 

nom. sg. 992 par mit le los Jesu clers est e eshauc^. 
ge s. f. flattery, blandishment. 

prp. sg. 1 197 ne larrum pur losenge ne pur mort mana^ant. 
igerie s. f. flattery, blandishment 

prp. sg. 1235 ne larrum (pur les testes dnner) pur losengerie pur duns. 
igeres s. m. knave. 

nom. sg. 1569 a dit cum losengers ki sun errur defent. 
oOf looant under loer. 

[. (58 bis. 62. 991. 1704) [def. art. mas. sg. obi. cases] under li i. 

;i. s. m. wolf. 

nom. sg. a6o plus est pauteners kc n*est lu enchani : 555 (s*en est binnez) cum luz u cum gupilz : 
„ ,, 889 (saisist) cum fait lu la berbiz : 1 548 as cors garder vunt un grant lu enchani e uns aigles. 

prp. pL 847 charoinne le tenent ^ luus e chiens (livr6*): 1004 charoinne le tenimes ft Ins e chens dun6 : 
» >» 957 (kc Qc soit pas) de lus devor^. 

s. m. reward. 

nom. sg. 755 luer tei est aprest6. 

piP' >t 1337 li autre volenters muerent certz de luer. 

under il. 
re s. f. light, brilliancy. 

^^^' ^S' 255 (solail ne espandi) ne rai ne lumere. 

s. f. moon. 

nom. sg. 160 mua lune culur : 254 la lune enpali. 

ace. „ 1287 ii unt fait aparer le solail e la lune. 
\ adj. long (of time). 
e j mas. nom. sg. 858 au jur ki dune fu lung ki ne urent beii. 

fem. prp. „ 140a k*en lunge remembrance seit escrit : 1217 ne pur lunge prisun (flecchir). 
nnent adv. tor a long time. 

1578 d il vive lungement : 1626 nel volent parocire mais lungement pener. 
M adv. for a long time. 

912 n'est mie de sun fait lunges esjoitz : i6a8 (pur) lunges duluser. 
^ n. pr. Longinus (v. note). 

prp. 158 au queur feru du chevaler Lungis. 

I. under il. 

II. under sun« 
under lu. 

It > V. intr. to shine, gleam. 

/ ind. pres. 3 sg. 473 vus ma robe averez, ii lut li ors bumi. 
„ pret. „ „ 1095 feu, ki ft sa tumbe lut e resplendi. 
pres. ptcp. (mas. prp. sg.) 1134 (robe) bruid6e d*or lusant : 1 180 du eel lusant (v. note). 
lux under In 11. 


under ja 
under mun. 
lu s. m. club, bludgeon. 

ace. pi. 504 portantz bastuns, ma99us, &c. 

fs. f. mace, 
ace sg. 826 (uns paCns, portant) une mace. 

prp. „ looi coup destument de mace : 1 701 brisent e batent de mace e de baitun 
„ pi. 1747 un estur pesant de maces e cuteus (v. note). 
Ks s. f. club. 

prp. pi. loio batu de ma^ues. 








Mahum • 







mais II. 

mais III. 


adj. of middle (age or stature). 

ace. pi. 1379 queus petiz, queus maens, queos grantz de cresance (cunostre). 

V. tr. to maim. 

ppp. mas. sg. 1774 (M^ ^ °c ^0 ^ ^^^ ^ mahainn^. 

In. pr. Mahomet, (Mohammed), 
ace. 413 il guerpi Mahum : 608 reni Mahom : 819 guerpissez Mahom : 1230 Mahummet lenqnir: 
. „ 1323 guerpir Mahum : i4iojar^ unt Mahomet : i()35 refusum Mahum. 
( obi. (gen.) 333 reni Tenchantement Mahun : 447 (jure les grantz vertuz) Mahommet. 
„ (dat.) 1007 fei ke devum Mahum le redut^. 

prp. 1718 abanduner al enfemal Mahun : 1 737 jur6 eurent par hir deus, Phebnm, Mahum e T. 
s. m. hammer, mallet, 
prp. pi. 1792 de mailz unt depec6 lur deus. 
under meins. 
s. m. messenger. 

prp. pi. 1570 ki bien de lui dira, n d ces mais entent. 

adv. (a) ever (in negative sentences) ; (6) ne . . . mais, no longer ; (c) desore mais, henceforth, 
(a) 642 (chose faire par unt ja . . .) mais aure diables : 1390 ne fii imc mais veu : 
{b) 676 ne beit mais (vins) : 678 n*a mais viandes : 682 n*a mais lit : 735 ke mais de li ne seit nuvde oie : 

907. 1040 ne dute mais : 1787 ne puet mais . . . estre cel6. 
(f) 1 100. 1104. 1262 desore mais : 584 desoremes (v. note), 
(conj.) under mes 11. 
s. m. misdeed. 

prp. sg. 568 repent toi de tun maisfait. 
under mesn6e. 
under maisuns. 






mal II. 


1 s. m. master; adj. (15) chief, main (v. note). 








nom. sg. 2 1 9 tu serras mi maistres e jo tis escoler 1718 antrement ke li maistres, sis hom ne mum mie. 

559 (venuz dust estre) cum maistre e avou^. 

437 susprendra lui e sun maistre : 949 va quere tun seinnur, tun maistre e avonf. 

15 vent s'en li clers k un maistre portal : 

455 k sun maistre est venuz tut esbai : 1091 le sen an maistre prove li deciples : — 

54a (atur) ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur. 

388. 468. 484 beu maistre ! 
s. f. (mastership,) ^dance. 

ace. sg. 736 celui sive Id (= cujus) doctrine e maistrie tant prise, 
s. f. house. 

nom. sg. 497 ke la maisun A. seit tute cerch^e. 
ace. „ 1 191 pur ki avum guerpi maisun, muillere, enfant, 
pip* ft 75 est venuz i une maisun foreine : 1275 k maisun reamener : — 

„ 392 d'une maisim sutive (unt fait lur escole) 11731 (Palme) s*en ist de sa chaniel maisun :— 
„ 45 OSes devant moi en ma maisun precher : 331 quant geii dormant en noa maisun. 
pi. 507 as maissuns A. vunt. 
s. f. majesty. 

prp. sg. 1019 li Deus de majesty : 1782 le Rei de majesty : — 
„ „ 782 Deu ki tut guveme regnant en majesty, 
adj. (compar.) greater, very high (used absolutely). 
fern. prp. sg. 547 citoien de parents majur. 
s. m. evil (words, disease, treatment, conduct, plight, &c.). 
nom. sg. 13 dunt fu grant duel e mal : 418 dunt grant mal avendra : 

432 par les autres li maus s*espandcra : 708 dura cist grantz maus tant cruel e tant fer : 

1 143 par A. fu cist maus tant durant : 124c cist maus mut surt e renuvele. 

314 ne li firent pur ses bens si mal mm : 463 si mal eiez ki point n*i avez descnri : 

600 dunt utrage as dit e mal k desm[es]ur(e : 643 mal aient deu (ki de metal sunt) : 

1157 eel mal kar restorez : 1621 lors se rejoTst cum se il n'ust unc mal. 

1652 tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener. 
ace. pi. 67 5 penance i meine pur ses maus espurger : 1324 (recever batesme) pur voz mans espurger : 
*t ft 1 510 ces grantz maus nus basti : 1805 guerpissent lur errurs e maus e vanitf. 
pip. „ 617 de voz maus lui recuntai : 867 des maus ses enemis dolentz est e mefi. 
adv. onl^ in phr. de mal en pis, from bad to worse. 
163 tuz jurs decUnerent de mal en pis. 
adj. sick, diseased. 

mas. nom. se, 11 89 un suls i faut, malade suguraant : 1 347 un sul ki remist malade en un senter : 
pC 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreu (fremissent) (v. note). 










GLOSSARY. Ixxxvii 

e) fem. ace sg. 43 1 il verra une brebiz malade. 

t > s. f. disease, sickness. 

ts y nom. sg. 729 langur e maladie (plus nuit e greve ke mort) : 1 1 16 morteu maladie le quor lui envai'. 

pip. „ 1434 (remist) par chemin, suspris de maladie. 

nom. pi. 704 neissent maladies e divers enctimbrer. 
) adj. unhappy, ill-fated, 
e ) mas. voc se. 756 tu muras, malur6 ! 

tt nom. pi. 354. 1795 tant sunt malur6 : 994 dient par envie li las, li malur^. 

fem. „ sg. 536 dunt plus se curuce cele gent malur^e. 
i 8. f. breast, pap. 

prp. sg. 1252 la enfanta e nurri J. de sa mamele. 
int under manacer. 
i s. f. menace. 

prp. sg. 1277 par promesse u manace lur ^uers reapeler. 
„ pi. 505 i nautes manaces e grant bnut e cri6e. 
rr V. tr. to threaten. 

infin. 1317 par duns ne par turment ne par mort manacer. 

pres. ptcp. (fem. prp. sg.) 1 197 ne larrum pur losenge ne pur mort mana9ant (v. note). 

ppp. mas. pi. 1524 mut furent manacez, deproiez e blandi. 

s. f. sleeve. 

nom. sg. 1376 plus blancs ke de chemise n*est girun ne mance. 
) V. tr. to send for. 
E ] app. (ind. pfl. 3 sg.) 1282 lors ad mand6 sa gent. 

ppp. mas. pL 715 (sunt) mandez e sumuns de pals lointein. 

8. t restraint. 

prp. 8g. 532 (l*unt trahit par la rue) sanz mesure e man^. 

8. f. manner. 

prp. sg. 47 en queu manere peustes vus passer : 689. 1058 en ten manere. 

!v. tr. to eat. 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 62 quant manga as nosces lu ber Architrichin. 
„ fut. „ „ 1580 plus ne mangera jamais de la dent. 
„ „ „ pL 1413 ne mangerunt i table (s*averunt men^ A.). 

infin. 106 d*un arbre lur defendi le fruit ^ manger : 678 n*a mais delicluses viandes 2 mangei. 
» s. f. manacles. 

ace. pi. 680 (ad) manides e buies en liu de buus d'or cler. 
n 8. f. place of abode. 

nom. sg. 321 en enfcr ii ert tuz jurs sa mansiun : 1676 U est lur mansiun tuz jurs sanz fin aver. 

ace. „ 361 mansiun truvera sanz nule fauset6. 

prp. „ 1 7 19 (angeres) Id de lur mansiun desendent. 

8. m. cloak. 

prp. sg. 1423 sanz chauceflre e nuz tut fors d*un mantel. 

adv. lucklessly, with an ill result. 

4120 mar nus en dutera : 443 mar ja cumencera nus autres teu chose : 

828 bis. mar unc le deis, mar I'alas cuntruvant : 947. 1508 mar redamas (Jesu) : 

1475 tant mar fustes nez : 1503 tant mar vus vi : 1647 tant mar nus as fait cest (encumbrer). 

adj. of the sea. 

mas. ace. sg. 283 (ki fist) peisun marage. 
1 adj. of marble. 

mas. prp. sg. 52 en tun paleis marbrin : 959. 982. 1815 en sarcu marbrin. 
ant 8. m. merchant. 

nom. sg. 576 (par traisun perist) marcheant en feire. 
hal s. m. marshal. 

nom. sg. 21 de la cit6 un haut mareschal. 

adj. sad, grieved. 

mas. nom. sg. 462 dunt trop seroie mari : 774 marriz est e grtv€, 
„ „ pi. 918 li un en sunt joius e li autre mariz : 1498 nus en fumes irez e dolent e mari. 
c 8. m. mamage. 

nom. sgv ^9^ ^batesme seit) aliance e primer maiiage. 

n. pr. (The Vu-gin) Mary. 

voc. sg. 128 Mime, Deu te saut, la benoite mulier ! 

gen. „ 102. 1230. 1^2 fiz Marie. 

prp. „ 1251 de Mane va prechant, tme simple ancele. 

ao). marine. 




mariz, marriz 
























maubailliz ) 
maubailli j 

mas. ace. sg. 1103 (reni) Neptun le marin. 

„ prp. „ 1 83 1 k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 
under mari. 
V. tr. to hammer. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1250 fevre Id martele. 
s. m. martyr, 
nom. sg. 68 pur Deu murras martir : 300 tu murras pur lui martir par vasselage : 

366 k la fin serras martir par Deu pruv6 : 965 eu regne du del est martir cnrun^ : 
1073. 1 183 martirs est glorius : 1449 A. haut martirs* est : 
1613 li martirs (lier se lessa). 

973 (seint cors) le martir honur6 : 991 il out le cors lu martir tuch6. 
977 lors ad la sepulture au martir atum6 : 1432 (aproce) k A., le seint martir nurd : 
1749 (sustrait) le cors au martir vaillant. 

921 ai, martir gcntilz ! 1043 martir bonurez ! 12 19. 1761 glorius martir ! 
1644 martirs! 1708 martir! 
nom. pi. 1350 cist sunt martir de cors : 1758 les martirs sunt en gloire el regne permenant. 
ace. „ 1342 puet sanz martire les martirs regarder : 1753 (mist en terre) ses cumpainnons martin ! 

ft ti 17^5 *c ciist dcshouur^ e ses martirs gentilz. 
prp. „ 1037 deigna mustrer as ses martirs privez : 1387 les cors unt as gentilz martirs gard6 :— 

„ „ 1018 cntre les» seintz martirs (racoilt Deus, V. note) : — 

M It 13S4 un autre (miracle) ad Deus pur ses martirs fait. 
s. m. martyrdom. 

nom. sg. 1052 li martires de A. fait est e acumpli. 
pip* tt 79^ ^^ trainant A. k martire : 849 ki fu k sun martire divisez e porvn : 

11 tt 923 tun cors k martire pur la lei Deu livras : 963 par vus est A. i martire livrf :— 

„ „ 929 ki primers £. par martire aiimas : 1099 (gueredun) ke il par martire en terre ben men : 

„ „ 1220 par martire venir au grant gueredun : 1349 sanz martire les martirs regarder. 
V. tr. to martinze. 

app. (ind. p[\. 3 sg.) 1022 li las dolentz ki I'a martiriz6. 
under marlir. 
adj. male. 

ace. sg. 1255 en parais fist hom» masle e femmele. 
s. m. dog. 

nom. sg. 66 en enfer gist puant cum bucs u mastiin. 
V. tr. to kill. 

infin. 121 par hmnme cuvint descumfire e mater, 
s. m. morning. 

(ace.) sg. 58 lui pri e aur lu soir e lu matin : a 1 a le matin (A.) est levez par tens al enjomer. 
prp. ,, 1836 ne dormirai au vespre il jo lief au matin, 
adj. (as adv.) in the morning. 
8 cestc croiz aure serrein e matinal. 
s. f. dawn, morning. 

nom. sg. 494 al endemein par tens quant part la matinde : 702 n'i pout matinee ne vespre aver mester. 
V. tr. to ill-treat, 
ppp. mas. sg. 886 est la nostre creance e poples maubailliz : 1656 morz es e maubailli : 

„ „ „ 1767 meiut [i out] maubailli e nafr6. 

n n pi. 1 5 16 tant sunt de lur parentz destruit e maubailli. 
V. tr. to curse. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 864 maudient A. e escrient cum lu : 15 15 maudient ApL le pieche^. 
ppp. mas. (nom.) sg. 884 atant s*esciie un paens de Damnedeu mandiz. 
s. ra. devil, Salan. 

nom. sg. 365 ke hem vus face au cors u au quor maufig (v. note), 
prp. ,i 1023 (^^0 en la prisun au maufg : 1776 ore est un cuntraitz e purpris de maiif€ : — 

„ „ 67 cunpainz c vesin lez Sathan le mauffi. 
(pred.) pi. 599 maufez i sunt k'en la prisun d'enfer gisent obscure, 
prp. tf 150 leprus e cuntrez e de maufez purpris. 
V. tr. to ill-treat. 

ppp. mas. sg. 944 Arade ki tant fu maumen6. 
adj. ripe. 

mas. nom. sg. 550 ki sages es de aprise e d'age estes maiir. 
under mal. 

s. m. displeasure, ill-will. 

prp. sg. 446. 543. 1565 de ire e mautalent (tressua e firemi) (tat mue la culur) (tat est enflimbei). 
197 atant s*en part par ire e mautalent. 




NMs adj. evil. 

mas. prp. sg. 1 680 ki obeissent i lur mauvois voler. 
under jo. 
I6e 8. t strife. 

pro. sg. 506 cam gent ki s'atnme i morteu mediae. 
res Maj, haggard. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 145 nu-pez e megres e pales cum penant. 
les pron. mdeclin. (m apposition,) self. 

(nom.) sg. 379 Deu meimes ad tun quoer sael6. 
(gen.) „ 304 le fiz Deu meimes fu. 

(prp.) „ 656 i, lui meimes semblable le fist : — ^342 mes vus par Deu meimes en es revisit6. 
I onaer meint. 

le, metnent under mener. 
IS 8. f. band. 

sec. sg. 1530 tant k*as plaies bender li^reres main tendi. 
prp. „ 1773 (mahainn6) de main u de p€. 
ace. pL 1409. 1604 les meins li unt li6. 

prp. „ 328 i, jointes meins a dit e ii weimentisun : 879 en beivent, as meins Punt receu : — 
„ „ 250 en tes meins mun esperit (cumant). 
it adj. many ; (pron.) many a one. 

mas. nom. sg. 467 meint hom purra (estre gari) : 
„ „ >» 575 bis. par trabun perist meint quens, meint vavasur : 
„ „ tf 1559 ne fait pas i, despire cum meint quide e entent : 
ff »» M 1766. 1767 meint en i out blesctf, meint mort e defuld. 
„ ace „ 1648 tu as ^ mort Uvt6 tant meint prude ber : 
„ „ „ 1840 tesmoin of moi averai mein veillart e meschin. 
itanant ) de — , adv. immediately. 

itenant j 823 es le vus seisi e pris de meintenant : 1 136 A. en Tendemein pris fu de meintanant. 
s. m. honey. 

nom. sg. 143 1 plus li est duz ke mel. 

adj. pron. in phr. men escient, to my knowledge, ace. to my judgment. 
1560 si il fust boiseur, ne feist, men escient, teu mescinement. 
1 under mener. 

ant adj. wealthy. 

mas. nom. pi. 1125 tuit fuimes citoiens e riches e menant. 
bres s. m. limb. 

nom. pi. 1374 les menbres lur sunt restores : 1777 lur menbres sunt destuers desjoints e esloiss^. 
i \ V. tr. to lead ; bring ; perform (penance), eiperience (sorrow). 

6e ff ind. pres. 3 sg. 67 q sa penance 1 meine pur ses maus espurger. 

er I f» »» tt pi* S4S cist ki A. meinent. 

es / „ prtt, „ sg. 312 en terre les mena de promiisiun : 1 160 k'A. 11^ mena. 

infin. 1 363 einz ke ^ V. aient fait mener (le clerc). 
app. (ind. pfl. 3 pi.) 7^0 hors de la cit6 Tunt trait ja e men€. 

„ { „ fut-pfl. 3 pL) IA15 (s'avenint) vif u mort men^ lur enemi morteL 
ppp. mas. sg. 761 pur ver le gugement au queu chief fust men^ : 
ft n »t 77 1 dunt fu grant duel men6 : 1144 de chartre fu menes. 
tt •! pl* 4^1 si P^ sumes andui e menez devant li. 
„ fem. sg. s±o atendant la parole k queu chief fust men^e. 
tant \ ▼. intr. to lie, tell lies. 

tenj^. ( ind. pres. a sg. 827 tu mentz apertement : 1670 en pecches mut e mem. 
* „ „ 3pl. 1571 fans pauteners ki vus mentent uvertement. 
infin. I aoa Testou^ unt cunt£ sanz mentir. 



pres. ptcjp- (mas. nom. sg.) 833 ki autrement le dit fablethr est mentant. 
Ij. small. 

adj. smaO, minute. 

mas. orp. pi. 854 (entre espines) e les cailloz menu. 
or adj. (corapar.) less, — young, used absolutely. 

mas. nom. pi. 549 li grant e li menur (s*esmer%'ellent de vus). 
I nsder mentir. 

s. f. sea ; utre mer, beyond sea. 

nom. fg. 636 ainz purra mer secchir. 

ace. „ 122. 283. 1634 ki fist e terre e mer : 528 ki cria la terre e mer sal^ 

pq>. „ 27 m*en veng d*atre mer: 681 pailles d*utre mer : 1271 derc d'utre mer. 














mes I. 
mes II. 









s. f. pardon ; pi. thanks ; aver — , to forgive ; crier — , to ask pardon. 

ace. sg. 246 toi aiimim e crierum merci : 1080 si Deus n*en eit merci : 1327 sanz merci aver. 

prp. ,, 1526 les oceismcs sanz piet^ e merci. 

ace pi. 1397 ^ Deu en unt graces e mercis rendu. 

adj. merciful. 

mas. nom. sg. 1049 cist ki tant poisant e tant est merciable. 

V. tr. to thacJc. 

infin. 1629 cist ne fine de urer e Jesu mercier. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 939 si en ad umblement Damnedeu merci6. 

»» ( tf »» »» pl.) 1789 trestuit k une voiz en unt Deu merci6. 
under merci. 
s. f. mother. 

nom. sg. 1253 apres Tenfantement remist mere e pucele. 
ace. „ 137 toi cumme mere vudra enumbrer. 
prp. „ 1781 i nul de mere n6. 
V. tr. to merit, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1099 (gueredun) ke il par martire en terre beu men. 

infin. 1226 par esample de vus gloire du eel merir. 
app. (ind. pfl. 3 sg.) 910 le regne k recever ke il ad beu meriz. 
s. f. marvel, wonder; H mervelles, adv. wonderfully, very much, 
nom. sg. 1390 teu merveille en terre ne fii unc mais veu. 
ace. if 972 es-vus grant merveille ke Deus i ad mustr6. 

„ ,, 1623 ne virent la merveille en cest mund temporal. 

„ pi. 943 pur les merveilles ver ke Deus i out ovr€. 
Pn?* »» 73 est i mervelles meiiz : 1 769 un des grantz merveilles ki unc fust recunt6 (v. note). 
(53. 171. 329. 8x2. 1213. 1 2 15) under mun. 

conj. (a) but ; (*) nay rather ; (c) ne . . . mes, only ; {d) mes (or mais) ke, except, save ; {e) mes ke 
even tnough. 

2. 13. 152. 165. 179. 203. 248. 263. 277. 293. 310. 314. 342. 350. 353. 360. 410. 464. 573. 601. 633 
721. 733. 742. 758. 768. 771*. 809. 829. 853, 881. 911. 1007. 1028. 1042. 1049. 1147. 1 150. ii;4 
1249. 1258. 1351. 1422. 1431. 1469. 1575. 1597. I741. 1819. 1842 (mes). 
561. 614. 933. 969. 1276. 1297. 1321. 1470. 1493. 151 7. 1527. 1580. 1626. 1824 {mats). 
I792 lur deus, mais diables, de mailz unt depec^. 
334 Apollin ne prise mes valiant un butun. 

Ill 4 (mil) mes ke li uns remist : 1 189 (mil) mes ke un suls i faut : 
1 547 (mil cors) mais ke un sul i failli (v. note). 
810 ore, mes ke ^ tart, deveng sis horn, 
adj. young. 

mas. ace. sg. 1841 tesmoin averai of moi mein veillart e meschin. 
s. m. cure, remedy. 

ace. sg. 1 56 1 des cors detrenchez (ne feist) teu mescinement. 
V. tr. to cure. 

infin. 1666 de tes morteus plaies te purrunt mesciner. 
adj. unbelieving, miscreant, 
mas. nom. sg. 181 1 (jo ki) estoie mescreant sarrazin. 

prp. ,, 64 pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant Sarrazin. 
nom. pi. 796 sunt esbaiz li paien mescreant : 879 li mescreant en beivent : 
,, ,, 1 68 1 parjure e mescreant, desdeingnant Deu amer: 
„ ,, 1715 ne me flecchissent cist mescreant felun : 
n it 1734 s'entrecunbatent li paien mescreant. 
(pp. =:) adj. unknown. 

mas. prp. sg. 78 nuveles me portes d'un deu mescimeii. 
V. tr. to defame. 

app. (subj. pipft. 3 sg.) 1 77 1 ki Tust mesdit u mesfait. 
V. tr. to injure, 
app. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 162 ki urent e mesfait e mespris. 

„ (subj. plpft. 3 sg.) 1771 ki I'ust mesdit e mesfait. 
s. f. bana, troop, company, 
nom. sg. 435 la vostre maisn^e (cerchera). 
ace. ,, 496 li fels tirantz cumande trestute sa mesn^e. 

prp. ,, 1020 en la mesn6e A. est atitl^ : — 968 of sa mesn€e est li princes pass^. 
V. tr. to ill-use. 
app. (ind. ant. 3 pi.) 162 ki urent e mesfait e mespris. 




















sf. ill-usage, ** mispnsioD. 
prp. sg. 307 par envie e lur grant mesprisun (mistrent Jesu k mort). 
s. m. messenger. 

ace. sg. 125 del angle Gabriel en fist sun messager. 
nom. pi. 1272 90 dient messager. 
n. pr. Messiah. 

nom. 930 proiez celui k'est verai Messias. 

ace. 132 (celui enfanterez) . . . Messie, ki deit tut le mund restorer. 

s. m. duty, function ; m. estre, be necessary; aver m. be useful (also used impers. with dat.). 
nom. sg. 674. 1292 90 fu sun mester : 210 ^ crestien croire est mester. 

ace. M 1 14 ne pout estre guarantz, ne nus aver mester : 672 aie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester ; 
,, „ 702 n'i pout matinie ne vespre aver mester : 1279 si trestut 90 ne puet aver mester : 
,, „ 1 781 n*a mester 4 nul de mere n6. 
V. tr. to measure, mark out. 

ppp. mas. pi. 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesurtf. 
s. t. measure, moderation ; prudence. 

ace. sg. 1313 (vus ne savez) ses grantz vertuz, e mesure e saver. 

prp. „ 611 gent de sen, de raisun e mesure : 532 (I'unt trahit par la rue) sanz mesure e man6e. 
s. m. metal. 

nom. s. g. 644 pere perist, fust art, e metal funt. 
^c^* M 594 quidez kc jo pur Deu recleim metal u pere dure. 

prp. „ 2 n'ert d'or adubbte ne d* autre metal : 643 mal aient deu ki de metal sunt, 
v. tr. to place, put ; involve ; expend ; — refl. to put one's self ; to begin, 
ind. pres. i sg. 662 en vus met ma esperance. 

3 i> 325 ^ genoilluns se met : 338 (la lei paene) met hum a mine e ii perdiciun : 

1368 Deus ne met pas les suens en ubbliance. 

1 20 (diable) mist hom en encumbrer : 292 ne mist (ran9un ne guage) d'or pur nus 

305 (^ sauvaciun) mist nus tuz morteus : 648 par peine k'em i mist : 

661 eu cors m'alme mist : 1752 puis mist le cors en terre. 
pL 289 en croiz lui mistrent li Giiie : 308. 315 le (= Jesu) mistrent k mort : 

773 autres ki au noer se mistrent, sunt n66. 






»« t» 
pret. „ 






»» »» 


»i »» 




snbj.pres. ise. 1831 si li k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 
„ „ 2 pi. 491 ma croiz vus doins ke ne mettez ia Jestun en ubbli (v. note), 
infin. 1 7 1 7 se peinent de mettre mei i, coniusiun. 
app.(ind. pft. 3 sg.) 775 a genoilluns s'est mis. 

(„ „ „ ,, 97 1 au cors Tad mis e ajusttf : 1057 (Jesus) n*a mis A. en ubli 
( tf »• tt pl^) 9^1 le chief unt au cors mis : I4CX> en sueires les unt e mis e encusu : 
( ft tt t) It ) '401 en escrit unt mis le numbre. 

(„ ant. „ sg.) 147 apres pou de tens ke out entre nus mis : 1539 n*avoit mis les noz en ubli. 
ppp. mas. sg. 157 en croiz (fu) mis : 670 mis i fu enchaesnez. 
„ „ pi. 1815 gesk'atant k*il furent mis en sarcu marbrin. 

}T. tr. to move (physically, or mentaUy), to affect ; — refl. to set out. 
app. (ind. pfl. 3 pi.) 479 atant si sunt andui d'iluec roeilz e parti. 

ppp. mas. sg. 73 de ses diz est meoz : 867 des maus ses enemis dolentx est e meu. 

under mun. 

!s. m. mid-day. 
prp. sg. 902 raant cum solailz ki flamboie li midiz : — 

„ „ 1060 un feu ki plus ert ders ke solailz de midi. 
adv. (strengthening the negation), at alL 

718 ne murra mie 1912 n'est mie (esjoltz) : 1028 ne sevent mie : 10J7 n'a mk mis en ubli : 
1312 ne savez mie : 14^5 ne pout mie : 1539 n*avoit mie mis en ubli. 
poss. adj. pron. mine ; [see also men 1560]. 
mas. (prp.) sg. 1823 ne sai autre language for le mien barbarin. 

„ voc. pi. 1330 vcnez, li mien ami ! 
fern. ace. sg 604 (de lui retenc) ceste moic vesture, 
num. adj. indecl. thousand ; mil mes ke un, a th(>us.ind save one. 
(nom.) 1 27 1 mil citoicn nus faillent : 1346 ne fnilli ke n'i eiist mil enter :«-. 
(pd.) 1 1 14 mil sunt : 1 188 mil sumes : 1450 mil fumes, 
(ace.) 1031 des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numbr6 : 

tt 1547 mil cors i truvas[mes^] : 1653 mil en avum ja mort. 
(s. m.) only adverbially, by thousands. 
(ace. pi.) i2Sa Ion ad roand6 sa gent centeines e miller. 

m 2 



miracle ) s. m. miracle. 

miracles / ace. sg. 801 quant veit le miracle: — 1384 (ad fait un autre) miracle e vertu. 


prp« M 139S (unt graces rendu) de teu miracle. 
„ pi. 936 quant ot des miracles : 1036 par les grantz miracles, 
s. m. mirror. 

mas. sg. 55 1 deussez estre as autres essample e mireiir. 
mis I. (216 bis) under mun. 

mis II. mist, mistrent imder mettre. 
moi under jo. 

moie tt mien, 

mois s. m. month. 

(ace.) pi. 1 138 enprisunez fu sis mois en un tenant. 
mord,mort i. under murir. 
mort II. s. f. death. 

nom. sg. 220 mort ne vie (ne nus purra) sevrer : 725 cele mort apent ^ home ki deu renie : 
729 (langur e maladie) plus nuit e greve ke mort. 

931. 1256. 1496 en croiz mort suiri : 1072. 1225 mort (sufrir) : 1317 par mort manacer: 
1675 mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer. 

308 mistrent Jesu k mort e k dampnaciun : 315 U le mistrent ^ mort e passion : 
$48 H mort livrez e ^ dulur : 745 k ceste mort est A. e livrez e damnez : 
7^1 k mort est jug^ : 1 151 k mort estoit jugez : 1367 (ocire le ferum) k la plus cmele moi 
1048 tu as k mort livr^ tant meint prude ber: 1785 (martirs) k*il unt k mort hvri :— 
1 90 apres la mort (turment atent) : 1445 ^prcs la mort du cors : — 
37 (relever) de mort : 794 (resuscitez) de mort : 1 297 estre quites de mort e reprover :- 
1302 (passer) par la mort : 1799 nus reinst par sa mort d'enfemal poest€ : — 
607 ne flecchirai purnule mort tant cruele : 983 pur sa mort grant duel unt demen6 : 
1 197 ne larrum pur losenge ne pur mort mana9ant : 1200 resortist pur mort : — 
48 sanz mort e sanz encumbrer : 1713 ii est vie sanz mort. 
adj. mortal ; (differs from next word, in that it is only used with * man.') 
mas. nom. sg. 94 um mortal (ne te serroit) escu : 1614 devint hom mortal. 

,f prp. „ 5 de fust i fu furmez uns cors d'um mortal, 
s. f. uaoility to death. 

prp. sg. 360 mes Palme tuz jurs viit santz mortalit6 (v. note), 
adj. mortal; fatal; deadly; final; huge; — subst. a mortal. 

ace. sg. 1359. 1647 cest mortel encumbrer : 1415 men6 lur enemi mortel. 
nom. pi. 1260 cum autres morteus furent andui cist e cele. 














iadj. r 









305 k sauvaciun mist nus tuz morteus : 907 ne dute mais morteus (feluns, Sec) : 
1474 k sun semblant fist nus tuz morteus. 

91 cum un de nus morteus : 596 (faiture) de uns enginnurs morteus : 
12 13 pur (garantir) moi de mes enemis morteus : — 
208 entre morteus e vivre e cunverser. 1 1 16 morteu maladie (lui envai le quor) : 17 5 1 si fu la presse grant e mortel neparquani 
prp. ,, 506 cum gent ki s*atume k morteu mediae. 
tt tt 1703 estoit en mortel passiun : 1709 sui en tel mortel prisun. 
„ ,, pi. 1666 (te mesciner) de tes morteus plaies. 
s. f. carrion, dead bodies, 
prp. sg. 1 393 (sunt devenu) gardeins de morticine. 
mortz, morz under murir. 














8. m. word ; with negat., not a word. 

acc. sg. 247 cist ja noise ne fist ne mot ne respundi-: 758 cist mot ne sune. 

n. pr. Moses. 

prp. 870 de Tewe dunas k Mo3rses tun dru : — 

f, 402 (escriz) d*Abram e Moyses, les veillardz alosez. 
v. tr. to change (colour, feelings) ; — ppp. (bird) that has moulted, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 543 de ire e mautalent tut mile la culur. 

„ pret. ,, ,, 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 296 mes par avisiun vus a Deu mu^ le curage. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1005 ore est sems e ligger cum uns osturs mu6. 
under murir. 

adj. mute, dumb (animals). 

fem. acc pi. 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miles baSr e pantoiser. 
s. f. woman, wife, 
acc. sg. 128 Marie ! Deu te saut, la benoite mulier ^v. note). 










ace. sg. 1 191 pur Id avum guerpi maisun, muOlere, enfant. 
T. tr. to multiply. 

subj. ores. 3 sg. 1440 (cist ne laist) ke ses criz ne eshauce e multiplie. 
adj. snarpened, shaip. 

mas. ace. pL 852 portent gisarmes e grantz cuteus muluz. 
»» Pn?* *> 95 detrenchez ja de brantz muluz. 
(1852} under munt. 

poss. adj. pron. my ; [v. also mien, moie]. 
mas. nom. sg. 34 est mun purpos : 

„ „ 216 mis quors ne mis penser : 2 19 mi maistres. 

ace „ 56 bis. mun aiere e mun chemin : 808 trestut mun viant : 
„ „ 013. 1673 mun cors : 1829 mun peli^un : 1839 mun Uvre. 

PT>- »» 34 vers G. mun pais : 223 en mun lit : 376. 380 en mun pais : 529 dc mun <e. 

nom. pL 1826 a J. me sui rendu, cum mi veisin. 

PT' ft 5Z vers mesdiz: 329. 812 de mcs pecchez : 1213 de mes enemis : 1215 ^ mes cumanz. 

voc. „ 171 venez, mes leans amis gentils ! 1534 venez, mi chevaler ! 
fern, ace sg. 473 ma robe : 491 ma croiz : 662 ma esperance. 

» prp. „ 45. 331 en ma maisun : 1268 k vus, ma gent k*estes loiele. 
adv. above. 
1712 (k*il mei) part doinst of vus U mund en cele regiun (v. note). 


n. ) 8. m. world. 

















nom. sg. 40 ne vaut pas tut li mundz un dener : 86 par ki 11 mundz est e faitz e sustenu : 
252 trembla trestut li mundz : 348 trespassable est li mundz e tute sa beuttf : 
400 par le deluge estoit li mundz* purgez. 

25. 46. ad tut le mund k guvemcr : 130 sauver le mund : 132 deit tut le mund restorer : 
6o\ fist trestut le mund : 637 cria tut le mund : 777 as le mund furmtf. 
1 38 du mund ad seingnurie : 564 (cumandeiir) du mund : 922 gloire du mund guerpis : — 
208 eu mund entre morteus (vivre) : 362 (con) k*eu mund ad est€ : 
1085. 1199. 1319. 1475* 1623. 1680. 1762 en cest mund: 1572 en tut le mund resplent. 
. 1 1. m. mountain. 
) aoc sg. 1832 passerai Mun Giu, le roiste munt alpin. 
pvp- »• 875 du munt est li roisseus hissu : 1094 (rewe) ki puis du munt sailli : 
„ „ 1 164 le lessames au pe du munt gisant : — 

„ „ 848 sunt ja eu mund venu : 11 72 suz un arbmseu ki eu munt fu cresant. 
tt t» 363 (ainz purra) ruisseu cure vers munt. 
8. f. mountain. 

prp. sg. 1030 herberge en muntainne ne puet estre ce\€, 
V. tr. (and intr.) to ascend, climb, mount ; — refl. to get on horseback, mount, 
ind. pret. 3 pL 1063 (li beus angeres) muntent e dcsendent (du eel). 
M pret 3 sg. 167. 264. 318 eu del munta. 

infin. 38 eu ciel munter : 1 266 tant cum estriu puis bailler pur muntcr sele. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 940 k genoilze ii cutes ad le tertre munt6 : 942 (li princes) a sun destrer munt^. 
PP* ( t» It tt tt ) '4>0 Q*^ cbt ki n*est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 
•t ( »t >• tt Ph 14^3 adunc se sunt muntez li uns dcs juvenceus. 
t. m. wall (of city). 

ace pi. 1404 pres sunt de V., ia veient les mureus. 
▼. intr. to die ; refl. s*en m., id. ; tr. to kill ; — pp. = adj. dead, the dead, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 588 si tu t'en murs ki en es de la cit6 la flur. 

3 »» 351 (lu sert Deu) e murt en sun servise, k bonure fu n^. 
tt pl* 1337 ^ autre volenters muercnt certz de luer. 

3 ^S* '59' 249 niurut : 502 murut en haute croiz dresc^: 1448. 1798 en croiz mumt. 
a ,, 68 pur Deu murras martir : 300 tu murras pur lui martir par vasselage : 
•• It 75^ ^^* t° murras santz delai, tu muras malur^. 

3 tt 444 quant A. s*en murra : 7 1 8 autrement ke li maistres, sis horn ne murra mie. 
„ pi. 639 ne pur tuz les hummes ki vivent e murunt. 
infin. 37 (deingna) en croiz murir : 699 (fu duel k regarder) les flurs as reims murir : 
„ 1218 ne pur sun cors livrer* k torment e murir : 1 318 plus devum (desircr^ pur Jetu murir. 
„ 1527 chescun de eus de murir avant se purofri : 1628 pur murir e remunr. 
gnid. 1 185 ke il au muriant teinst en sun sane : 249 en murant getta on cri. 
app. (ind. pft. i pi.) 1653 mfl en avum ja mort ui sanz espami^. 
ppp. mas. sg. 90 (tu) mort, e posez en sarcu : 1774 (ke il ne fust) u mort n mahaion^. 





















f > 




















(adj.) mas. nom. sg. 263 cist ki mortz estoit : 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreu - 

920 mortz est e eschamiz : 1656 mors es e maubailli : 
1767 meint (en i out) mort e deful€. 

987 k*il urent cum freit mord guerpi : 1 164 cum mort le lessames : 
1 41 5 (mend) lur enemi, vif u mort : 1738 amerroient Ic clerc mort u vivant. 
845 pur mort le guerpissent. 
nom. pi. 793 li mort ki noiez lurent, se drescent en scant : 

1079 ki mort sunt e purri : 1667 (resuscitcr) ecus ki par tei sunt morz. 
1 5 1 resuscita mortz : 1 70 juger les mortz e vifs : 
173 ii (noise) nafra jamais mortz. 

1000 les mortz funt vifs parer : 1672 sul Deu puet les morz ^ vie reapeler. 
adj. sad. 

mas. nom. pi. 161 devindrent Jueus mumes e pensis. 
\ V. tr. to hide. 

/ ind. pret. 3 sg. 898 la croiz prist e mus9a uns crestiens gentilz. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1015 si parent e ami Punt en terre musc6. 
s. f. fly. 

prp. pi. 707 de musches e vermine ne se pout nul garden 
^ V. tr. to show, make known, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 732 90 mustre e signifle. 

pret. ,, ,, 274 plus me mustra Deus e plus me descuvii 
fut. I ., 1839 musterai i mun livre. 

infin. 1037 mustrer as ses martirs privez : 1809 mustrer al apostoille tute la verity, 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 211 lui ad mustrd sanz ren celer : 284 sa croiz li ad mustr^. 
adv. much, very, greatly ; (a) with verbs, (b) with ptcps., (c) with advs.*, (d) with adj. [only grant']. 
42. 1066 mut esmervoiller : 215 mut ai dormi : 680 mut sufrir : 1237 mut lur plut : 1235 mut suit : 
1245 mut me plest: 1364 mut paer: 1459 mut Tenmercie : 1551 urent mut despit : 1590 mut se 
penent : 1670 pecehes mut : 1724 reahaite mut sa entunciun. 
796. 1066 mut sunt esbaiz : 997 mut fut endoctrin6 : 1404 mut sunt curucez : 
1524 mut furent manacez : — 1793 mut sunt repentant. 

1009 mut plus k'avant : 130 1 mut largement : 1307 mut petit : 1457 mut umblement. 
482 mut vcissez grant duel : 1274 mut serra la perte grant |: 
1500 mut funt grant noise : 1733 (atant surt) un estrif mut grant : — 
1462 mut est de grant seignurie : 1491 mut sunt de grant joie refait : 
1586 mut est de grant enseignement. 




n* under ne. 

nafra, nafrd, nafrent under naverer. 







\ V. intr. to be bom. 

> ind. pres. 3 pi. 704 ncissent maladies e divers encumbrer. 

) ,, pret. I sg. 1502 dist chescun lermant, " las ! purquei nasqui" ? 

„ 3 „ 61 en B. naski : (484 en B. nasqui :) 144 pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de Parais. 
infin. 37 deingna naistre : 87 deingnast de femme naistre : 139 par droit apent naistre. 
mas. sg. 351 H bonure fu n6 : [743 seit gentilz e bien n€ (v. bicn)] : 976 puis k*il fu n6. 
„ pi. 56A (ki furent) de Rumme nez : 1475 tant mar fiistes nez en cest mund. 
„ prp. sg. 1 781 i nul, n6 (de mere), 
prp. sg. 595 ne parole, ne ot, ne veit, par nature, 
adj. natural. 

fem. prp. sg. 1414 (men€) ^ V., lur cit6 naturel. 
) v. tr. to scathe, wound. 

] ind. pres. 3 pi. 1730 navrent e defiilent ^ chevaus : 1748 ferent, nafrent e traient. 
„ pret. 3 sg. 173 il nafra jamais mortz noise ne duel ne estrifs. 

infin. 1625 (aegre) de batre, e de cuteus naverer. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1767 (meint en i oat) maubailli e nafrd. 




s. f 


I. conj. and sot ; nor, neither [▼. note on 1 137]. 

comjoming a co-^frdmaU negative douse : — 

( 1 ) 22 n'i out phis cuneox, ne nns plus communal : 94 ne te seiroit or random, n*am mortal escu : 
192 ^ ne revolt sen, ne pnrreit estie pniT6 : 247 nobe ne fist, ne respondi : 273 qnors nel puct 
Denser, ne jo pardi : 607 ne gnerpinu, ne flecchirai : 1588 nuls ne remaint, ne atent. 

(/3) 83 ne jo ai apris : 1 137 ben recunast le ovre, . . ne ren fii celant. 

(2) ne . , . ne^ introducing two subordinate members of a negative sentence : — 

a 192 90 ne revolt . . ne sen ne entendement : 203 nel voat . . ne guerpir ne abblier : 255 ne rai ne 
lumere . . solail ne espiandi : 474 ne te osera nuire . . ne cuard ne haixti : 582 n'avemnt vers toi . . 
ne ire ne rancnr : 640 ami ne bran ne blond . . chose ne purrunt £ure : 790 D*i fust nus i flote, . . 
ne batel ne chalant : 842 ne remeint sein . . ne tant ne quant : 1088 il ne fu . . ne truan ne failli : 
1216 il ne vout, &c. . . ne pur large prisun ne pur sun cors livrer (v. note) : 1510 ne sunt . . nc 
perdu ne peri, 
b with omission of the first ne : — 

2 bis. ne ert adubb6e . . d*or ne d*autre metal, d'ivoire ne roal : 53 n*oiez quor . . dur ne ferrm : 
196 droitz ne raisuns . . n*i assent : 220 (sevrer) ne nus punra . . mort ne ne : 292 bis. ne mist . . 
ran^um ne guage, d*or ne d'argent : 297 ne eiez quor . . ligger ne volage : 672 n*i peust aver 
mester . . aie ne rescusse : 702 n*i pout aver mester . . matin6e ne vespre : 703 bis. n*a . . pluie 
ne ros^, au seir n'al enjumer : 766 ne . . batel ne nief unt tniv£ (▼. note) : 842 ne remeint • . sein 
ne enter : 957 ne sdt . . embl< ne devor< : 961 bis. n*ai . . soing ne volunt6, de eschars ne gas oir 
(v. note) : 1042 n'est ja . . chan^un ne fable : 1093 (ne rendi) . . fruit ne herbe : 1 139 ne pluveit . . 
tant ne quant : 1 148 (nel pout hom) . . veintre ne flecchir : 1216 bis. il ne les vout . . enfreindre 
ne guerpir, fauser ne fleccnir : 1376 n'est . . ginm ne mance : 15 16 n*estes . . posex ne enseveli : 
1 54 1 nH peust cunustre . . privtf ne estrangi : 1549 (ke nul ne fust blesmi) de chens ne d*autre^ 
bates : 1005 nel lessent . . reposer ne prendre estal : 1650 n'estes . . las ne saiil : 1716 ne me . . 
flecchissent ne part eient de moi : 1756 ke ne les devurassent . . bestes n*oisel : — 
{fi) in dependent clauses virtually negative: — 

99 ne vout Deus ke soiez . . damnez ne perdu : 1 108 ne larrum ke soium . . destumez ne fiecchi : 
636 ainz purra mer secchir ke Jesu treshublie . . pur tant de fin or ne pur tuz les hommes. 
(7) 1720 plus blancs ke cheinsil ne cotun [v. ne 11. No. 6]. 
c in predicate of elliptic negative relative clause : — 

1391 U In du Dois, ne saiU ne peu [« without being either ftdl or fed]. 
<3) in three-membered negative predication with ne only between the lost two members : — 

a 76 ki n'i soient . . veii, 01 ne aperceii : 573 n'est nul . . tant sage, tant fort ne tant seiir : 861 fun- 
taine ne trovent, rivere ne palu : 1040 ne dute mais . . tirantz, prince ne cunestable : 1727 ganle 
n*a . . de fu, de verm ne de larrun. 
b with ne preceding each of the last two members : — 

a n*i out . . acaston^e ne gemme ne cristal: 81 ne purreit estre . . entendu ne enquis ne seii: 
83 jo ne I'ai . . apris ne pruvd ne leu : 173 il nafra jamais mortz . . noise ne duel ne estrifs : 177 
ne sai . . vostre lei ne cuntenement ne ke J. aprent (v. note) : 682 (n'a mab lit) . . ii plume ne 4 
cotun ne A pailles : 738 (ne l*unt pas otri€) . . li prince ne li parent ne cist dela cit6 : 1 197 ne lar- 
rum . . pur losenge ne pur mort ne pur richesces : 1313 vus ne savez . . sa vertu ne poer ne st-s 
grantz vertuz : 141 ^ ne man^runt . . ^ table n*cn tente n*cn ostel : — 
ifi) 1316 ne place i J. ke nus puissez sevrer . . par duns ne par turment ne par mort. 
<4) conjoining two coordinate negative clauses : — 

891 ne gent, ne grundille, n'est fiecchiz : 141 1, 2, 3 n'osteront, ne dormirunt, ne mangerunt. 
(5) conjoining three co-ordinate negative clatlses : — 

589 n'ert esmuz, ne geenst, ne dcut, ne plure : 595 ki ne parole, ne ot, ne sent, ne veit. 
II. adv. not, never, &c.^v. note on 1137]. 

(i) a of simple negative without any strengthening particle : — 

2. 4, 22. 28. 68. 81. 94. 99. 108 (nes). 114. 134. 177. 189. 192. 196. 203 (nel). 216. 247. 255. 292. 

»95- 339- 359 389- 4«o. 45'- 470. 474. 568. $77 578- 582. 589. 59»- 595- 606. 615 (nel). 630. 633. 
641. 650. 664. 673. 694. 701. 702. 703. 730. 742. 758. 791. 809. 858. 861. 881. 892. 919. 922. 955. 
961. 962. 1008. 102 1. 1030. 1034. 1042. 1088. 1093. 1107. Ilia 1148 (nel). 115a 1174. >«77 

1197. 1204. 1234. 1259. 1267 bis. 1269. 1270. 129a 1296. 1303. 1314. 1322. 1342. 1346. 1349. 1362. 

1411. ia2o. 1433. 1440. 1447. 1469. 1497. 1506. 1525. 1541. 1560. 1569 (nel). 1579. 1589 (nes). 160^ 

(nel). 1620. 1623. 1626 (nel). 1629. 1633. 1649. 1650. 1656. 1671. 1678. 1727. 1742. 1750. 1-71. 
» of limited negation^ with (a) ke or {p) mes following^ m nothing btU, only: — [1825. i83i>. 

(a) 1325. 1619 iri out ke curuccr. 
(fi) 314 ApoUin ne prise mes valiant un butun : 1841 jo ne me os numer mes pecchur cupable. 

JoUowed by {a)fors or autre, <>''(3) the elliptic si . , , nun : — 
(a) 359 n'unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez : 1710 jo n'ai esperance fors en Den e vus nun :— 

1447 n'est autre Deu for cist : 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien : — 


(nc II.) 123 ne se vout fier en autre k*en sun cher fiz. 

(/3) 314 ne li firent pur ses bens si mal nun : 807 n'est autre se il nun. 
d after a pou - nearly : — 

751 ^ pou n'est void6 li temples : 1566 \ pou de ire ne fent. 

(2) accompanied by a strengthening particle^ — fHis^ pointy mie ; nul : — 

16. 40. 383. 435. 492. 535. 577. 601. 687 (nel). 690. 721. 737. (932. 956.) 1200. 1368. 1382. isiS. 
1520. 1559. 1619. 1678 poj.*— 463 ;?Mn/;— 718. 912. 1028. 1057. 1312. 1435. 1539 jw<^. 

508- 573- 707. (733.) 768. (790O 1371. «46i. 1549- »588. 1689. 1781. 1783 nul, 

(3) with unCf jamais^ mais^ = never : — 

a'7- 3H- 587. 976. 1216. 1380. 1390. 1406 une .•-—22a 1537. i58oy(txmaix;~676. 678. 682. 735. 907. 
1040. 1162. 1787 mais, 

(4) Ttrith imperatives, — (/3) subj. used imperatively^ (fii^) : — 
53. 96. 299. 347. 364. 375- 486. 873. «... 

iP) S^9 °c vus nuit (v. note) : 733 ja nul ne voie : 928 n*eit ja part : 13 15 ne place il Jesu. 

(5) in dependent sentences^ — {^C)^ finals causal^ consecutive, {ke\ — (b), hypothetic [«],—(€) concessive :— 
a 75- 95- "5. 221. 279. 469. 485. 489. 491. 672. 735. 790. 932. 956. 1083. (1216.) 1346. 1388. (1406.) 

1440. (1549.) 1580. 1696. 1715. 1745. tJSbkene. 
b 12. 428. 547 [jt omitted]. 1080. 1082. 1239. 1275. 1279. 1289. 1621. 1685. l^ 60 si ne, 
c (o) with tut, - although . . . not; (/3) withja tant, ^ however much : — 

(aS 874 tut n*eit tei Dcu rekeneii. 

1035 ja tant ne en serrunt requis. 

(6) ' after ke of comparison in clauses where the verb is expressed : — 

460 plus est pauteners ke n*est lu : 521 plus est esmeiiz ke n*est leonesse : 669 plus sent demonmce 
pener ke ne fait anguisse : 877 plus clers ke n'est argentz : 1070 plus beus ke n'est lis : 1250 phis 
set (de e.) ke ne set (de t.) fevre : 1356 plus criieus ke n'est urs : 1376 plus blancs ke n'est girun. 

(7) in attributive-relative sentences, after a negative principal verb : — 

650 n'a cist ke ne obe'ist : 1303 n'a cist ke decolez ne seit : 1420 n'a cist ki n'est mantes : 

578 n'est ki ne prent sum : 1 342 n'est hom ki n'en pciist aver piet6 : 1 772 n'i out ki . . , ke il ne fust : 

574 n'est nul tant fort ... la n'est susduit : 1461 n'a nul . . Id ne die. 

(8) pleonoLstically : — 

83 ne jo ne rai apris : 247 ne mot ne respundi : 273 ne jo nel pardi : 648 ne ren n*i esplcite : 892 ne 

de ren n'est flechiz : 1 137 ne ren ne fu celant : 1 139 n'en terre ne pluveit ; 1716 ne part ne eient 
xA, neissent under naistre. 
n66 under noiez. 

nel under ne and le [= illimi, illud]. 

nent s. m. nothing ; pur n., for nought. 

prp. sg. 634 pur ncnt travaillerunt. 
Neptun n. pr. Neptune. 

ace. 335 Jovin descunus e sun frere Neptun : 1 103 reni N. le marin e Plutun rennerd. 
nepurquant adv. however. 

809 ore nepurquant, mes ke ^ tart : 1590 mut nepurquant se penent d'aler hastivement. 

1751 si fu la presse grant e mortel nepurquant (v. note), 
ncrci \ v. intr. to grow black, 

ncrcir ) infin. 698 (veisez) gent e nercir e suer. , 

pp. mas. prp. sg. 1546 e feimcs enbrever H arrement nerci. 
nerf \ s. m. nerve, 

nerfs | nom. pi. 840 li nierf li sunt rumpu e tut le cors doillant : 1430 doillant li sunt li nerf. 

<^c. p 954 (k'U garisse) tes nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevr6. 
nes I. s. m. nose. 

prp. sg. 837 du nies e de la buche li sancs ist e espant : — 632 fcrent en face e nes e fnint. 
nes II. (108. 632. 1589.) under neand les. 
nesance s. f. birth. 

prp. sg. 1378 gentil de nesance. 
nette adj. clean, morally blameless. 

fem. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) espirable e seinte e nette e pure, 
nevu s. m. nephew. 

ace. se. 1328 fiz, frere, nevu, d'ocire e detrencher (v. note). 

voc. pi. 1503 fiz, frere, nevu, ai ! tant mar vus vi. 
ncz under naistre. 

ni under nier. 

nief s. f. ship. 

ace. sg. 766 ne batel ne nief ^ passer unt truv6. 

prp. „ 1831 si lii k'en nief me mette au procein port marin. 



nier v. tr. to refuse, deny. 

ind. pres. i sg. 275 segrei celestien ke desclore vus ni. 

infin. 143 cele Tottreit sanz nier u duter. 

under nerf. 

under nes. 
mgromande s. f. magic art (necromancy). 

prp. 8g. 997 de nigromancie mut fii endoctrin6. 
nigrofnancieiis s. m. magician. 

nom. sg. 1509 cist nigromanciens ces grantz maus nus basti. 
nigromant s. m. magic (magician ? v. note). 

•cc. sg. 1335 tant aprist nigromant kant il ert escoler. 

adv. (strengUiening the assertion,— (a) affirmative, or ^) negative,) even. 
(a) 792 nis li petit enfant : — (j3) 1362 ne se desjunerunt ms de un disner : 

1388 n*unt nis un des cheveuz entamtf. 














ooit I. 



1 adj. noble. 

mas. ace. sg. 19 (trove le scingnur) nobile citoien. 

„ voc. „ 285 A., citoien nobiles de parage ! 

„ nom. pL 565 (ki furent) sarrazins nooiles ^v. note), 
fem. prp. sg. 11 il vent ^ V. une di€ nobile. 
8. f. noDilitv. 

*^' 'S* 35^ ki tant urent tresor e tant nobilit6. 
n. pr. Noah. 

pip. sg. 401 Par Noe e ses fiz (fii restorez li mundz). 
V. mtr. to swim. 
(prp.) infin. 773 au noer se mistrent. 

gmd. 791 ti avant passer ne pout hom nouant. 
T. intr. to be (browned. 

pp. mas. pi. 773 autres Id au noer se mistrent sunt n€6 : 793 li mort ki furent noiez. 
adj. black. 

fem. nom. sg. 841 la char (est) noire e emfl6e. 
s. f. noise, disturbance, quarrel, 
nom. sg. 173 ti nafra jamais mortz — noise ne duel ne estrifs : 

•» »f ^3 entre eus est ja levez noise e bruit e criz : 1 733 surt une noise e un estrif mut grant, 
ace. „ 247 cist ne fist noise: 518 unt grant noise cumenc^: 1500 funt grant noise e cri. 
s. f. (pi.) marriage, 
prp. pi. 62 quant manga as nosces lu bcr Architriclin. 

tposs. adj. pron. our ; les noz, our people (1299. 1539. I554)' 
fem. nom. sg. 886 est la nostre creance e poples maubaimz : i 
mas. nom. pi. 44. 49 noz deus : 1079 noz parentz : 1273 noz veisins c amis. 

^20 90 est nostre sentence. 



ace. „ 419. 584. 723. II 62. 1 66 1 noz [always with d^us, deities] : 1539 mis les noz en ubli. 
gen. „ 754 enemi nus deus de la cittf (v. note) : 1270 (venger) le deshonur noz deus. 

„ prp. „ 1554 en ad des noz tant seisi : — 566. 580 en noz deus : — 1299 of les noz k*i sunt, 
ft. m. swimming ; ^ nou, [M. F. H la nage,] by swimming, 
prp. sg. 772* passent Tewe ^ nou. 
under noer. 

„ nuz. 
V. tr. to tie. 

ppp. mas. sg. 951 as reims est nu6 (sun chief). 
8. 1. cloud. 

nom. sg. 701 nue ne parut ki terre peQst umbrer. 
prp. „ 1059 P^^'^ cstoit li airs e (seri) sanz nQe. 
num. nine. 

1403 bis. nuef centz e nunante nuef. 
V. tr. to hurt. 

) ind. pres. 3 sg. 729 (langur e maladie) plus nuit e greve ke mort. 
subj. „ „ „ 569 ne vus nuit la puiir (but v. note). 

infin. 474 ne tc osera nuire ne oiard ne hardi. 

)s. f. night, 
nom. sg 


(.. ) 



198 la nuit le susprent : 222 la nuit estoit peisible, li tens beus e seri : 

454 Quant li jurs decline e nuit enobscuri : 1677 H est grant tenebnir, nuit sani enjuracr. 

200 davant sa croLz la nuit en uraisuns despent : — 603 Jar e nuit aiire (Deti) : 

674 CO fu sanz lassesce jur e nuit sun mester : 1180 Ia ooit procctnne aprcs. 

1055 par b nuit ki survmt li airs enobscuri 









prp. pi. 7cx> dure li chautz de nait2 sanz rein amesnrer. 
pron., in phr. pur — , for nobody » (for nothing). 

48^ ke ne soiez de ltd esloinnez pur nulli : 1 1 10 ke il lur emprise ne larrunt pur nnlli. 
adj. no, none. 

mas. nom. sg. nus 22 n'i out plus cuneiiz ne nus plus communal : 114 ne pout estre guarantx ne 

nus avermester: 420 mar nus en dutera: 434 nns bom garde s'en dm: 
444 (mar ja cxmiencera) nus autres teu chose : 768 nus ne remaint : 790 ke n'i 
fust nus i flote (v. note). 
nuls 425. 1569 nuls dire purra: 803 il nuls unc hom ala avant : 1588 nuls ne re- 

maint : 1689 ne puet nuls parcimter. 
nul 573 n'est nul tant sage (Id n'est susduit) : 707. 1783 ne se pout nul (garder) 
(vanter) : 770 ^ grant estrif i passent e nul ll volenti : 1460 n*a nul (ki ne die) : 
1549 ke nul ne fust blesmi 
tt 733 j^ °^ ^^ ^oic • 12S0 sanz nul espamiSr : 1355 sanz nul passer : — 

1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal [no place, nowhere]. 
„ 1 140 imc H nul Jur tant : 1781 n'a mester il nul de mere n^. 

,f nuU 508 n*est nule (chambre) trespass^e. 

,, 137 1 de nule cunussance : 347 par nule yanit6 : 364 pur nule adversitf : 607 pur 

nule mort : 361 sanz nule rauset6 : 507. 1373 sanz nule demurie (demurance). 
V. tr. to number 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 103 1 des citoiens en ad bien mil u plus numbr6. 
s. m. number, count. 

„ ace. 


» prP' 
fem. nom. 

» prp- 

ace. sg. 1 40 1 en escrit unt mis le numbre. 

prp. „ 169 ki estoient esluz par numbre deus faiz sis : 1 188 mil sumes par numbre. 
num6ement adv. especially, in particular. 

500 num^ement celui (ki preche, &c.) 
numer v. tr. to name, speak of. 

infin. 43 cument oses tu celui numer ? 1841 jo ne me os numer (mes pecchor cupaUe). 
nun I. under nuns. 

nun II. adv. not, no ; si . . nun, except but, nothing but ; phr. voUle u nun, whether one will or no. 
(i) 314 ne li firent unc pur ses bens si mal nun : 807 n est autre si il nun : — 







nus I. 
nus 11* 
nus Ui. 
nuvele i. 

90 nun, par la mort cuvent passer, 
voille u nun, ne die. 
1 214 nun pas sulement oir, mes, &c. 
num. ninety. 
1403 nuef centz e nunante nuef. 
y. tr. to announce, declare, 
infin. 35 la nuvele precher e nuncier (est mun purpos) : ia6 vint en tenre nuncich- (la nuvele) : 

„ 1834 (tendrai le chemin i Rome) as Romeins nuncier kancke ai veu. 
s. m. name. 

nom. sg. 1041 sis nuns est en estoire e escrit remembrable. 
ace. „ 21 A. ad nun : 799 Arade avoit nun. 
prp. „ 102 al nun le fiz Marie (= on the mention of the name) : — 

»f f » 370 (baptize A.) eu nun de la trinit6 : 899 ^ cel6e crut eu seint nun Jesu Cristz : 

„ „ 1804 baptizer se funt tuit el mm de trinity, 
(nun saver) s. m. ignorance. 

prp. sg. 1662 tu les as ciuiic6 par tun grant nunsaver. 
aoj. barefooted ; (v. also under nuz). 

nom. sg. 514 nupez : 1 145 nupez e megres : 1248 nupez e depanez : 1828 nupez sanz chauceure. 
s. f. training, feeding ; (riote e n., riotous living, hendiadys ?) 
prp. sg. 617 ^lui recimtai de voz maus,) riote e nureture. 
V. tr. to nourish. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1252 ki enfanta e nurri Jesu de sa mamele. 
ppp. mas. sg. 228 en terre fu nurri 
s. 1. ornament, bracelet, {nouche O. E.) 
prp. pi. 20 H robe d*or batue e [i] nuscnes de aesmaL 
under jo. 

(754 = noz) under nostre. 
(22. 1 14. 420. 434 4A4. 768. 790^ under nuls. 
s. f. news, account ; la nuvele esjoie, the Gospel, 
nom. sg. 735 enchacez seit ke mais de li ne sdt nuvele oie : 

1242 tost est ^ V. venue la nuvele : 1786 tost s'espaunt 1a nuvele par le regn6. 






( nuvde) ace 





35 (predicr) la mvde e^oie : 1 26 vint nnnder b unrde : 

t» M 416 <1*A. la mnde Jmjiii e cota : 14S8 dst ant la mifvle d'ApL oL 

»• fd. 78 nmcks me pcrtei d*vi dea 
adT. nevij, UXgij, 
15^ ii Jesa S4 
ad), new, nevij 
mas. nom. tg. 1470 sis bons qman tot frail eA e Bnreos. 

>t prp* •• '43' ^ -^ *P?^ ^ ^'^ maitir nn^ : 501 d^nn den nnvd pndie. 

„ ace ]^ 1595 entor nd crestiens nmneos (i sennim entent, v. noteL 
fern. prp. %g. 520 (noise) de la cioiz nwftkt : 126J ( prechcra) de cde ki nnrde. 
adj. naked, 
mas. nom. ig. 853 sol A. i est le coo e ks pez mi : 1423 sol Apl. i est, sane 

e nii2. 





*) T. intr. to obey (dat.). 

pres. 3 fd. 1680 en cest nrand Id obcisscnt i hir mamrois volcr. 






€% I. 

ol u. 

oil I. 

oQ II. 




9, pret. 3 sg. 478 i ses diz ob^ : 1092 i Id en la grant seccheresce li aiis obei. 
sobj. nnpft. „ „ 650 n*a dst ke ne obost. 

1215 (deingnat) i mes cmnanz tant leoment obeir. 
grnd. 814 Tewe, i tot obossant, prove ta Tertn. 
periph. pres. ptcp. mas. pL 1753 *^ cnmpamnons k*ercnt ob^sant. 
adj. dark, obscme. 
fern, ace sg. 679 prison ad obscure pnr sale e pur soler. 

>» pvp. ,f 599 en la prison d*enfer giscnt obscure : 665 en prison obscore le cnmandent getter. 
V. tr. to slay, 
tnd. ptet. 3 sg. 399 d*Abd,— <nm Tocist Caim : 1042 Id Tocist. 

„ „ I pi. 1526 done les occismes sanz piet6 e merci. 
condtL 3 „ I740jnr€eurent k*fl rocircnent. 

tnfin. 1328 d*ocire : 1340 (veissez les ons) odre : 1367 odre le fcfom (A croele mort). 
app. (ind. pit. 3 pL) 1355 qoant paens ont ods toz sanx nol passer, 
nnder oir. 

pfcp. with, (avec ; chez) ; on the side of. 

386. 1535. i840of moi: 74. lOi. 117. 301. 318. 1179. 1386 of loi : I433 of ki : 1321. 1324 of nus - 
487. 1712 of Tos: 1112 of ens: — 909 of ses desmeine eslitz : 968 of sa mesnfe: 1299 of les noz : 
1451 Grifla croiz: 1683 of lor dens : 1684 of les dampnez : 1726 of A.: 1816 of les paens. 
T. tr. to offer. 

ind. pret. I pL 1 149 asez li ofrimes, joeos, argent, besantz. 
prep. with. 

480 A. de la titi ofnokes loi issL 
(^76) nnder aver, 
ole, oient, otez, nnder <^. 
s. m. eye. 

prp. sg. 1788 cist k*en oient parier, al ofl Tont esgard6. 
nom. pL 731 li oil crev€ li soient : 913 U snnt li oil da chief sailliz : 

tt »» 1175 li ofl li sont chaet andui da chef: 1778 li oil sunt reverse, 
adr. yes. 
1 233 cist responent toit, * oil,' sanz repentir. 

IT. tr. to hear, listen to ; hear about ; oir parier, hear spoken of; osed abs., of the sense of hearing, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 41 qoant Tot du fiz Deo parier : 595 ki ne parole, neot, ne reit, par natore : 
„ „ ,» „ 726 ki Tot, A lui s*asent : 936 ^uant ot des miracles : 12^6 les ot Apl. 90 de quor 
„ „ geir : 1564. 1639 quant ot 90 h princes : 1574 Id les ot e 1 assent : 1725 ot one yoii. 

2 pi. 1184 nus tut 90 Teimes ke m*ocz recuntant. 

3 „ 132^. 1332 90 ouent : 1329 oient une voiz : 1697 oient : 1788 cist k*en oient parier. 
pret 1 sg. 272 la joie kc jo ol : 421 ben vi e bien Tol : 1670 qoant te oi tes deos priser. 

3 H 41 1 lur faitz e lur cunscilz oi. 

' F^* 1533 ^^^ ^^^ olsmes, chescun ben I'entendi. 

2 „ 217 kar un sunge sungai, ne oTstes unc le per. 

(S kar aidunc orra la curt apertement k* A. tos dinra. 
en teu manere com m*orrez reconter. 

n 2 





• f 










3 »?• 43» 
apl. 689 





or I. 
or II. 















orra, orreient 
ors ^ 

OS I. 







condit. 3 pi. 470 kar raisun plus n*orreient ke tigre ensauvagi. 

infin. 61a veritez voissez oir : 12 14 (oir) m'ensegnement : 1237 ki mut lur plat oir. 
(abs.) gmd. 805 dist en haute voiz, les Sarrazins ouant. 
app. (ind. pfl. sg.) 1835 kancke ai veil e 01 : 131 dunt as oi lire : 1668 quant I'ad o! parler. 

n ( »f plpft. 3 ,, ) 448 si voirs est ke d'A. avoit iluec o7. 
ppp. mas. sg. 905 est li chantz oiz : 1071 tens estoit lur chantz entenduz e olz. 

„ „ pi. 76 (ke n'i soient de veisins) 01 ne aperceu. 

,, fern. sg. 735 ke mais de li ne seit nuvele oie : 1455 ta priere ert ole. 
sm. bird. 

ace. sg. 183 (ki fist) oisel, peisun marage : 990 (or Tunt veu) delivre e tut legger cum oisel enpenn^ 
nom. pL 1507 oisel te devurent : 1756 ke ne les devurassent bestes n'oisel v^ant. 
ace. ,, 697 (veisez) oises e bestes miies baer e pantoiser : 1389 Tegle oiseus enchace. 
prp. ,f 847 k luus livrer e as oisseus volant : 1550 ki d'oiseus les cors bien defendi. 
num. adj. ord. eighth, 
mas. prp. sg. 145 (circumcis) au jur oitisme. 
under oir. 
under honur. 
(989) under ore (v. note), 
s. m. gold. 

nom. sg. 94 (or) ne te serroit ran9imi n*um mortal escu : 473 (ma robe) ii kit li ors bumi. 
ace. „ 1288 or portent e argent en cofres H sumer. 
prp. „ 292 (guage) d'or ne d'argent : 624 image d'or bruni : 683 pur tant de fin or : 

680 buus d'or cler : 903 curune d*or esmer6 requitz : 1664 tresor de argent e de or der :— 
a (croiz adubb^e) d*or : 20 robe batue d'or : 1 134 robe bruid^e d*or lusant : 
1525 pur un val (empli) d*or: 1497. 1825 pur tut Tor (de Damas, Costentin). 
s. f. orison, prayer. 

ace. sg. 327 k lermes e suspirs fait sa uraissun : 1704 vers lu ciel regarde e fait sa oraisun. 
nom. pi. 786 les oraisuns e lermes de vertu sunt tant. 
prp. „ 200 la nuit en uraisuns despent. 
adj. bUnd. 

mas. nom. sg. 73i2 orb est de quor e avoglez. 
s. f. filth. 

prp. sg. 618 enclins avez tuz jurs est6 k pecchez e ordure. 

adv. now; (precedes the verb, save in 245. 11 24). [1482. 1658. 1776. 1796 

241. 243. 245. 344. 359. 433. 552. 554. 561. 809. 824. 872. 924. (989 or). 1005. 1088. 1124. 1219. 
adj. orphan, wretched, 
mas. nom. sg. 1835 jo peccheres orphanin. 

„ ace. „ 60 la pest le famillus, ki sustent Torfanin. 
s. m. pride. 

prp. sg. 722 A. li engres par orgoil e envie (v. note), 
s. m. east, the East. 

prp. sg. 33 de orient veng : 1 127 d'orient venant : 1558 li clercs ki vint del orient, 
adj. oriental, eastern, 
mas. nom. sg. i486 est venuz li traitre orienteus. 

„ ace. „ 1407 tut rettent Apl. le clerc orientel. 
adv. native, by origin, by birth, 
mas. nom. pi. 23 si ancesur estoient Romein original, 
under orfanin. 
, orrez, under oir. 
under or ii. 
s. m. bone. 

nom« pi. 652 fruissent os, char emfle. 
Pn>' ft 954 ^^s nerfs ki sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevr6. 
V. intr. to dare, 
ind. pres. i sg. 276 kar descuverir ne Tos : 1841 jo ne me os numer. 

,, 2 „ 43 cument oses tu celui numer : 45 oses en ma maisun precher. 
fut. 3 „ 474 ne te osera nuire ne cuard ne hardi. 
pret. 3 pi. 1660 reni Jesu ki Giu oserent encroer. 
s. f. host, army. 

nom. sg. 1285 cist s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener. 
ace. sg. 1419 d'envair ost k rei u cit€ u chastel (v. note), 
s. m. hostage, 
ace. sg. 293 mes de sa char demeine (mist) sacrifice e ostage. 



ostal I 8. m. dwelling-hoase, residence (= shelter). 

ostel > ace. sg. 29 ostel demand pur Deu : 1087 quist, cum esgarez, ci ostel e abri. 

ostens I ptp. M 18 le seingnur seant al uis de sun ostal : 72 [ki est en] sun ostel entrez e receQz. 

If »» 1413 ne mangenmt i table n*en tente, n'en osteL 
„ pL 1485 sunt'll V. venuz, k Inr osteus. 
oste, ostes under hoste. 
oaX€ \ V. tr. to take (down, away). 

ostenint > ind. fut. 3 pL 1411 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel, 
ostez ) app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 970 ad osttf (le chef A. del arbre ii pendi). 

ppp. mas. sg. 90 mort, de croiz ostez e posez en sarc[u] : 261 de la croiz fu ostez e puis enseve[li]. 
osturs s. m. hawk. 

nom. sg. 1005 ore est seins e ligger cum uns osturs mu6. 
otri< 1 V. tr. to grant, accord, agree to. 

otriez I ind. pres. 1 sg. 72 1 co pas ne ottrie. 

otroier > „ „ 3 „ 142 rottreit cele sanz nier u duter : 478 Apl. Tottrie. 

ottreit I subj. „ ,. „ 1124 (proiez lui) k'il m'ottreit, par sa grace, ceste vie finir. 

ottrie J imper. 2 pi. 388 beu maistre ! pur Deu le m otriez. 

innn. 1687 tant cum il lui plest espace otroier. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 737 li prince e la commune ne I'unt pas otri6. 
oc, ouant, ouent under oir. 
oof (1647) under ui. 
out C 1 47) under aver. 
nvTi V. tr. to work (miracles) ; — v. intr. to act, behave. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1803 geisent ke il a dreitureument uvr6. 
„ ( „ ant. „ „ ) 936 des miracles ki Jesus out uvr6 : 943 les merveilles kc Dcus i out ovr^. 
nvrc s. (m. ?) work done, deed. 

nom. sg. 596 de uns enginnurs morteus ki est ovre e faiture. 

ace. ,. 1 137 ben recunust le ovre : 158 1 ke U ne cunpere cest ovre cherement. 
cjvri v. tr. to open ; — refl. id. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 224 U eels se desclot e uvri : 256 un de eus la curaille d*un glaive li ovri : 
•* »» f» »» 1064 du eel ki desclot e uveri. 


paen ^ adj. pagan ; s. m. ' paynim*, infidels. 

paene | nom. sg. 727 dist uns paens : 826 uns paens haut s'escrie, une mace portant : 

paens V „ „ 884 s'escrie un paens de Damnedeu maudiz : 89411 paens Tad feru du brant. 

paicn I voc. „ lOtX) entenc, dist-il, vers moi, paen adverser! 

paim* J nom. pi. 796 mut en sunt csbaiz li paien mescreant : 916 effr^ez sunt paens de 90 e esba'fz : 

905 paen s'aperceivent e en sunt trop irtf : 1056 paens se reposent cuchez c endormi : 
1069 paSns les angles (unt) veQ : 135^ paens unt ods tuz : 1418 li pa£n sunt grant purple 
1555 rcspunent li paen : 1600 un peel A terre afichent li paien criminal : 
1622 dunt paicn se curucent, li 61 Belial : 1641 li paien les detrenchent tuz : 
'734 s*cntrecunbatcnt li paien mescreant : 1759 li paen felun (sunt) el fu d'cnfcr punnt. 
ace. ., 1065 aguctes e pasturs paens en unt garni : 1 1 a 1 (oaptizant) paens. 
prp. ,, 469 de ces paens criicus kc ne soicz huni: — 1816 of les paens estoic de la loi Ap. 
,, M 1841 jo ne me os numer pur paiens de pusHn. 
fem. nom. sg. 15 17 quant la gent paene lur gref plcinte entendi. 
ace. ,, 337 (descunus) tute la lei paene. 

t» »» 

•> tf 

tt ff 

ft ft 

|a^ \v. tr. to satisfy ; appease. 

pacr f infin. 1 164 par unt lur dcus mut pumint paer. 

ppp. mas. pT. 747 li grant e li petit bien sunt de 90 pa£. 
(laillcs t. I. stuff, cloth. 

prp. pi. 681 A plume ne k cotun ne li pailles d*utre mcr. 
pal« I. m. country. 

prp. sg. 459 de cest pals ki est tut sires : 7 15 mandez de pals loTntein : — 
,, ,• 63 en cest pais m*cn veng : 98 sui en cest pals entrez : 

t* •• 37^* 3^ c (^ o) mun pais m'en vois (v. note) : 716 ki crucifi6 fn eu pais de Sulu - 
I. 995 ^i^P i ^ ^^^ barat par cest pais semm6 :— 34 vers G. mun pals est mun purpo«. tt«fr 












palu I 

palu/, ) 



par I. 

(I) a 




prp. pi. 159 dune trembla terre en tuz lius e pais : 1 119 tant vunt \i citoien par pals querant. 

s. f. peace. 

nom. sg. 1713 ii est vie sanz mort, pais sanz cuntencion. 

adj. peasant. 

mas. nom. pi. 1141 perdirent blez e fruit 11 gainnur paisant. 

adj. pale. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 145 nupez e megres e pales cum penant. 

fem. tf If 1454 la char (m'est) pal e flestrie. 

s. m. palfrey. 

ace. sg. 28 las ! ki palefrei n'ai ^ chevaucher. 

obi. M 1420 n'a cist ki n'est muntez palefrei bon e bel. 

s. m. palace. 

ace. sg. 16 un palois perrin trove ki ne pert pas casal : 436 le paleis e chanbres A. cerchera. 

prp. „ 1465 (tureles e kemeus) de lur temples e paleis : — 

„ ,,52 herberg^ en tun paleis marbrin : 1 210 tenir en sun palois : 1813 re9ut en sun palois penin. 
V. intr. to grow pale. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 483 A. de tendrur gent, plura e pali. 
n. pr. Pallas (Minerva), 
ace. 336 (descunus) Tetim e Pallaide. 
obi. (dat.^ 1 261 fei ke dei Palladie e Diene la bele. 

,, (gen.) I'Si; de la loi Apolin, Pallaide e Diene. 
under paleis. 

s. m. marsh, morass, pool, 
ace. sg. 861 fimtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palu. 

„ pi. 696 (veisez) les grantz paluz secchir e la terre crever. 
s. m. housings, horse-cloth. 

ace. sg. 141 1 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel. 
V. intr. to pant. 

infin. 697 Tveisez) oises e bestes mues baer e pantoiser. 
prep, by, tnrough ; among, &c. 

denotinsr the means by which an action is accomplished, (a) person, (/?) thing, or (y) action {in/in.) : — 
44 par ki unt eu damage : 86 par ki est faitz : 97 par Deu (v. note) : 121 descmnfire par homme : 
155 quis par Jueus : 341 endoctrin6 par humme : 342 revisit^ par Deu meimes : 366 pruv^'par Deu : 
401 restorez par Noe : 453 guami par aucun de la curt : 467 gari par vus : 734 gamiz par autres : 
931 trahi par Judas : 963 livr6 par vus : 1132 gamiz par un sun bien voillant : 1 143 eist maus fu 
durant par A. : 1247 eist maus renuvele par un clergastre : 1300 aver desturber par vus : 1489 par 
ki unt perdu : 1515 par ki sunt destruit : 1667 par tei sunt morz. 

82 enquis par fines raisuns : 180 par vost^e enseignement deveingne Xns. : 1 93 pruv^ par argument : 
205 esmoiller le quoer par avisiim : 295. 296. mu6 le eurage par sermun, par avisiun : 302 vcistes 
par revelaciim : 305 k sauvaciun mist par sa encamaciun 1317 (relever) par la voiz da liun : 337 met 
a mine par teu traisun : 343 par sa revelaciun k lui es acoint^ : 371 conferm6 par sermon : 400 por- 
gez par le deluge : 406. 409. 641. 992. 1364. 1693 par unt = wh^by : 574 susduit par foleiir : 590 
justise par sage atempreure : 597 par engin est cuntrefait : 648 espleite par peine : 657 forfist par 
traisun : 664. 1C27. 1562 par tant (thereby) : 780 1'ewe par quei sunt travaiU^ : 86^ perdu par vostrc 
enehantement : 885 par e. d'A. : 891 par les focuns crespiz : 929 a&nas par martire : 1006 bis. en- 
chants par caraetes e par sortz : 1036 par les grantz miracles (v. note) : 1055 par la nuit ki sorvint 
li airs enobscuri : 1099 °^^^ P^ martire : 1 166 est surse par la priere A. : 1220 bis. venir, par ta aie, 
par martire: 1223 eunvertir par avisiun : 1225 finir par peine: 1226 merir par esample de vus: 
1277 reapeler par promesse : 1289 espleiter par el : 1295 enganer par barat : 13 17 bis. sevrer w 
duns, par turment : 1334 90 est par sortz : 1385 venu par sun cumant : 1393 devenu par la force J. : 
1472 par quei : 1487 trahi par ses sermuns desleus : 1510 bastipar ses enchieiuntement : 1651 enganer 
par diz : 1654 sunt abandun6 par vostre sermuner : 1662 cumc6 par tun nunsaver : 1692 espurger 
par batesme : 171 1 par sa redempciun : 1799 reinst par sa mort : 181O revisits par sa vertu. 
1 35 par raisuns demustrer : 706 par beivre : 1278 par tresor abaunduner : 1291 par querre : 1 298 par 
gas cuntruver : 131 1 par langurus garir : 1317 par mort manaeer : 1696 par trop targer : 1718 par 
the state of mind owing to which, or in which, the action is effected : — [abanduner. 

119. 1224 par sa grace : 197. 1294 par ire : 239 par despit : 300 par vasselage :^ 307. 094 par envie : 
325 par grant devociun : 347 par nide vanity : 54a par amur : 544 par cumz eimr : 004 per amistS: 
722 par orgoil : 945 par felume. 
the manner or circumstance, of the action : — 

139 par droit apent naistre : 169. 1188 par numbre : 179. 621. 1115 par aventure : aia. 494. 1688. 
1695 par tens : 595 par nature : 1573 il en perdera le def par jugement. 





par II. 















parfond > 
paHvade | 

tk€ deiiy rmom by :^ 

1575 par Jovin (no verb) : 1737 jiir6 eurent par lur deus. 

in load relations^ to denote (a) passage through^ or along by, (/3) piace 0/ seizure : — 
43a paries autres li maus s*espandera : 839. 1 205^ (trespassant) par lui : 1523 une part par eus (aside 
by tnemselves) : — 416. 525. 096. 1509 (va) par ci : 503. 531 par la rde : 553. 1247 par terres : 995 
par cest pals : 1 119 (querant) par pais : 1127 par Brettainne : 1302 (passer) par la mort : 1434 par 
chemin (remist) : 1540 gorent par ces champs : 1592 vunt par an adrescement : 1786 s*espaunt par 
trestut le regntf. 

53a par les chevoilz (Punt pris) : 533 par la robe : 951 par les cheveus i pent, 
adv. very ; (wholly, 243). 
243 par es peri : 1050 par est delitable : 

1476 trop par estes cruens : 1566 tant par est irascuz : 1742 tant par fu ardant. 
s. m. birthf origin. 

pq>. sg. 285 citoien nobiles de parage : 743 sett de parage e gentilz e bien-ntf. 
s. m. paradise. 

prp. sg. 144 pur nns tuz nasqui li reis de paraTs : 
„ „ 109 de parais les niva ambesdeus exuiller : 398 de parais cum fu desheritez : — 
It ti 1255 en parais fist hom masle e femmele : 1535 desore of moi serrez en parais Huri. 
(infin.) s. m. retmn, of Christ's second coining, 
prp. sg. 39 ki puis jugera nus tuz au paraler. 
way palsied. 

mas. ace. pi. 148 sana paraletics. 
under parer. 

8. m. co-parcener, sharer. 

nom. pL 1321 si estre volez of nus parcener : 1638 requerez Jesum k'en s^um parcener. 
8. m. parchment. 

prp. sg. 1820 la geste ai, cum la vi, escrit en parchemin. 
(pp. ») adj. full-grown. 

mas. nom. sg. 288 parcruz ert e trente anz out. 
V. tr. to recount fully. 

infin. 1689 b franchise Deu ne puet nuls parcunter. 
prp. (cpd.) in ftxmi of. 
1365 pardevant lur auter. 
T. tr. to say out, utter. 

ind. pres. i sg. 273 quors nel puet penser ne jo nel pardi. 
t. m. pardon. 

ace. sg. 107 sanz pardun demander : 329. 812 de mes pecchez demant pardun : 1^5 pardun aver. 
adj. everlasting. 

fern. prp. sg. 1046 regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable. 
s. m. rdative, kintmian. 

ace sg. 1490 (unt perdu) A., e lur parent ^ lui atrait e asoti. 
pvp- 9» '3^7 (sanz merd aver^ de parent u veisin. 

nom. pi. 146 Jesu Tapelerent si parent e amis : 640 veisin, n parent (ne purrunt faire) ; 
M f» 73S DC li i>arent A. (ne l*unt pas otri6 :) 978 11 parent A. e. si ami priv6 (unt aid6) : 
»t f f 9^3 si parent pur sa mort grant duel unt demen6 : lOi J si parent e ami Tunt en terre rouM:^ : 
»• M 1079 SI firent noz parentz : 1273 (se sunt ali^) noz veisins e amis c parentz k*eume<( chcr. 
voc. „ 1076 dtoiens ! vesm, parent, ami. 
pip* »f 151 6 tant sunt de lur parentz destniit e maubailH. 
8. f. parentage, birth. 

prp. sg. 547 ne fuissez citoien de parent6 majur. 
V. intr. to appear, be seen. 

ind. pret. 2 sg. 26 ( vus . . . .) ki tant pers prude ber. 
t» tf 3 »» 16 un palois perrin, ki ne pert pas casal : 241 ore pert ke tu es (guerpi) : 

494 al endemein par tens quant part la mating (v. note) : 

557 k*^ fause fust pruv€e ben pert k*il out poiir : 

1088 ore pert ben Vil ne fu (failli) : 11 13 U sancs A. i pert aers e cndurd. 

226 a la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi : 495 e du solafl parut la clart6 k*e%t Icvec 

701 nile ne parut ki terre peiist umbrer. 

440 e quanclce vus ai dit, dune pur voir parra. 
infin. 1000 les mortz fimt vifs parer : 1002 vcir funt tut parer chose k*e>t fuuset^. 
periplL pres. ptcp. 1176 sa croiz h si sancs est parant. 
adj. deep, low ; ae parfund, heavUy, deeply, 
mas. prp. sg. 642 (diables) k*en enfer sunt parfund. 








t$ tt 
tt tr 

»t tf 

pret. 3 













fem. nom. „ 772^ (rewe) ki parfund fii e 16 : 788 Tewe ki ert parAinde e raedde. 
,, prp. „ 765 {k une ewe) grant e parfund sanz gu6 (venent). 
adv. 1203 lors gette de parfund un suspir. 
\ adj. quite equal. 

) mas. nom. sg. 271 li est parilgal e uni : 1620 (dst turment) n'est de loing paringal cum Deus sufrL 
(fem.) prp. sg. 11 une cit6 nobile sans gueres paringal (= with scarcely an equal), 
s. m. perjurer. 

nom. pi. 1 68 1 parjure e mescreant, &c. (v. note), 
(pp. =) adj. perjured. 

mas. nom. pi. 1744 ki tuit fussent parjur^ li traitre senglant. 
V. intr. to speak ; speak of. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 595 ki ne parole, ne ot, ne sent, ne veit, par nature : 

1075 P^fole primereins as autres enturli : 
1293 cist, ki les autres guie, parole premer. 



tf »» 



»» »» 

infin. 41 quant Tot A. du fiz Deu parler : 213 hastivement s'en va k sun hoste parler ; 

1 oi parler; 1788 cist k*en oient parler. 




parole i. 
parole ii. 

parra, part 
part II. 

part 111. 




partie i. 




partie 11. 


1668 quant I'ad 
prep. amid. 

230 en un fust dresc^ autre entravers parmi (v. note). 
V. intr. to die wholly ; sanz p. (= adj.) unending, 
infin. 1675 mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis de enfer. 
V. tr. to slay outright. 

infin. 1626 nel volent parocire, mais lungement pener. 
imder parler. 

is. f. word, speech, 
ace. sg. 445 la parole entendi : 540 atendant la parole, & queu chief fust men6e. 
prp. „ 526 (dist) i parole simple e atempr^e. 
„ pi. 647 de quor les hai, de paroles laidist 
I. (494) imder parer. 
s. f. part, portion, share ; side ; une part, (a side t=) aside (adv.) ; cele part, thither, 
ace. sg. 928 n'eit ja part de ceus : 17 12 part doinst of vus U mund : 1716 ne part ne eient de moi. 
(»»)»> 31 une part t'apele : 74 une part I'acoilt : 115 lur cuvint cele part sder : 
,, „ 1080 tuit vunt une part : 1523 une part par eus tuz severez e parti, 
pip* n 1339 d'une part, veissez les uns decoler. 

v. mtr. to depart (482), — refl. s*en partir, to go away; — ^v. tr. (1523) to set apart, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 197. 493 atant s'en part : 1014 Palme s*en part, le cors h. terre est trebuch^. 










pi. 984 partent s'en atant e d'iluec sunt al6. 
pret. 3 sg. 482 veissez grant duel quant Pun d'autre parti 
pi. 383 uncore de moi pas ne vus en partirez. 



fut. 2 , 

imper. „ j, 347 ja ne vus en partez par nule vanity, 
infin. = (s. m. prp. sg.) 105 1 au partir de cest secle ke si est tre^assable, 
app. (ind. pft. i pi.) 1523 (puis ke les eiimes) tuz severez e parti, 
pp. mas. se. 1053 li poples ki U fu, d'iluec s'en est partL 
„ „ pT. 1025 atant s'en sunt partiz, vunt s*en en lur cit6. 
„ fem. sg. 1458 (atant s'angoisse) tute s'en est partie. 
s. f. party, body. 

nom. sg. 720 grant partie des Sarrazins s'asentent bien k li. 
adv. everywhere. 

390 partut frai tes volentez : 538 Pachesun partut est renumte : — 
530 partut li veritez est pruv^e : 1 585 partut li sun po€r estent. 
under parer. 

particle, strengthening the negative, no, not. 

(a) after the verb,( — after the auxil. ; if a compd. tense) ; (b), preceding the verb, and standiDg 
immediately before the direct negative ne, in which cases also it is always (save 383) immediatdy 
preceded by Jki, 

'6. 40. 535- 577. 601. 687. 757. 932. 956. i2oa 1368. 1382. 1518. 152a 1559. 1619 ne .... pas. 
383- 435- 49*. 690. 721. 1678. (ki pas ne Sec.) 
12 14 nun pas sulement oir, (mes ooeir). 

V. intr. to pass, go over or through ; v. tr. to cross, get beyond, get before, 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 763 li uns les autres passent : 770 ^ grant estrif i passent : 

tt ft n tt nz Pewe passent i nou : 792 k seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant. 

„ pret. 3 se. 996. 1509 Id par ci passa. 

„ „ 2 pT. 1127 passastes par Brettaine, d'orient venant. 

„ fut. I sg. 1832 passerai Mun Grin, le roiste munt alpin. 


ser) infin. 47 pefistes vus passer : 669 anguisse ki s'en put tost passer : 

,t 791 ii avant (horn nouant ne pout) passer : 1302 par fa mort tuz lur cuvent passer, 
prp. „ 766 ne batel ne nief d passer unt truv6 : 768 de passer s*est chescun eforc^ : 

M »• '355 ^^^ ^^^ ^^^» s^^'^ ^^ passer. 

(s s. m.) „ 1 153 au passer de un pund, li li flotz fu bmant. 

pp. mas. se. 968 atant of sa mesn6e est li princes pass6 : 712 pass6 en fn ja dimi an plener. 
tt 99 p^ 767 un pund i unt truv^ li sunt li uns pass£. 
dun s. f. passion, suffering, death-agony. 

prp. sg. 315 il le mistrent k mort e passiun : 1703 cum il estoit en mortel passiun. 
ur ^ s. m. shepherd, 

urs / nom. sg. 1478 tuz vus apele cum pastur ses aigneus. 

pip* » 555 cu™ 1^2 u <^™ gupilz escriez de pastur. 

ace. pL 1065 (en unt garni) aguetes e pasturs paens. 
ureus s. m. herdsman. 

nom. se. 430 co fra ke fait li pastureus. • 

roes s. f. paun of tne hand. 

prp. pL 235 des paumes ^ la face crueument feri 
tener \ aqj. (s. m.) base, ruffian, wretch. 

leners > nom. sg. 460 plus est pauteners ke n*est lu enchani : 709 li feluns tiranz pautoner. 
toner ) voc. „ 129^ vassal pautener ! 1646 tres cruel pautener ! 

nom. pi. 1600 cist pautener vassal (ferent) : 1745 cist pautener tirant. 

prp. „ 157 1 (ki i ces mais entent,) faus pauteners ki vus mentent (v. note). 
5e (pp. e) adj. paved. 

tern. prp. sg. 503 s*en vunt curant par la rile pav6e. 

under pez. 
:h€ under pecchez. 

Jieres \ s. m. sinner. 

iieur f nom. sg. 1835 kancke ai veu e oi jo peccheres orphanin. 
Jior j ace. „ 1842 (jo ne me os numer) mes pecchur cupable. 
rhoTs / prp. „ 464 de moi ki cheut, pecdieiir enveilli : 581 piet^ unt tost de repentant pecchur. 

nom. pi. IA79 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus. 

ace. „ 1690 les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover. 

PH'* »> 9^7 pict6 te preinne de nus tuz pecchurs las : 1047 proiez pur nus pecchurs. 

voc. „ 174 vus, pecchur dampnez ! 
:het> V. tntr. to sin. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 1670 en pecches mut, e menz, quant te o! tes deus priser. 
hez s. m. sin. 

prp. sg. 1806 pement confessiun de folic e pecch^. 

ace. pT. 1692 par batesme te lou tes pecchez espurger. 

prp. „ 618 enclins ^ pecchez e ordure : — ^329. 812 de mes pecchez deinant pardun. 

s. m. stake, pole. 

ace. sg. 1600 un peel en terre afichent. 

prp. „ 1603 au peel I'unt atach6 k grant turment cural : 1606 entur le pel Tenchacent. 
pL 651 de p«us e de bastuns u enpeinst u batist. 


\%.t pain, suffering ; trouble, difficulty ;—^ peine, with difficulty, scarcely. 
} prp. sg. 619 ii peine ublie : 84^1 ii peme chaut remeint li quors eu piz batai 

•f •» 93^ le vis ii (jueuke peine ad vers le del drcsc6 :— 
„ „ 290 tant sufn de peine e tant sufri de huntage : — 
„ „ 6^8 ren n*i espleite par peine k*em i mbt : 1225 (ceste vie finir) par peine e repruver. 
ace. pi. 1 030 k*il le tenc digne pur li teu peines endurer. 
cut under pener. 

tore s. f. painting. 

prp. sg. 597 par engin est cuntrefait en entaille o peinture. 
e under pesa. 

ible adj. p^cful. 

fern. nom. sg. 222 la nuit estoit peisiUe, li tens bens e sen. 
in i. m. fish. 

ace. sg. 283 (Id fist) oisel, peisun n^arage. 
rine t. f. breast. 

ace. sg. 1612 teinte en a la pdtrine. 
r adj. compar. worse. 

568 repent toi de tun maisDut, n'en sems le pejur (you will be none the worse for it). 
1. (1606} under ped. 




pel II. 























prre I. 






V. intr. 

s. f. skin, sole (of foot). 

nom. sg. 652 fruissent os, char emfle e la pel enpalist. 
(ace.) „ 1428 I'alasse e I'ensenglante des plantes la pel. 
s. m. cloak, mantle. 

ace. sg. 477 plus Teim ke pelei^un d*ermme : 1829 pur esclavine eschaong mun {M^li^un d*ennin. 
s. m. pilgrim. 

nom. sg. 51 respond li pelerin : 423 nn pelerin trespassant (par ci sermunant va) : 
it a 99^ cist pelerin lettr^ (trop i a sun barat par cest pais semm^). 
ace. fi 18 14 (A. re9ut sun oste Apl.) trespassant pelerin. 
s. f. penance. 

ace. sg. 675 sa penance i meine pur ses maus espurger. 
,f ft 1083 penance demenum ke ne seium peri : 1807 penance demeinent. 
s. m. penitent. 

nom. sg. 1 145 nupez e megres e pales cum penant : 1827 penant deveng epreng burdun fresoin. 
s. m. hHl. 

gen. sg. 798 ala trainant A. d martire au puier le pendant (v. note), 
prp. n 878 ki avau le pendant sVspant : i r66 par lapriere A. est surse du pendant 
V. tr. to hang ; — intr. to be hanging. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 951 par les cheveus i pent : 1579 damage est k*il ne pent, 
pret. „ „ 237 d clous le afiferma, encroa e pendi. 
ti it a 97^ ^^^ arbre ii pendi : 1508 tant mar reclamas le deu k*en croiz pendi. 
„ ,f pi. 1618 en croit le pendirent li Giu desloial. 
ppp. mas. sg. 6 penduz e clounchez k loi de desloial : 87 estre en croiz pendu. 
V. tr. to torture ; — ^ref. to trouble one's self, to labour. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1590 mut se penent d'aler hastivement : 1717 se peinent de mettre mei i confoaan. 
„ pret. „ „ 427 ki GitLeu en Sulie en croiz penerent ja. 

infin. 668 plus sent demurance (pener) lecors: 1626 nel volentparocire mais lungement pener. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1009 lors I'lmd de rechief mut plus k'avant pen6. 

ppp. mas. nom. sg. 89 (deingnast estre) penez : 759 ki en croiz fu pen6 : 1798 en croiz mumt pen^. 
„ ace. „ 1 740 1'ociroient penfi. 
„ prp. „ 344 (ore vus pri) pur deu en croiz pen6. 
. to tnink, reflect ; — tr. conceive (273) ; — ^infin. = s. m. thought, mind, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 32 ii penses tu aler ? 
„ „ 3 „ 1613 limartirs ki pense du rei esperital. 
imper. 2 „ 563 pens de tun Imgnage. 

iniin. 273 (la joie ki i fii) quors nel puet penser : 1322 la joie du cid dont quor ne pnet penser. 
nom. sg. 216 mis quors ne mis penser (ne prist sum), 
adj. pensive, sad. 

mas. nom. pL ^61 dune devindrent Jiieus mnmes e pensis. 
imder pendi. 
s. m. banner, flag. 

prp. sg. 1 286 (s'en vunt cum ost bani e plener) k penuncel lev6. 
adj. equal, peer ; mate, 
mas. ace. sg. 217 un sunge sungai, ne oistes unc le per. 

„ prp. „ 1 361 jurent Jovin lur deu, li plus hautVest sanz per. 
fem. ace. sg. 105 quant Deus out fait Adam e Ewe siie per. 
s. f. perdition, ruin. 

prp. sg. 338 met hum i grant mine e k perdiciun : 1716 ne part ne eient de moi fiz dc perdiciuD. 
V. tr. to lose, destroy. 

ind. pres. 3 se. 1405 plus ke leonesse ki pert sun Uuncel. 
„ pret. 3 pi. 1 141 perdirent blez e frmt li ^ainnur paisant. 
„ fut. 3 sg. 1573 il en perdera le cief par jugement. 
subj. pres. „ „ 932 (proiez) k'il nus, ki sa faiture sumes, ne perde pas. 
impft. „ „ 730 ne voudroie ke A. uncore perdist la vie. 
iniin. 140 sanz pucelage perdre u damager. 
app. (ind. pft. sg.) 808 despendu e perdu ai trestut mun viant : 418 A. as perdu. 

»» ( »» »» 3 P^O ^3^8 ^ n*unt nis un des cheveuz entam^ ne perdu ; 1489 nnt pezdo A. 
ppp. mas. sg. 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu. 
„ ,, it 865 par vostreenchantementtrestuit sumes perdu: 1520 (ne sunt pas) ne perdu ae peri. 
it it pl« 99 lie vout Deus ke soiez damnez ne perdu, 
s. m. father. 

nom. sg. 122 li haut Pere du ciel (ne se vout fiiir) : 270 benoit seit le pere (▼. note). 
it it 1343 li P«re au fiz va bender (la plaie) : 1529 le pere le fiz au quor fen (▼. note). 

J »» 


i^pere i.) gen. „ 167 ft destre sun pere est asis : 1705 al destre sun pere veit ester Jesun. 

ace. „ 1 86 (enure) le Pere e le Fiz, Seint Esperit ensement : 893 le S. £. reclaime e le Pere e Ic Fi/. 

voc. „ 250 i>ere Adonai ! 
pere ii. \ s. f. stone, rock. 
pcres / nom. sg. 644 pere perist e depece. 

ace. „ 594 quidez ke jo pur deu recleim metal u pere dure ? 

prp. ,, 643 mal aient deu pere u fust u ki de metal sunt (v. note) : 10 1 1 (deroch^) dc pere : — 
M M 490 ki sa eglise sur pere funda e establi. 

nom. pi 254 froisirent peres e la lune enpali. 

pip* M 3 (adubb^e) de peres preciuses : 1700 de peres Tagraventent, de zuche e de pemin. 
peri, perie under peiir. 
periUez adj. imperilled, exposed to danger. 

mas. ace. pi. 243 les periUez rescuz ja ki ore par es peri. 
perin under perrin. 

pcrir 1 V. intr. to perish. 

peris I ind. pres. i sg. 1438 moi ki peris sanz aie. 

perisent > „ »» 3 »» 575 par traisun perist mein quens : 644 pere perist e depece. 
perist I „ „ 3 pi. 69a flestrisent biez en terre, perisent li verger : 771 plusurs i perisent. 

poitz J innn. 1239 si il ne veut perir. 

pp. mas. (nom.) sg. 911 li las cheitifs peritz (n*est mie esjoitz) : — 243 es peri (v. note). 
„ „ pL 1 154 sunt chaeth e peritz : 1655 tuit sunt (peri) :--ic»3 ke ne seium |)cri : 

„ M M 1696 ke ne soiez del tut peri : — 465 si fuissez peri, 

pennenant adj. everlasting. 

mas. prp. sg. 1758 les^ martirs sunt en gloire, el regne permenant. 
peraent, pemez, under prendre, 
perrin adj. of stone. 

mas. nom. sg. 57 escu m*est e guarant plus ke chastel perin. 
,, ace „ 16 un palois perrin trove ki ne pert pas casal. 
»» prp> »t 1813 A. re9ut en sun palois perrin. 
pcsTun s. m. huge stone. 

prp. sg. 1700 de peres Tagraventent, de zuche e de perrun. 
pent, pert I. under fearer. 
penones t. f. person. 

ace. pL 187 (craire) trois persones, un Deu. 
pert II. (1405) under perdre. 
pcsa V. intr. to be weighty, grievous (used impers. with dat.). 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1520 pcsa al darreiner k il tant fu espami. 

subj. pres. „ „ 498 ftki peise u agrde [no matter whom it may offend or please]. 
pesance i . f. grievous displeasure. 

ace. sg. 138 1 li enemi Jesu en unt e envie e pesance. 
petant adj. weighty, heavy. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 740 lores cimaence 11 bruit e un estur pesant. 
„ prp. „ 835 le fert du poin e du bastun pesant. 
peit V. tr. to feed. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 60 ki pest le famillus. 

pp. mas. nom. sg. 1391 li lu du bois ne sadl ne ped. 
petit ^ adj. little ;— adv. id. 

petiz / mas. nom. sg. 1379 queus petiz, queus maens. 

„ M pi- 747 li grant e li petit bicn sunt de 90 pad : 792 passent nis li petit enfant. 
f> prp* M ^90 ft rcims bas e petiz : 91 cum un ae nus morteus petiz e [malotruz ?] 
adv. 1307 mut cunussez petit cest prude ber. 
pcA (1391) under pest, 
pens n ^1. 

pca>t, pe&stes, peusum, under poer. 
pes t. m. foot ; ft p€, on foot. 

prp. sg. 762 curent e poinnent ft cheval e ft pd : 1422 (Apl.) sul i est ft pd : 
9f „ 1 164 gisant au pd du munt : — 1773 (defigurd) u de main u de p6. 

nom. pi. 1 37 4 les menbres lur sunt restorez, pez e braz sanz faillance. 

(ace.) „ 853 sul A. i est le cors e les i>cz nu. 

prp. „ 804 chict as piez A. : loio dcfuld (ft pez) : 844 des pez le defulent : — 
»* »» 359 n*unt ore plus de tere fors saet pez mesurd. 
Pturiiin n. pr. Pharaoh. 

prp. 309 ki jadis fnrent serfs au tirant Pharftun. 

O 2 






















n. pr. Phoebus (Apollo, although in 1817 the two are used as names of difierent deities). 

ace. 1 1 02 (Jovin) e danz Phebun reni. 

ob. (gen.) 181 7 (de la loi Apolin) e Phebum e. Jovin. 

„ (dat.) 1572 fei ke dei Phebum ki en tut le mund resplent. 
prp. 622 quant feste funt k Febum deu du solail : 1416 d Phebun le dumint : — 

»» '737 P^ 1^^ deus, Phebum, Mahimi, e Tervagant. 

s. f. pity. 

nom. sg. 927 piet6 te preinne de nus : 1438 pit6 te preinne de moi. 
ace. „ 581 pietfi unt tost de repentant pecchur : 630 de lui pietfi n'nnt : 866 pit6 en ad cu : 

„ ,, 1342 n'est hom ki n*en peust grant piet6 aver : 1450 Apl. piet6 en ad. 
pip* *t 775 g^Qt ["= ^6 groans] ae piet£ : 1526 dune les oceismes sanz piet6 e merci. 
under pez. 
s. m. pillar, post. 

prp. sg. 1616 lier se lessa k un piler. 
adv. compar. worse. 

163 tuz jurs declinerent puis de mal en pis (from bad to worse), 
under piet6. 
adj. piteous. 

mas. prp. sg. 821 A. regarde 4 piteus semblant. 
s. m. breast, bosom. 

prp. sg. 895 li fait voler le chef senglant du piz : — 843 ^ peine chaut remeint li quors eu piz batik 
under plest. 
s. f. wound. 

ace. sg. 1343 tant cum li pere au fiz la plaie va bender, 
nom. pi. 975 garies sunt ses plaies, e sis cors restore, 
ace. „ 1530 tant k*as plaies bender li freres main tendi (v. note), 
prp. „ 1666 (te purrunt mesciner) de tes morteus plaies. 
s. f. plain, 
prp. se. 1466 d une pleinne se aresteent. 

*t pl> 1531 li sancs cum un roiseus es plainnes se espaundi. 
under plest. 
s. f. sole of the foot. 

prp. pi. 792 k seeches plantes passent nis li petit enfant : — 1428 I'ensenglante des plantes b pel. 
V. tr. to bewail. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1794 pleinent lur ancesurs ki sunt ja devi6. 
imder plainne. 
s. f. complaint. 

ace. sg. 15 1 7 quant la gent paene lur gref pleinte entendi. 
adj. miserable. 

mas. nom. pi. 164 dulurus, serfs pleintifs (se declinerent). 
s. m. pleasure ; venir i p., to please, 
prp. sg. 433 s'i pleisir vus vendra : 1240 sire ! tut k vostre pleisir : 

» It 1463 ki tie k'd pleisir li vent e ki li plest deslie. 
adj. entire, complete ; vast, 
mas. nom. sg. 712 pass6 en fu ja dimi an plener. 

„ prp. „ 16^2 tu sul es acheisun de cest grant mal plener. 
fem. nom. „ 1285 cist s*en vunt cum ost bani e plener. 
s. f. plent}% great quantity. 

nom. sg. 381 tant 1 a plenty : 769 de pople i out plenty. 
V. intr. to be pleasing, (impers. and witn dat of pron. ; for 1631 v. note), 
nd. pres. 3 sg. 388 s'il vus plaist : 1229 k keus plest eschoisir (Jesu) : 123 1 plest vus dune ame 






»» ft 

tt tt 

1 22 1 dunt Deu (rtf) te plut seisir : 1237 mut lur plut oir : 1287 lur plut aurer. 

1309 ki (if) nus plut tuz crier : 163 1 plusurs de eus, ke Deus plust sauver (v. note), 
subj. pres. „ „ 1315 ne place k Jesu (ke nus {^fiaQ) puissez sevrer de sun enseignement). 
under plure. 
V. tr. to pledge. 

app. (ina. pft. 3 pi.) 1109 entrcjurez sunt c lur foi unt plevi. 
V. mtr. to comply. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 726 ^ lui s'asent e plie. 
V. tr. to tm-ow down (the glove) in challenge. 


ier) infin. 834 d 90 praver, stii prest ploier le gant. 

* s. f. rain. 

nom. sg. 703 n'a pluie ne nis^ al seir n'al enjumer. 
ne s. f. feather. 

prp. sg. 681 (lit) k plume ne k cotun ne i pailles d'utre mer. 
a "J V. intr. to weep. 

unt >ind. pres. 3 sg. 589 ne geenst, ne deut, ne plure : 1348 plure e gent de quoer. 

- J ft It »» pl. I "J 1 3 pleurent eweimentent li joure e enveilli. 

„ pret 3 sg. 483 A. de tendnir gent, plura e pali. 
gmd. 456 en plurant dit. 
I. adv., = more; used a, with adjj., b, with verbs, c, with adverbs : — 

a I simply^ to form comparatives : — 

22 bis. n*i out plus cuneuz, ne nus plus communal : 593 qucus est plus haut } 976 ne fu unc plus 

delivres : 1305 bis. plus Terms e plus enter : 1333 bis. plus crueus e plus fier: 1380 unc plus beus 

ne estoient : 1484 bis. plus fortz e plus igTieus : 1624 plus aegre. 

2 followed by {a) tUy or (^) ke, with term of comparison : — 
(a) 1074 P^^ sages des autres : [1595 crcstiens plus de cent] : — 

460 pius est pauteners ke n'est lu : 521 plus est esmeuz ke n*est leonesse : 860 plus ert chautz kc 
feu : 877 plus clers ke n'est areentz : icoo plus est clers ke solailz : 1070 plus furent beus ke rose u 
ke n'est lis : 1206 plus desirable k*esmerauae : 1356 plus crueus ke n*est urs : 1176 plus blancs ke 
n'est girun : 1406 sunt curucez plus ke leonesse : 141 7 sacrifice agrcable plus ke buef : 143 1 plus li 
est duz ke mel : 1574 plus est fous ke beste : 1720 plus blancs ke cheinsu ne cotun. 

3 preceded by def art.^ to form superlatwes : — 

1032 (mil) des plus honurables : 1366 k la plus cruele mort k*empurra deviser, 
b I simply f (a) = more, to a greater extent, degree ; {fi) in negative clauses, = no longer : — 

(a) 536 (func plus se curuce : 670 pur sun cors plus grever : — 

()3) MOO sanz plus aver travail : 1326 sanz plus demurer : 1584 plus ne mangera jamais. 
2 JWlowed by ke, with term of comparison : — 

57 escu mN^st plus ke chastel : 470 raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre : 477 plus I'eim ke pelei^un : 
615 nel eussez plus entendu ke asne harpeiire : 668 plus (pener) sent dcmurancc ke ne fait anguisse : 
729 plus nuit langur ke mort : 1009 I'unt plus k*avant pen^ : 1259 ne fait plus d creire k*au vent : 
c 1425 Tahiient plus viument k*un chael. 

us) II. as substantive (neuter), t= a greater amount : — 

I (a) simply, (fi) withfollowiHg noun in {genitive) : — 

(«) 27 5 pl^ ™c mustra Dcus : 1578 uncore Ira il olus : — 

Ifi) 359 n*unt ore plus de terre fors saet pez : 387 de la lei plus m*enseinnerez : 425. 1250 plus set 
d*enchantement (ke nuls dire piura) (ke fevre ne set dc tanailles) : 1031 mil u plus des citoiens. 
a preceded by def. art,, (a) = the greater part, — {fi) adv. by so much the more :— 

(a) 726 Ic plus de la curt ^ lui s*asent : — (fi) 242 tant es Ic plus huni. 
is) III. as adjective {in comparative), » more numerous : — 

275 me descu\Ti plus segrei cclcstien : 962 plus a fait vertu. 
{fi) 1 595 crestiens nuvcus plus de cent, 
it, plut under plest. 

iur ) pron. several, many ; with def. art., the greater portion. 

Mrs } nom. pl. 771 plnsurs i perisent : 979 crestiens piusurs (unt aid6) : 

tt tf 1 177 piusurs entcndimes : 1481 li plusur de eus (se sunt dun< ii Dcu). 
ace. „ 406 (li ad desclos) piusurs poinz. 
prp. „ 653 (li sancs ist du cors) en piusurs lius. 
tun n. pr. Pluto. 

ace. sg. 336 Jovin descunus e le subtcrin Plutun : 1 103 Jovin reni e Plutun Tcnnerci. 
■eit V. intr. to rain. 

ind. impft. 3 sg. 1 139 dimi an n' en la terre ne pluveit tant ne quant. 
It V. intr. to be able. 

ind. pres. 1 sg. 1266 tant cum \if e estriu puis bailler pur munter sele. 
„ ,, 2 „ 294 tun sungc pucz entencire. 

„ 3 „ 273 quors nel puct penscr : 571 ben s*en puet gabber de \-Uh : 669 ki >*cn put tnvt 
passer (v. note) : 966 garir me puet : 1030 ne puet estre celi : 1204 de lermci lu sr 
puet retenir : 1279 si 90 ne puct aver mester : 1322 dunt quor ne puet penser : 1349 ne 
puet (rcgarder) : 1672 puet les morz k vie reapcler : 1678 verm, k'cm ne puet lucr : 
1689 ne puct nuls parcunter. 
„ I pl. 1275 si nus ne les poum d maisun reamener : 1562 par tant le poum bicn !»a\ir 
., „ 3 „ 664 par tant ne pocnt li felun esploitcr: 1289 si par el ne poent espleitcr. 
„ pret. 3 ig. 114 ne pout estre guarantz : 702 n'i pout matinfe ne vespre a\-er mester : 70; nc *i 


























(ind.pret.3sg.)pout nul garder: 791 passer ne pout horn nonant ; ii48flecchir nel pout hcir-r 
vivant : 1377 cunustre les pout horn : 1435 ki ses cumpainnuns shrre ne pout xns^ 
1783 ne se pout nul vanter. 
2 pi. 47 en queu manere peustes-vus passer ? 

2 sg. 579 repentir te purras : 585 tu en purras consirer g^eredun : 
if ft 950 sun chief purras truver : 1663 tu en purras (honur) cunsirer. 

3 „ 220 jamais ne nus purra vie ne mort sevrer : 425 (plus) ke nuls dire purra : 467 m&u3 
horn purra estre gari : 636 ainz purra mer secchir : 1366 k la plus cmele mort k'^^z 
purra deviser : 1569 (tant) cum nuls dire purra. 

2 pi. 578 fere purrez retur : 13 10 90 purrez vus (espruver) : 
„ „ 1656 ne purrez eschaper : 1065 pardun purrez aver. 

3 ,, 641 chose ne pumint taire : 1364 mut purrunt paer lur dens : 1666 te pamint mescix^^i 
„ sg. 81 ne purreit estre entendu : 193 ne purroit estre pruv6. 

subj.pres. „ „ 667 ke sun voler poiisse flecchir (but v. note). 

1 pi. 1299 ke peiisum repairer of les noz, k'i sunt. 

2 ff 1316 (ne place ^ Jesu) ke nus puissez sevrer. 
yf impft. 3 sg. 672 k'a'ie ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester : 694 ne venta vent si ki les peust ac^s-^x- 

701 nue ne parut ki terre peust umbrer : 1342 n*est horn ki n*en peust gn^nt 

aver : 1541 n*i peust hem cunustre (priv6 ne estrangi). 
s. m. power, authority. 

nom. sg. 1585 par tut ii sun poer s'estent : 1787 ne puet mais le poSr Jesu estre cel6. 
ace. „ 49 ii noz deus unt lur lei e lur poer : 138 du mund ad semgnurie e peer. 

ti ft 917 le poer Jesu prisent : 1460 (lot e glorifie) le grant poer Jesu. 
prp. „ 166 1 (noz deus) ki tant sunt de poer. 
s. f. ability ; majesty ; sway. 

prp. sg. 771* (li joure) de force e poest6 : 869 ki regne enpoest6 : 1799 (nos reinst) d'enferoal 
adj. mighty, powerful, 
mas. nom. sg. 165 mes Tesu relcva cume sires poestifs : 806 cist est Deus po€stifs. 

„ ace. pL 584 noz deus poestifs desoremes aur. 
s. m. fist. 

prp. sg. 835 atant le fert du poin e du bastun pesant. 
adj. pointed (v. note). 

1607 (ferent) de lances, e gros bastun poinnal. 
V. tr. to spur. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 762 curent e poinnent ^ cheval e kp6: 1593 pur tost venir poinnent igndemen^ 
„ „ „ „ 1608 ferent, batent e poinnent dst pautener vassal, 
adv. strengthening the negation. 
463 (mal) ki point n'i avez deservi. 
V. tr. to stitcn. 

ppp. fem. (prp.) pi. 682 (n*&) coiltes pointes de sole (but v. note), 
s. m. point, matter. 

a,cc. pi. 406 (li ad desclos) plusurs poinz par unt doit hom estre sauvez. 
s. f. power, 
nom. sg. 167 1 kar ne vaut lur poisance un butun d*eglenter. 

iadj. powerful ; tut — , almighty, 
mas. nom. sg. 661 ki poisantz est : 807 cist 
„ „ „ 1 1 23 Jesu te gard, li tut-poii 

est li tut-poissant : 1O49 ki.tant poisant est : 
poisant : 1 743 si le purvit dune Deus li tut-poisant. 
(pp. =) adj. polished. 

mas. nom. sg. 901 purs e esmirables cum cristals politz. 
pople, poples under pueple. 
port s. m. harbour. 

prp. sg. 908 d bon port arivez : 1831 en nief me mette au procein port marin. 
portal s. m. gateway. 

prp. sg. 15 vent s*en li clers e entre k un maistre portaL 
V. tr. to carry, bring. 

ind. pres. 2 sg. 78 nuveles me portes d*un deu mescuneu. 
„ „ 3 „ 1 122 cist Id la croiz porte. 
„ „ „ pi. 852 portent gisarmes : 11 12 la croiz of eus portent: 

1 2 88 or portent e argent en cofres : 1 732 angeres la portent en del ^ grant processinB. 
* condit. 3 sg. 638 pur tant cum portereit de fin or un dromund. 

infin. 476 (ta esclavine) ke ca porter vus vi : 1824 fei ke doi porter hii ki fist d'ewem 



port ant z 


porte I. 






{H'es. ptcp. mas. nom. sg. 826 il uns paens haut s*escrie, une mace pootant. 

„ „ „ pi. 504 (cist s*en vunt) portantz bastuns. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 368 (de I'ewe demande) e hom li ad port£. 

GLOSSARY. cxi . 

;) ppp. ixus. sg. 900 des angles est portez eu del li esperitz. 
II. s. 1. door. 

nom. sg. 1693 ^o est la porte par unt cuvent eu ciel entrer. 
ace. „ 509 uis brisent e porte si ilia trovent saerr^e. 
\ Y. tr. to place. 

/ app. (ina. pft. 3 pi.) 982 pos6 Punt en marbrin sarcu e estu^. 
ppp. mas. sg. 90 de croiz ostez, e posez en sarcu : 778 ki vi estre en croiz pos6 : 
„ „ „ 959 en sarcu marbrin ke soit li cors posez. 
»» M pl* 1 506 n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli. 
adv. little; ^ pou — ne, almost. 

147 apres pou de tens :— 751 ^ pou n*est void6 li temples : 1566 A pou de ire ne fent. 
under poent. 
s. m. bridge. 

nom. sg. 769 li pountz estoit estroitz. 
ace. „ 635 de glace fates pund : 767 un pund i unt truv6. 
prp. „ 772 li uns du pund en I'ewe sunt trebuchd : 1 153 au passer de un pund. 
s. t. fear ; aver — , to be afraid. 

ace. sg. 557 il out poiir : 733 ( ja nul ne voie, mes) poiir eit. 
prp. M 1 107 ne larrum pur poiir ja de brant furbi. 
adj. poor. 

mas. ace. sg. 59 Id guarde e cunforte le poure e le frarin : 1842 (me numer) dolent, pourc t frarin. 
poot under poent. 
s. m. meadow. 

nom. pi. 693 (perisent) li praiol e herber. 
s. m. meadow. 

prp. sg. 349 cum est la flur du champ u cum Terbe du pr6 : .999 funt flestrir Terbe du pr^. 
It ^ V. mtr. to preach. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 501 (Id) d'un deu nuvel preche : 1558 11 clercs ki de lui preche. 
„ tut. „ t, 1 262 la prechera desore mais de cele lei nuvele. 

infin. 35 precher (la nuvele esjoie)]; 45 oses en ma maisun precher : 1642 cumencc d prechtr. 
periph. pres. ptcp. 1754 dunt li clers fu precfaant. 
gma. J25 va par ci prechant de la lei : 552 ore croiz (90) ke va prechant (un tafur) : 

M 806 (Deus) dunt A. va prechant : 1251 de Marie va prechant. 
(ace.) II 20 TApL unt truv6) prechant : 1292 (unt le clerc truv6) prechant e bapti/ant : 
t» 1 735 id quis Tavoient e iniv€ prechant. 
nent s. m. preaching. 

nom. sg. 1563 verai est sanz dutance li suen prechement. 
ir ) s. m. preacher, 
r ) nom. sg. 559 (venuz dust estre) cum certein prechur : 1422 mes sul i est ii p^ li prechetir Apl. 

ace. „ 1515 maudient Apl. le precheur. 
es adj. precious. 

fem. prp. pi. 3 adubb^ de peres precluses. 
under prendre. 
\ adj. first ; — adv. id. 
% ] mas. nom. sg. 298 primer manage (seit batesme) : 919 Id primers aiimas (Engletere par niartirc) : 
„ y, „ 1338 premers voisist estre Id est li darrener : 1837 ki I'ad tcinte premers dc sani rosm. 
adv. 1293 cist ki les autres guie, parole premer. 
s. m. the first of any thing, initiative, inauguration, 
nom. sg. 577 n'estes pas darreins, k tei n'est fait premur. 
u . V. tr. seize, to take hold of; p. sum, take a nap ; p. char, to become incarnate ; p. c^tal, to h.ilt. 
c { ind. pres. i sg. 1827 penant aeveng c prcng burdun fresnin. 
„ „ 3 „ 179 si curage me prcnt : 578 n*cst ki ne prei 

prent sum : 783 Id de tut prvut cure 
889 saislst e prcnt A. 
44 1 s*en pemez ten vengance (v. note). 
3 „ 1806 pcment confessiun de folie e pecch6. 
pret. 3 sg. 216 (mis quors ne mis penscr) ne prist sum : 231 prist e seisi J. : 
f> ft M 659 en terre char prist : 898 la crou prist : 1801 de virgne prist enttrrrr humanitc. 
fut. f tf 471 prcndrai (de Don ouor) quanckc Deus m'a pur\'cu : 
t* It M 1582 jo en prendrai .si naut vengemcnt. 
imper. 2 pi. 1512 pemez cnt vengance dc ceu tafur faillL 
iMibj. pret. 3 sg. 927 piet6 te preinne de nus : 1438 pit6 te preinne de moi. 

infin. 1265 prendre le frai : 1583 (vengement) cum de itcl felun traitrc prendre u|x nt 
„ 1605 nel lessent reposer ne nul liu prendre estal. 
prp. „ 190 (turmcnt) sanz fin prendre (» tnat has no cn<l). 

»» t» »• »» 

t* »• *» 19 

ft »» 

• I 

t* f> ft t1 


»♦ t» »» M 





npp. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 531 lors Tunt pris e trahit par la riie : 1408. 1598 Tunt pris e seisi. 
ppp. mas. sg. 156 fu pris : i 136 pris fu: 428 si cunrei n'en est pris : 823 es-le-vus seisi e pris. 

M « P 
adv. near. 

461 si pris snmes andui e mcnez devant li. 

1464 pres sunt de V. 

s. m. present, gift. 

ace. sg. 188 dctoi li fras sacrifice e present : 31 1 de la lei lor fist e present e dun. 
present II. ^ adj. present, 
presentz ) mas. nom. sg. 645 (li princes) ki presentz juge i sist : 1564 (li princes) Id i estoit present. 

V. tr. to present. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 787 k Deu presente A. ^ devociun grant : 1351 & Den les presente. 

s. f. crowd. 

nom. sg. 760 la presse ert grant du pueple Id 1^ fii aiin6 : 1751 si fu la presse grant e mortel. 
) adj. ready. 

present i. 





j mas. nom. se. 834 k 90 pruver sui prest ploier le g^nt ; 1686 ki prest est tuz saover. 
31. 1 
adj. gallant. 


pT. 1 195 pretz sumes k fere k quor baud e joiant. 










mas. nom. sg. 26 ki tant pers prude ber (v. note) : 1775 ki avant fu chevaler preuz e alos^. 
„ ace. ,) 1307 mut cimussez petit cest prude ber : 1648 tu as ii mort livr£ tant meint pmde ber. 
V. tr. to beseech, pray to, beg. 
ind. pres. i sg. 58 Im pri e aiir : 279 90 pri : 468. T084. 1219 (90) vus requor e pri : 

it t* t> 344 ore vus pri e sumoin pur Deu en croiz pen6 : 1 124 pri (parenthetically). 
t* 3 ») 728 entendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e prie : 1457 pur lui requert e prie. 
pret. 2 „ 925 ki pur tes enemis curaument Deu prias. ^ 

imper. 2 pi. 485. 822 proiez Deu (Tesu) pur moi : 030 pur nus proiez celui k*est Messias : 
,, „ ,, 1047 proiez pur nus le roi esperitabfe : 
„ „ „ 1222 proiez lui ki te vout sun segrei descuverir. 
infin. 1665 pardun purrez aver si tu les voilz proier. 
app. (ind. plpft. 3 sg.) 391 demurez est cum A. li avoit proiez. 
s. f. prayer. 

nom. sg. 1455 si tu requers pur moi, ta priere ert o7e. 
prp. „ 1 166 par la priere A. est surse (une funtainne). 
primer, primers under premer. 
primereins adj. first, taking the lead. 

mas. nom. sg. 1075 Parole primereins as autres entur li. 

adv. firstly, before all else. 

282 Deu primes enmercie. 

s. m. prince, chief. 

nom sg. 355 ii est Alexandres li princes alos6 : 541 quant li princes Pad veu : 

645 li princes, ki presentz juge i sist, cumanae ke batu seit : 942 li princes, (l*at eschanu): 
968 ofsa mesn^e est li pnnces pass6 : 1243 li princes, espris de ire, art e restencele: 
1 28 1 respund li princes : 1564. 1639 quant ot 90 li princes : 

1741 li prince feluns (ne vout tant atendre :) 1780 ae la cit£ 11 princes tost s'en est angi 
1040 ne dute mais tirantz — prince ne cunestable. 
414 k un prince felun (ala) ! 
417 ai, pnnces gentilz ! 
nom. pi. 357 (ii sunt) li autre prince tant riche e tant {eff€ : 7 14 li prince dela teire (sunt assemble) : 
*f tt 737 ^ prince e la commune ne Funt pas otn6 : 1319 (regner) en cest mund princes cwmnti- 
s. m. esteem. 

nom. sg. 153 de lui crut la renum6e e pris. 
pris II., prist under prendre, 
prisa ^ V. tr. to prize, value. 

ind. pres. i sg. 334 Apollin ne prise mes valiant un butun. 

tt 3 n 73^ <^ciui sive ki doctrine (e maistrie) tant prise. 
„ „ pi. 917 (volentris e enviz) prisent le poer Jesu. 
pret. 3 sg. 1 150 il ne prisa tut un esperun vaillant : 1162 ne prisa noz deiis k vilor d'on gam. 
infin. 1670 te oi tes deus priser. 
gmd. 8 1 1 (Jesu) k*A. va tant prisant. 
s. f. prison, imprisonment, 
ace. sg. 679 pnsun ad obsure pur sale e pur soler. 

prp. „ 310 beus les engetta de servage e prisun : — 112 en la prisun de emfer aler : 1023 en It 
prisun est tuz jurs au mauf(6 : 108 1 en la prisun d'enfer la sunt enseveli : 1709 ki sui en td 
mortel prisun : — 1217 ne pur large prisun fauser ne flecchir. 


















GLOSSARY. cxiii 

I suns s. m. prisoner. 

ace. pi 1 66 d'enfer resent ses prisuns cheitifs. 
M ) adj. intimate ; s. m. intimate, familiar friend. 

lytz ) nom. sg. 784 hantement soud^e ki de Ini est priv6. 

ace. f, 1541 n'i peiist hem cunustre priv6 ne estrangi. 

nom. pi. 403 furent andui (privez) de Damnedeu : 978 li parent A« e si ami priy6 (unt aid6}. 

ace. ,f 1244 ki ses hummes e amis e sis privez apele. 

prp. „ 1037 ke Dens deigna mustrer as ses martirs privez. 

!adj. neighbouring, next (of space or time), 
mas. prp. sg. 1831 en nief me mette au procein port marin. 
fern, (aee.) „ 1 1 80 la nuit proceine apres. 
Y^focessian s. f. procession, pomp. 

prp. sg. 1732 angeres eu del la portent ^ grant processiun. 
pToie s. f. prey. 

ace. sg. 825 fremissent cum Huns ki vunt proie sivant. 
pip- It 1357 senglantz cum liun k'i proie est devurer (v. note). 
proier, proiez, onder pn. 
promesse s. f. promise. 

prp. sg. 1277 par promosse u manaee lur quers reapeler. 
promettant ) v. tr. to promise. 
promis J ind. pret. i sg. 172 recevez la joie ke jo ja vus promis. 

gmd. 1 198 ne (larrum) pur trespassables richesces promettant (v. note). 
promissinn s. f. promise. 

prp. sg. 312 (^les mena en terre) de promissiun. 
prophecie s. f. prophecy. 

nom. sg. 1257 la prophede d'anciens 90 conferme e saele. 
prophetizer v. tr. to prophesy. 

infiiL 131 dunt as oi lire e prophetizer. 
pmde onder preuz. 

prove \ V. tr. to prove, demonstrate. 

pmv€ I ind. pres. 3 sg. 814 (I'ewe, k id obeissant) prove ta vertu : 109 1 (li dedples) prove le sen au maistre. 

pnxv6e 1 infin. 834 I 90 pruver sui prest ploier le gant. 

praver ' app. (ind. pfL sg.) 83 jo ne Tai apris ne pruv6 ne Icii : 561 ben Tad ore pruv6 k'il est boiseur. 

ppp. mas. nom. sg. 366 serras martir (pruv6) par Den : 742 n'est leres pruv6. 
„ fem. sg. 530 par tut ii veritez e dreiture est pniv6e : 557 k*^ fause fust pruv6e (sa doctrine). 
„ ntr. (= in£n. pass.) 193 ne purroit estre pruv6. 
puant adj. striking. 

mas. voc. sg. 827 vassal failli puant ! 

„ prp. „ 1759 (sunt) el fu d*enfer puant : 66 en enfer gist puant. 
pucelage s. m. virginity. 

ace. s^. 140 sanz (perdre u damager) pucelage. 
pucele s. f. virgin. 

nom. (pd.) sg. 1253 e apres Tenfantement remist mere e pucele. 
ace. sg. 127 (tut issi saluer) une pucele. 
' pip* n 79 ^ d'une pucele : 659 sun fiuz d'u[ne] puede k*en terre char prist (v. note), 
pueple s. m. people, multitude. 

nom. sg. 229 un poples cuntre lui e cruel e hard! (vint) : 751 tant lui suit grant pueple (v. note), 
f > tt 87 1 quant en desert tis poples de sei fa cunfundu : 
„ „ 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu : 

„ „ 880 est la nostre creance e poples maubaiuiz : 1053 li poples ki li fu, d'iluec s'en est parti : — 
„ „ 141 8 li paen sunt ^;rant pueple. 
ace. „ 306 le pueple ke veistes tant cruel, Giiieu sunt (v. note) : 856 litrovent grant pueple. 
prp. „ 1834 as Romeins nuncier, le pueple Cesarin: — 

y, „ 760 la presse ert grant du pueple ki li fu ailn^ : 769 de pople i out plenty : — 
» ft 245 de la eroiz desent ore devant le pople cL 
poet, poez under poer. 
puier s. m. slope of hiU. 

prp. sg. 798 (ala trainant) A. i martire au puier le pendant. 
puis I* (1266) under poer. 
puis il> s. m. pit. 

prp. sg. 1675 mort sanz parmurir sufrent el puis d*enfer. 
pnis in. (a) adv. afterwards ; (b) prep, after ;— (c) puis ke, conj. temp, with ind. pret., after that. 

a 39 ki puis jugera : 112 aler, puis sujumer : 163 dedinerent puis : 401 com puis fo restorez : 




ipuis) 591 pub resptind : 657 puis par traisun foriist : 1094 ki puis du munt sailli : 1128 ke est puis aven 

1 138 emprisunez fu puis : 1256 puis devini hem : 1752 puis mist le cors. 
38. 176. 231. 261. 5^. 926 e puis : — 147 pou de tens puis (v. note) : 1760 el siede puis (v. note.) 
b 1 380 puis lur enfance. 

c 152 puis kc il fu d'age : 967 p-k*il fut ajurn^ : 976 p-k*il fu n6 : 1522 p-ke les ettmes truvez. 
l)uish>ez under poer. 

pulcin s. m. colt, foal. 

nom. sg. 619 d peine ublie 90 k'aprent pulein en sa adanture. 
pund under pountz. 

pur prep, for, as instead of, on account of, &c. 

a denoting substitution or exchange ^ (i) of object exchanged, &*c,f (a) in place of(fi) in return fo-^^m 

(2) of object taken in exchange ; (3) after respundre, to answer for : — 

1 (a) 679 bis. prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler : 684 pur lit ad roche bise : — 

(/ij) 314 ne li firent pur ses bens si mal nun : 1267 pur ki ne doins une cenele : 1536 pur tunnentz c^* 
poreus . . . le regne averez du ciel : 1725 receverez pur tun travail guerdun. 

2 65 pur J. guerpiras la Ipi Ap. : 1829 pur esclavine eschaung mun peli9un. 

3 529 pur lui respunderai : 1306 respunt pur Apl. 

b denoting equality^ introducing secondary predicates : — 

440 dune pur voir parra : 594 ke jo pur Deu recleim metal : 815 90 ke hem desdit pur vers rfr r ■, 
batant : 845 pur mort le guerpissent : 1473 diables redamez pur deus : 161 7 ft cunine de esp^S. 
pur chapel capitaL 

c denoting motive or aim : — 

1 in the name of : — 

29. 344, 382. 388. 484. 1124 pur Deu (for God's sake). 

2 in the cause ^: — 

68. 300 pur Deu murras : 686 pur sun seignur sufrir : 920 pur ki A. mortz est : 923 tun rr>^ , 
martire pur la lei Deu livras : 1072. 1225. 1318. 1431 pur J. mort ^sulrir) : 1191 pur ki aYumgts^rpi 
maisun : 1 199 pur Deu sun sane espant : 1449 pur ki A. haut martirs est : 1482. 1 838 pur J. deco7^; 
1630 pur li teu peines endurer. 

3 in honour of : — 

937 miracles out uvrfi pur le martir : 1444, 5. pur li Deus deingna fere vertuz, — pur I'alme esclarae ; 
1 770 merveilles fist pur Apl. 

4 for the sake of : — 

451 ja pur lignage ne serra espami : 638, 9 ainz ke J. treshublie pur tant de fin or, ne pur tuz les 
hiunmes : 779 pur tiie franchise, fai Tewe descrestre : 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu : 
983 pur sa mort grant duel unt dement : 1 190 pur I'amur Jesu : 1 197. 1235 ne larrum pur losen^ 
ne pur richesces (duns) : 1494 pur ki furent tuit sumuns : 1497 pur tut Tor ne fusent resorti: 1525 
n'eiissum fiecchi pur un val d'or empli : 1825 ne i deise fauset6 pur tut I'or C. : 1 837 pur A. musterai 
i mun livre. 
(/3) 475 pur quei ke : 538 Tachesun pur quei : 1502 pur quei nasqui : — 1 1 87. 1446 pur 90 assemblames :— 
1 440 pur tant ne laist. 

5 in behalf of : — 

(a) 485. 759. 822. 930. 1047 proiez pur moi (nus) : 925 pur tes enemis Deu prias : 1384 pur ses martin 
ad fait miracle : 1455 si tu requers pur moi : 1457 pur lui requert : 1620 Deus pur moi sufii. 

(/3) 64 bis. en cest pais m'en veng pur toi e pur meint autre S. : 144 pur nus tuz nasqui : 292 ne mist 
ran9un d'or pur nus : 658 pur lui tramist sun fiuz. 

6 for fear of : — 

364 ne soiez esmeuz pur nule adversity : 393 d*une maisun sutive unt fait lur escolc pur les granU 
fertez des S. : 489 ne soiez de lui esloinnez pur nulli : 607 ne flecchirai pur nule mort : 1 107 De 
larrum pur poiir : i no ne larrunt pur nulli : 1 197 (ne larrum) pur mort : 1 200 resortist pur mort : 
1217 ne flecchir pur lunge prisun; 1841 jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin. 
d with infinitive, (a) of motive, (/3) = final clause : — 

(a) 1 281 ne vout guerpir pur sun cors bvrer : 1234, 5. ne larrum pur les testes duner . . . ne pur blandir. 
(/3) 670. 1360 pur sun cors (lui) plus grever : 675. 1324 pur ses (voz) maus espur^r: 761 pur ver le 
gugement : 9^3 pur les merveilles ver: 12 13 pur moi de mes enemis garantir: 1241 pur la loi 
acumplir : 1 266 pur munter sele : 1 289 pur duner : 1 329 pur eus recumforter : 1354 pur joie deme- 
ner : 1 367 pur autres chastier : 1448 pur delivrer nus : 1452 pur aver de vus batesme : 1 593 pur tost 
venir : 1614 pur ses serfs sauver : 1627 pur ses turmentz dubler : 1628 pur murir (to kill) : 1659 pur 
la gent enginner : 1691 pur embracer : 1808 pur estre endoctrin6. 

pure under purs. 

purgez v. tr. to purify. 

ppp. mas. sg. 400 par le deluge estoit li mundz purgez. 



purofri V. refl. to put oneself forward, stand forth. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1527 chescun de eus de murir avant se purofri. 
purpens s. m. product of reflection, figment. 

nom. sg. 598 semblance est e fausset^, purpens e cuntrevure. 
purpos s. m. purpose. 

nom. sg. 34 (teser vers G. mun pais) est mun purpos. 
purpos^ V. tr. to purpose. 

app. (ina. ant. i 5g.) 376 en mun pais m*en vols ii oi einz purpose, 
pnrpris (PPP» =) 2idj. possessed (by the devil). 

mas. nom. sg. 1776 ore est un cuntraitz u purpris de maufd. 
„ ace. pi. 150 (sana) purpris de maufez. 
piirra, purras, porrdt, puirez, purroit, purrunt under poer. 




post, put 
puUge ^ 




V. intr. to grow putrid. 

pp. mas. pL 1079 ^^^ parentz ki mort sunt e purri 

adj. pure. 

mas. nom. sg. 225 (li eels se desclot) purs e esclarci : 901 (li esperitz) purs e esmirables cum cristals. 

„ f, „ 1059 purs estoit li airs, e sanz nue seri. 
fem. „ „ 602 sa vie est espirable e seinte e nette e pure. 
V. tr. to provide, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 1743 si le purvit Deus. 

infin. 1695 vus lou par tens de vus purvoier. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.j J.72 quancke Deusm*a purveu e establi. 
ppp. mas. sg. 849 ki fu ^ sun martire divisez e purvu. 
infamy (v. note). 

prp. sg. 1 84 1 jo ne me os numer pur paiens de puslin. 
under poer. 
s. m. debauched life. 

prp. sg. .289 en croiz lui mistrent li Giiie de putage. 
adj. vile, detestable, 
fem. prp. sg. 524 k pute destin^e. 
s. f. (L q. putage). 

prp. sg. 1579 cbt clers de puteire, damage est k*il ne pent, 
s. f. filth, filthy thing, 
nom. sg. 569 engettez ces drapeus, — ne vus nuit la puur. 


qant (1012) under quant. 

quancke \ pron. comp. as much as, whatever. 

quanke / nom. nom. 1142 flestri quancke estoit verdoiant. 

„ ace. 440 quancke vus ai dit, pur voir parra : 143 1 (plus li est duz ke mel,) quancke il (suefre). 
ace. nom. 1012 il unt acumpli quanke lur vint ^ gr£. 

ace. ace. 210 mustr6 <juancke croire (est mester) : 248 (sufri) quancke il savoient fere : 
„ „ 472 prendrai quancke Deus m'a purveu. 
quant i. conj. temporal, (never causal,) — almost always (33 out of 45) initial in the line, — when ; i, as soon 
as, at the time that, (a) with pres. (b) with pft ; 2, on the occasion that, (with pret.) ; 3, after that, 
(with ant. or fut.) ; 4, s and then (ixLiX 
I (a) 41. 280. 454. 494. 521. 522. 621. 645. 664. 









801. 936. 944. 1201. 1207. 1236. 1325. 1436. 1564. 1597. 
1639. 1721. 

7'- 323- 54'' 620. 986. 1012 (qant.) 1155. 1355. 1394. 1488. 1500. 1668. 
62. 289. 331. 396. 445. 482. 926. II 26. 15 1 7. 1670. 
105 quant Deus out fait A. : 444 quant A. s*en murra. 
171 (vendra juger), quant dirra, " venez, &c** 

adj. pron. how much, only in phr. < (ne) tant ne quant/ s at all, strengthening the negative. 
842 ne remeint sein ne entier ne tant ne quant : 1 139 dimi an n'en la terre ne ^uvdt tant ne quant, 
num. adj. four. 

1096 li quatre element, tuit I'unt beu servi. 

rd. pron. ntr. which, what ; pur quei, why ; quei ke, whatever ;^as adv. why. 
538 rachesun pur qud (the reason why) : 














quis, quist 




1503 pur quel nasqui : — 1472 par quel estes vus tens ? 
780 fai Tewe descrestre par quel (owing to which) cist sunt travaill6 : — 
1449 quei k*envius die (let envious people say what they like) : — 
475 pur quei k'il t'en veie vestu (proTicfed that he see), 
s. m. count, knight. 

nom. sg. 575 par tralsun perist meint quens. 
V. tr. to seek, ask ; find, 
ind. pres. i sg. 1 761 jo vus quoer e demant. 
„ pret. 3 „ 1087 qui quist, cum es^arez, ci ostel e abri. 
imper. i pi. 1086 querum ceu crestien ki A. converti. 

innn. 949 va quere tun seinnur : 1291 unt le clerc truv^ par querre e demander. 
gmd. 510 vunt querant ^A.) 1119 vunt li citoien par pais querant : 1433 il ne va querant 
app. (ind. plpft. 3 pi.) 1735 cist ki (^uis Tavoient e truvd prechant. 
ppp. mas. sg. 155 (par Judas) fu quis : 1264 si quis deiist estre de ci k'^ Burdele. 
under quoer. 

\ pron. interrog., what, which ; aueu,— queu, one, another ;— {1229) rd. pron. 

) mas. nom. sg. 593 queus est (plus haut) ? 

*i t* 1378 queus joures, queus veuz : 1379 queus petiz, queus maens &c. 
^oc. „ 572 hai ! queu changer r ! 
prp. „ 540. 761 (I queu) (au queu) chief fust men6e. 
„ pi. 1229 (citoiens) k keus plest eschoisir J. 
fern. „ sg. 47 en queu manere peustes vus passer ? 
pron. indef. some, (considerable). 

tem. prp. sg. 938 le vis i queuke peine ad vers le ciel dresc£. 
under quoer. 

(546. 1087. 1795) under ki. 
\ V. intr. to think, imagine. 
> ]] 




ind. pres. 3 sg. 1559 cum meint quide e entent. 
) „ „ 2 pi. 594 quidez keio pur deu recleim metal: 1519 (n*est pas si) cum vusle quidez. 
„ „ 3 „ 1026 bien quident ki tut eient lur voler achev6. 

under <juerre. 

adj. qmt, free. 

mas. nom. sg. 1297 si veuz estre quites de mort e repruver. 

(1761^ imder querre. 

s. m. neart ; de quor, heartily ; in heart. 

nom. sg. 216 mis quors ne mis penser (ne prist sum) : 273 quors nel puet penser: 

843 k peine chaut remeint li quors (batant) eu piz : 1322 dunt quor ne puet penser: 
1470 SI cors est las mais sis bons auors tut frois est e nuveus. 
53 n*oiez vers mes diz quor dur ne ferrin : 184 (Deu eslumine) tun quor : 
205 lui esmoillir le quoer : 280 entent sun quor e sun curage : 
299 ne eiez vers lui quor ligger ne volage : 340 S. Esperitz ad tun quor eslum6 : 
379 (Deu) ad tim quor saell : 590 (justise) sun curage e quor : 
776 le quor e le visage vers le ciel ad dresc6 : in 6 morteu maladie le quor lui envai. 
88 au quor fenu : 158 au queur feru : 365 ke hem vus face au cors u au ouor mauff : 
1 195 pretz sumes tuit i fere k quor baud e joiant : 1529 au quor feri (le nz) : — 
104. 175. 322 (entent) de quor: 471 prendrai de bon quor esjoi : 647 de quor les hai: 
685 (A. suefre) de vera! e bon quoer : 1033 tuit se sunt de quor i Deu abaundun6 : 
1236 (les ot) 90 de quor geir : 1348 plure e gent de quoer : 

1632 i J. se rendirent de bon e verai quoer : 1843 batesme i requorai de quor verai e fio :- 
ty *f 732 orb est de quor : 1350 cist stmt martir de cors, cist de quor duluser. 

ace. pi. 1277 P^ promesse u manace lur quers reapeler. 





raant 11. 

> V. ii 
) ind. 


intr. to flow, 
pret. 3 sg. 7 avau Tun des costez raa li sancs cural : 1610 li sancs raa aval, 
gmd. 1429 li sancs en curt raant cum ewe de ruisseL 
adj. radiant. 

mas. nom. sg. 830 (li solailz) ki chautz est e raant : 902 (li esperitz) raant cum solailz. 
ace. „ 1757 (Deus) la fist solail raant. 
prp. „ 1 169 90 fu la vertu du soloil raant. 






























adj. stiff, fim, (rigidus). 

mas. nom. sg. 1147 raed fa e estable cum fer u aimant. 

adj. impetuous, (rapida). 

fern. nom. sg. 7^ (rewe) ki ert parfimde e raedde, k flot briant. 

s. m. ray, fls^. 

nom. sg. 1061 un rais ki flamboie (se arestut) : 1 180 un rais du cd lusant (resplendi). 

ace. „ 255 (solail ne espandi) ne rai ne lumere. 

s. f. reason. 

nom. sg. 196 droitz ne raisuns n*i assent : 728 entendez ke raisuns cumande e veut e prie. 

ace. „ 470 raisun plus n'orreient ke tigre : 817 (hem) ^ ki Dens dune raisun, i sun semblant. 

prp. „ 61 1 si feiissez gent de sen de raisun e mesure. 

ace. pi. 135 cist la recimforte par (demustrer) raisuns. 

prp. „ 82 ne par fines raisuns enquis ne seu. 

s. m. ransom. 

nom. sg. 94 (or) ne te serroit ran9um. 

ace. „ 292 ne mist d'or ne d'argent pur nus ran9un ne guage. 

prp. „ 1024 sanz ran9un u rescusse. 

s. m. rancour. 

Ace. sg. 58a n*averunt vers toi plus ne ire ne rancur. 

P^'P* tf 993 suspris sunt de rancur e de ire envenim^. 

de — , adv. savagelv, violently. 

1730 navrent e defulent k chevaus de randun. 

adj. ravenous, of prey* 

mas. nom. sg. 1392 u aigles raveinner. 

V. tr. to hdgnten. 

ind. pres. 3. sg. 1724 (une voiz) ki reahaite mut sa entundun. 

adj. royal, regal. 

mas. ace. sg. i C84 lores fait crier real cumandement : 1 61 6 batre sun seint cors real. 

V. tr. to brmg back. 

app. (ind. plpft. 3 pi.) 1736 (ravoient) reamen6 de Wales. 

innn. 1275 ^i ^^^ ne les poum k maisun reamener. 
V. tr. to recal, call back, away (from a purpose), 
infin. 610 ki reapder me veut, en vdn labure : 1277 reapeler lur quers par promesse u manacc : 

„ 1672 sul Deu puet les morz i vie reapeler. 
V. tr. to beat again and again. 
infin. 1625 (aegre) de batre e de rebatre. 
V. intr. to re-echo. 

infin. 1336 Teir fait k sun talent rebundir e suner. 
V. tr. to rccdve. 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 192 90 ne re^oit ne sen ne entendemcnt. 

pret. „ „ 1813 despuis ke A. re^ut (sun oste) en sun palois perrin. 
fut. 2 pi. 1725 ui receverez pur tun travail guerdun. 
imper. „ „ 172 recever la joie ke jo ja vus promis. 

infin. 1323 recevez batesme : 1645 (alez al haut rei de gloire) sun regne recever : -^ 
„ 910. 1021 le regne k recever. 
app. find, pft 3 pi.) 879 as meins Tunt receii. 

„ ( „ ant. 3 sg.)8oo (cist out) receii le cumant de decolcr A. 
ppp. mas. sg. 72 [est en] sun ostd entrez e receiiz. 
de — , adv. once more, afresh. 

749 de rechicf de chaesnes ]i6 : 1009 de rechief (pen6). 
V. tr. proclaim ; profess. 

ind. pres. i sg. 54 J. C. reclcim e k lui sui enclin : 594 quidcz kc jo pur Deu recleim mctul . 
»• >* 609 en J. croi, Jcsu recldm : 1104 Jesu reclcim, en lui me fi. 
3 »• 893 le sdnt esperit redaime e le pere, e le fiz. 

1 pi. 1634 nus reclamun Jesu (e refusum M.). 

2 „ 1473 ^^3 reclamez (diables enfemaus) pur deus. 
pret. a sg. 947. 1508 mar reclamas (Jesu) (le deu). 

»». ti 3 I* 413 cum il gucrpi M. e rcclama Jesu. 
imper. 2 „ 1661 recleim noz grantz deus. 

2 pL 820 guerpissez M. e reclamez Jesu. 
infin. 1686 (te cuvendra) reclamer Jesu (v. note), 
app. f. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 516 la Id Jesu suvent ad reclam^e. 






















under recever. 

V. tr. to remember. 

periph. pres. ptcp. 1 130 si tu Pes recordant. 

adj. recreant, who has given up in despair. 

mas. nom. sg. 862 uns mortz, uns malades, autres recreu (crient). 

V. tr. to vindicate, 

gmd. 815 le element tesmoine, (recumbatant) pur vers 90 ke hem desdit. 

under recunustre. 

v. tr. to encourage, refresh. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 135 cist la recunforte par raisuns demustrer. 

infin. 1723 (ces i enveit Deus) lui recunforter en tribulaciun : — 
PT« >t '3^9 oient une voiz pur eus recunforter. 

ppp. mas. pi. 880 recunfortez en sunt de I'ewe e sustenu. 

V. intr. to hide. 

infin. 136 seintz esperitz en toi vendra recunser. 
^ V. tr. to recount. 
I ind. pres. i sg. 143 tut issi cum vus recunt e devis. 

- „ pret. „ ,, 617 de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture. 
impcr. 2 „ 278 k'est ke signifie me recunt e di. 

infin. 689 en teu manere cum m*orrez recunter. 

pres. ptcp. (ace.) sg. 1 184 nus tut 90 veimes ke m'oez recuntant. 

ppp. mas. ? nom. „ 1769 un (v. note) des grantz merveilles ki unc fust recunt^. 
'i v. tr. to recognize, aclmowledge. 

recunussent f ind. pres. 3 pi. 881 mes ne recimussent ki lur tramist salu. 

I „ pret. 3 sg. 1 137 ben recunust le ovre ne ren ne fut celant. 
/ infin. 1232 (plest vus) cum Deu recunustre e leaument servir ? 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1800 bien unt ja recunu sa haute deit6. 
„ (subj. „ 3 sg.) 874 ta creature est, tnt n*eit tei Deu rekeneu. 
under recever. 

v. tr. to recover ; (infin. =) s. m. recovery, 
prp. 1655 tuit sunt abandun^, peri sanz recuverer. 
redempciun s. f. redemption. 

prp. sg. 171 1 requerez Deu k'il mei (part doinst of vus) par sa redempciun. 

)v. tr. to dread, 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1395 unt honur6, redutfi e cremu (Ics cors). 
ppp. mas. nom. sg. 356 (li est) Cesaires li riches e li redut^ : 405 (jugement) ki tant est red 
,, „ ob. „ 1007 fei ke nus devum Mahum le redut6. 
„ fem. nom. ,, i (croiz) ki tant est redut6e de diable enfemal. 
under restorer, 
V. tr. to cheer. 

ppp. mas. pL 1491 mut sunt de grant joie refait e esbaudi. 
V. tr. to repudiate. 

ind. pres. i pi. 1635 reclamun Jesu e refusum Mahum. 
V. tr. to see, look at, consider ; — ^v. intr. to look, gaze. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 8a i regarde A. k piteus semblant : 774 ki 90 regarde : 866 A. les regarde : 
„ ft tt tf 1 704 vers lu ciel regarde : 1707 regarde e veit A. entr€. 
imper. 2 pi. 1709 regardez moi ki sui en tel mortel prisun. 
innn. 1349 ne puet sanz martire les martirs regarder. 
prp. 699 fu duel k regarder (les flurs murir as reims). 

app. (ind. ant. 3 sg.) 986 (Ar.) ke Deus out regards. 
s. 1. region. 

prp. sg. 319 delivrfi d'enfemal regiun : 1713 of vus en cele regiun (li mund). 
^ V. mtr. to reign, 
ind. pres. 2 sg. 924 eu ciel ore regnes. 

tt 3 »» 55 lui ki regne : 869 Id regne en poest^ : 1016 regne eu eel esteill^. 
„ „ pi. 1 482 ki ore regnent es eels. 
Alt 2 sg. loi tu regneras of lui cum sis amis e dm.. 

» »» »» 301 regneras tuz jurs eu celestien bamage : 924 (eu del) tuz jurs regneras. 
tt tt 3 tt 55 ki regne e regnera sanz cumen9ail e hn : 352 cist regnera eu ciel. 
„ „ 2 jpl. 1046 e regnerez tuz jurs en joie pardurable. 

infin. 1319 (desirer) regner en cest mund princes curunez. 
pres. ptcp. nom. sg. 782 Deu, regnant en majesty : 1 183 martirs est glorius A. en cd regnant. 
,9 ace. „ 822 proiez pur moi Jesu eu cid regnant. 

























II. ) s. m. kingdom. 


ace. sg. 367. 1537 le regne averez da del (ki vus est estuQ (ki jamais n*ert fini) : 
910. 102 1 le regne h recever ^ke il ad beu meriz) (ki ja n'ert termini) : 
1645 (alez) al haut rei de gloire, sun regne recever. 

prp. „ 965 en regne du ciel : 1758 en gloire el regne permenant : 
1786 tost s*espaunt la nuvele par trestut le regn6. 





) s. m. king. 






nom. sg. 144 pur nus tuz nasqui li reis de parais. 

ace. „ 1047 (proiez pur nus) le roi espentable : 1782 guerroier le rei de majesty, 
prp. „ 1645 (alez) al haut rei de gloire : — 161^ ki pense du rei esperital : — 164 sanz rei. 
voc. ,, 240 hai, rois de Giiieus poisant e enricni ! 
nom. pi. 567 k eus sunt entendant roi, due, empereiir. 
s; m. Dough, branch. 

prp. pi. 699 as reims murir fu duel ^ regarder : 

„ „ 890 (un arbre) k reims bas e petiz : 951 (sun chief) as reims est nu^. 
under ren. 
V. tr. to redeem. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1 799 nus reinst par sa mort d'enfemal poestd. 
V. ren. to rejoice. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1621 lors se rejoist cum se il n'ust unc mal. 
under recunustrc. 

V. intr. to rise up ; to rise (from the dead), 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 165 J. relcva cume sires poestifs ! 26^ dst ki mortz estoit, releva au terz di. 

infin. 37 (deingna) de mort rclever : 316 relever le veistes en vostre avisiun. 
prcs. ptcp. (ob.) sg. II 57 es-le-vus relevant. 
s. f. afternoon. 

prp. pi. 396 des relev6es e quant fu anoitcz. 
\ V. intr. to remain, stay behind. 



ind. pres. i sg. 47 1 jo remain. 



















tt tt 


768 nus ne remaint : 842 nc remeint sein ne entier eu cors : 

843 k peine chaut rcmcint li quors : 1588 & ceste sumunsc nuls nc remaint ne utent. 
1453 suspris de langur rcmis en ceste voie hale. 

II 14 li uns remist enmaladi : 1253 apres Tenfantement remist mere e pucelc . 
1347 ki remist malade en un senter : 1435 li langucrus (remist, ki) ne pout sivi< 
'cnienatji^blc adj. memorable. 

mas. nom. sg. 104 1 sis nuns est (rcmembrable) en estoire e escrit. 
'^"*««nl>rancc s. f. id. 

pip. sg. 1402 k*en lunge remembrance seit e escrit c leii. 
I. a<^. lasting. 

fem. prp. sg. 1039 >'it en gloire remenant e cstablc. 
»'«incixajit II. sm. remnant, rest. 

ace. sg. 838 derochent e debatcnt du cors le remenant. 
^«nir ^ y^ tr, Jo look upon. 

'^*'**''« } ind. pres. i sg. 1207 croiz ! quant jo te remir. 

j.^^. „ „ 3„ 687 Deus, ki tut rcmirc, nel vout pas ublicr. 

r«I??** i-emist under remaint. 






». f. forgiveness, 
prp. sg. ^30 ai Jesu ! funtainne dc remissiun ! 
V. tr. to kUl again. 

infin. 1628 pur murir e remurir e lunges duluser. 
s. f. thing; (always in virtually negative sentences). 
ace. sg. 211 sanz ren celer : 648 ne ren n'i espleite hum : 
ti tt 700 sanz rein amesurcr : 1 137 ne ren nc fu celant. 
prp. „ 892 (cist) dc ren n'est flechiz. 
V. intr. to be bom again. 

infin. 1694 90 fait hom rcnaistre e tut rcnuvclcr. 
V. tr. to give up, repay, produce, give. 
ind. pres. 3 pi. 1790 k Jesu se rendcnt tuit cist dc la cit^. 

1093 la tcrre ki (ne rcndi) fruit ne herbe. 

k Jesu sc rendirent dc bon e vcrai quiK't. 
pres. 3 sg. 1757 Dcus li rcnde I'onur. 
appJ (ind. pf\. I sg.^ 1826 k Jesu me sui rendu cum mi vcisin. 
3 [3.) 882. 1397 Ih deu) en unt graces rendu. 

ma. prcs. j pi. 1 / 90 « 
^ .t pret. 3 se. 1093 1 

I •. H 3 Pl- '632 • 
J rabj.pres. 3sg. 1757 





\ V. tr. to deny, repudiate. 

j ind. pres. i sg. 608 reni Mahom k'en enfer trait ki lui sert. 





3 »» 725 cele raort apent h home ki le suen deu renie. 
imper. 2 „ 333. 1102 reni apertement (l*enchantement M.) (Jovin) : 583. 1660 reni Jesu. 
under retenir. 

I. s. f. renown, 
nom. sg. 153 de lui crut la renum6e e pris. 

II. V. tr. to bruit abroad, 
ppp. fern. sg. 538 I'achesun est renum^e partut. 
V. mtr. to grow afresh, be renewed, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1245 ^^^ maus mut surt e renuvele. 

infin. 1694 90 fait horn renaistre e tut renuveler. 
pp. mas. ace. sg. 989 or Timt veii tut seint, (renuvel6) du cors. 
^ V. intr. to return. 
) ind. pret. 3 sg. 1118 (langui) iluec, geske Apl. repeira (v. note). 

infin. 1299 ke peusum (repairer) ofles noz k*i sunt. 
\ y. refl. to repent 
j imper. 3 sg. 568 repent toi de tun maisfait. 

infin. 579 repentir te purras de cest grant foleiir. 
(infin. =3 s. m.) prp. 1233 cist respunent : " oil, sanz repentir !" 
pres. ptcp. e: adj. repentant, pemtent. 

mas. nom. sg. 1 146 creiimes Ice de sa emprise fust ja ben repentant, 
prp. „ 581 piet€ unt tost de repentant pecchur. 
nom. pL 1479 les pecchurs repentantz sunt ses especieus (v. note). 
„ „ 1760 (s'il ne estoient) repentant : 1793 en sunt repentant k'il les uift tant am^. 
I, ace. „ 1690 les pecchurs repentanz acoilt sanz reprover. 
V. tr. to fill, 
ppp. mas. nom. pi. 1553 devum tuit estre de ioie repleni. 

,, fem. voc. sg. 129 (Marie) de grace replenie ! 
V. tr. to bend back, 
ppp. mas. pi. 1779 li doi sunt repli£. 
s. m. repose, rest. 

ace. sg. 1469 mes repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus. 
v. intr. (refl.) to rest. 

ind. pres. 3 pi. 1056 se reposent cuchez e endormi : 1467 ilnec se reposent. 
infin. 1605 ^^1 lessent reposer, ne nul liu prendre estal. 

iv. tr. to reproach ; (infin. =) s. m. reproach, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 233 lia e repruva, laimt e eschami. 
prp. sg. 1297 estre quites de mort e repruver : — 

„ „ 141 sanz cunoissance d'umme u repruver : 1690 acoilt sanz reprover, 
repruver II. s. m. proverb. 

prp. sg. 1314 dit hem en repruver. 

}v. tr. to beg, implore, 
ind. pres. i sg. 468. 1084. 1219 (90) vus requor e pri : 872 ore requor ta franchise. 
„ „ 2 „ 1455 si tu requers pur moi. 

» 3 n ^457 "^^^ humblement pur lui requert e prie (Jesu). 
fut. I „ 1843 batesme i requorai de quoer verai e fin. 
imper. 3 pi. 1638 requerez J. k*en s6um parcener : 171 1 requerez D. k*il mei (doinst part of 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 374 li ad requis e demands (le cung6). 
ppp. mas. pL 1035 ja tant ne en semmt requis e turment6. 
s. I. prayer, request. 

ace. sg. 785 la requeste A. ducement ad grants, 
imder requerez. 
V. tr. to refine (gold). 

ppp. mas. prp. sg. 903 curun^ est de cunine d'or esmer6 requitz. 
requor, requorai, under requerez. 
























V. intr. to gnash the teeth. 

gmd. 753 dient en reschisnant. 
"j V. tr. to rescue, deliver. 

>ind. pret. 2 sg. 243 les perillez rescuz ja (but v. note). 

J tt tt I tt 166 d' enfer rescut ses prisuns cheitife : 387 rescust humein lignage de diable. 
infin. 38 (deigna) de enfer nus rescure. 

s. f. rescue, ddiverance. 





































nom. sg. 672 k*a!e ne rescusse n'i pust aver mester. 

prp. „ 1024 (retena e damn^ sanz ran9un u rescusse, 

s. f. rein. 

ace. sg. 1604 unt dun€ resne k chcval. 

V. intr. to swerve, apostatize ; — infin. = s. m. flinching. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1200 ki resortist pur mort, n*est pas vend amant. 

(s. m.) prp. 1228 ateindre sanz nn u r^ortir (v. note). 

pp. mas. pi. 1497 pur tut Tor de Damas ne fusent resorti. 

s. m. respite. 

prp. sg. 649 cumande ke batu seit lores sanz respiit. 

)v. intr. to shine forth, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 1572 (Phebum) Id en tut le mund resplent. 
„ pret. „ „ 226 il la gloire de Deu parut e resplendi : 1095 (feu, ki) lut e resplendi : 
tf ,t „ „ 1 181 (un rais du eel lusant) resplendi : 1532 de Jesu la gloire resplendi. 
V. intr. to answer, reply. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 33. 90. 486. 591. 1281. 1668 respund : 51 respond : 389 respunt : 
tt tt tt 633 simplement respunt : 1306 respunt pur Apl. 

„ 3 pi. 1 105 communement respunent ^ un cri : 1233. 1240. 1269. 1555 respunent. 
pret. 3 sg. 183. 721 respundi : 247 noise ne fist, ne mot ne respundi. 
fut. I ,, 529 pur lui respunderai tutz les jurs de mun €e, 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 176 li en a respundu simplement : .960 li ad respundu k grant humility. 
V. intr. to blaze. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1243 li princes espris de ire, art e restencele. 
V. tr. to restore whole, cure ; (1274) infin. = s. m. remedy, 
ind. pret. 2 sg. 1542 Jesus les restora. 
imper. 2 pL 1157 eel mal kar restorez. 

innn. 132 ki deit tut le mund restorer : 1673 sul Deu puet (garir e reestorer) mun cors : — 
„ 1 274 mut serra la perte grant sanz restorer : 13 1 1 par (garir e restorer) aucun langurus. 
ppp. mas. sg. 975 sis cors (est) restore : 401 (Par Noe) puis fu restorez (li mundz)^ 
„ „ pL 1374 les menbres lur sunt restorez pez e braz sanz faiUance. 
V. tr. to resuscitate, 
ind. pret. 3 sg. 151 resuscita (mortz). 

infin. 1667 purrunt resusciter (ecus Id par tci ci sunt mortz). 
ppp. mas. nom. pi. 794 de mort resuscitez (levent vifs e juant). 

„ „ ace. „ 802 (quant veit) les resuscitez ki vcnent Deu louant. 
V. tr. to retain, hold, keep (in memory 269) ; — refl. to refrain, 
ind. pres. i sg. 604 de Im retenc par amist^ ceste moie vesture. 
tt 3 tt 535 A. sa eroiz retent. 
pret. I „ 269 rentinc e entendi lur chant (v. note). 

infin. 1135 vostre eroiz retenir de vus avoit le grant : 1204 ^^ lermer ne se puet retenir. 
app. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 542 ke il ad de sun maistre retenu par amur. 
„ ( „ „ „ pi.) 1 40 1 en escrit unt e mis (e retenu) le numbre. 
ppp. mas. sg. 1024 (est en la prisun) retenu e damn€ (sanz ran9un u rescusse). 
V. mtr. to retract, recant (used absol.). 
inf. 1688 retraire te cuvent. 
V. intr. to retire. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 789 (ke Tewe) retraite, e sun chanel va si apetizant (v. note). 
V. tr. to blame, lay to the charge of. 
ind. pres. 3 pL 1407 tut rettent Apl. le elere orientel. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 1359 tut imt rett6 k lui cest mortel encumbrer. 
s. m. return. 

ace. sg. 578 (purrez fere) retur. 
V. intr. to return ; sanz — ^ unalterably. 

infin. 1304 duiite est la sentence sanz returner : 1635 refusum M. sanz jamais returner, 
s. f. revelation. 

prp. sg. 302 celui ke velstes par revelaciun. 
V. tr. to twist, turn awav. 
ppp. mas. pi. 1778 li oil sunt reverse. 
V. mtr. to return. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 493 atant s*en part li clers, e A. reverti 
V. tr. to visit. 

app. (ind. pfl. 3 sg.) 18 10 Deus par sa vertu les a revisit6. 
ppp. mas. sg. 34a vus par Deu mei^es en es revisit6. 














)adj. rich, 
mas. nom. sg. 356 il est Cesaires li riches. 

pi. 357 li autre prince tant riche e tant fefftg : i X2 J tuit fuimes citoiens, e riches, e men 


roi, rois 




>» »> . _ , 

,, prp. „ 1032 (mil des citoiens) des plus honurables, nches e {eff€. 

fem. „ sg. 677 (ne beit mais vins) de riche vaissele. 

s. f. riches. 

ace. pL 1 1 98 (promettant) trespassables richesces (v. note). 

s. m. the Rhine. 

prp. sg. 69 n'a pl[ace ne lijus ci k'^ Teuue du Rin (v. note). 

s. f. riot, quarrel. 

prp. sg. 617 de voz maus lui recuntai, riote e nureture (v. note). 

s. f. river. 

ace. sg. 861 fimtaine ne trovent, rivere ne palo. 

s. m. rock-crystal. 

prp. sg. 3 (croiz adubb^e) de ivoire ne roal. 

)s. f. robe, garment, 
ace. sg. 473 vus ma robe averez d lut li ors bumi : 57 a ta robe enporte : 

„ „ 1 134 sa robe vus duna bruid^ d'or lusant. 
prp. „ 20 a robe (batiie) d'or : 1212 (honurer e vestir) de sa robe ebruusd^e : — 

« »» 533 (I'uht pris) par la robe k*il unt tost desir^. 

„ pL 850 de robes sunt trestuit e gamlz e vestu. 
s. f. rock, stone. 

ace. sg. 684 pur lit ad roche bise si dure cum acier. 
under rei. 
adj. rusty, 
mas. (ace.) sg. 1008 tut ne li vaudra un esperun roill^. 

)s. m. rivulet, stream, 
nom. sg. 636 (ainz purra) ruisseu cure vers munt : 876 d'une funtainne est li roisseus hissu : 
„ „ 153 1 li sancs, cum un roiseus^ se espaundi : 161 1 cum fait de la fimtainne li roisseus cur 
prp. „ 1 167 funtainne ^ grant missel curant : 1429 (li sancs] en curt raant cum ewe de niisse 
adj. steep, 
mas. ace sg. 1832 passerai Mun-Giu, le roiste mtmt alpin. 

\ s. m. Roman ; pi. the Roman people. 

nom. pi. 23 si ancesur estoient Komein original. 

prp. ,, 1834 as Romeins nuncier, le pueple cesarin. 
rose s. f. rose. 

nom. sg. 1070 plus fiirent beus ke rose u ken'est lis espani. 
rosin adj. rosy, rose-coloured. 

mas. prp. sg. 1837 Tad teinte premers de sane rosin, 
rote s. f. lyre. 

prp. sg. 1258 fable ^ rote u viele. 
rubi s. m. ruby. 

ace sg. 623 tenant un rubi rund. 
riie s. f. street. 

prp. sg. 503 curant par la rue pavie : 531 (I'unt trahit) par la rue e chauc^c. 
mine s. i*. min. 

prp. sg. 338 met hum H grant mine e k perdiciun. 
missel, ruisseu under roisseus. 







mmpuz e de tcs os sevr6. 

s. f. Rome. 

prp. 1807 sunt k R. al€ : — 741 sulum la lei de R. : — 1833 vers R. la cit€ tendrai le chemin. 
\ v. tr. to break. 

J ind. pret. 3 sg. 253 un ^ntz veilz du temple desira e mmpi (intr. ? v. note). 
J ppp. mas. pi. 840 li merf li sunt mmpu : 954 tes nerfs Id sunt mmpi 

s. m. good stout horse, roadster. 

obi. sg. 142 1 (muntez) chafur u runcin u grant destrer ignel. 

adj. round. 

mas. ace. sg. 623 tenant un mbi rand. 

adv. in round numbers. 

1346 ne failli nmdement ke n'i eust mil enter. 

s. f. dew. 

nom. sg. 703 n'a pluie ne mste an seir n'al enjumer. 

s. f. troop, multitude. 




nom. sg. 1439 la rule des S. de crier le chastie. 

V. tr. to command. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 109 de parais les ruva ambesdeus exuiller. 


sa, s* 











saet I. 






under si and soi. 

under sun 11. 

s. m. sand ; plain. 

prp. sg. 803 au sabelun il nuls unc hom ala avant : — 845 gisant eu sabelun. 

under saver. 

V. tr. to unsheath, tear out, drag. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 888 sache Tesp^e. 

}» »» ». pi- 1326 sachent ks espies : 1601 la buele en sachent du ventre Apl. 
innn. 1265 (frai) fors sacher du ventre la buele. 
prp. ,, 258 au saucher de la lance : — 534 du sacher e buter li est ensanglaent^ (la robe). 

app. (ind. pft. 3 pi.) 757 tir6 Tunt e sach^, batu e laidang6. 

s. m. sacrament. 

prp. pi. 404 des sacramentz, — cum il sunt cunfermez. 

s. m. sacrifice. 

ace. sg. 188 de toi li fras sacrifice e present : 293 (mist) de sa char demeine, sacrifice e ostagc. 

(appos.) ,, ,, 663 ^ vus sacrifice me doins jo : 1365 (mener le clerc) cum sacrifice eu temple : 

{ it ) tt t« 1417 (^ P. le durrunt) sacrifice agreable plus ke buef u torel. 

v. tr. to sacrifice. 

ind. fut 3 pi. 628 verra k'il sacrifienint (v. note). 
) v. tr. to seal. 
j ind. pres. 3 sg. 1257 la prophecie d*anciens 90 conferme e saele. 

app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 379 Deu meimes ad tun quor sael6. 

s. f. serpent. 

nom. sg. 52a (plus esmeiiz ke n'est) saerpent quant ele se sent blesc^. 

prp. „ 657 par traisun de la saerpent. 

nom. pi. 1698 fremissent e flamboient cum saerpent u dragun. 

V. tr. to lock, fasten. 

ppp. fem. ace. sg. 509 (brisent) porte si il la trovent saerr^e. 

num. adj. seven. 

359 fors saet pez mesur€. 
II. (1568) under saver. 

s. m. sapphire. 

3 nom. sg.~i2o6 croiz plus desirable k*esmeraude u safir. 

prp. pi. 904 (curune) de saiirs eschoisiz. 
\ adj. wise, prudent. 

mas. nom. sg. 282 cum lettrez e sage (enmercie Deu) : 550 ki sages es de aprise : 
„ f, „ 573 n'est nul tant sage : 1074 uns sarrazins des autres plus sages e hardi. 
fem. prp. ,, 590 (justise sun curage) par sage atempreiire. 
under saver. 

\ V. intr. to leap forth. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 1094 (I'ewe) ki puis du munt sailli. 
pp. mas. s£. 888 avant est sailliz (un paens). 

$t tt pl. 
saisist, saisiz under seisir. 

913 li sunt li oil du chiefsaiUiz. 




8. f. season. 

prp. sg. 1 72 1 quant se espanist lis en sa saisun. 

s. f. mansion, (large) house, palazzo. 

prp. sg. 679 prisun ad obscure pur sale e pur soler. 

adj. salt (of the sea). 

fem. ace. sg. 528 ki cria la terre e mer sal6e. 

8. m. salvation. 

ace. sg. 881 ki lur tramist salu. 

prp. f, 97 Deu ki m'amene it vostre salu. 








▼. tr. to salute. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 24 11 clers le saliie. 

imn, 127 (vint) tut issi saluer (une pucele). 

app. (ind. p(t. 3 sg,) 1122 Tad sala£ avant. 

s. m. salutation. 

nom. sg. 24 si saluz fii taL 

V. tr. to h^. 

ind. pret 3 sg. 148 sana paraletics. 

ppp. mas. (ace.) sg. 974 se sent de ses dolurs tut san6. 

s. m. blood. 

nom. sg. 7 raa 11 sancs cural : 257 sane e ewe hlssl : 653 11 sancs ki s'espand, ist (da cors) : 
,, 837 de la buche li sancs ist e espant : 1 1 1 j u sancs A. i pert aers e endurd : 
,, 1 176 tl si sancs est parant : 1375 li sancs (de leit ad ja semblance) : 

1429 li sancs curt raant cum ewe de missel : 1531 li sancs (cum un roiseus) se espaondi : 









3 (a) 







1 186 teinst en sun sane demeine : 1 201. 145 1 (la croiz, teinte) en sane A. 
under senglant. 

prep, without ; used i, with simple subst., — 2, with infin., — 3, with two words connected (a) by r, 
(b) by u, — 4, with adj. (adv.) negat. : — 

40. 48 bis. 35a. 553. 649. 674. 765. 846. 1059. 1284. 1349, i3<a. 1361. IJ74* ^4*3« '438. 1563. 158J. 
1640. X713 bis. 1784. 1828 sanz : — 360. 626. 756. 1016. 1 190 santz [only cases of santz.] 
33. 1202. 1233. 1238. 1274. 1283. 1304. 1320. 1326. 1635. 1653. 1655. 1675. 1677. 1685. 1690. 
107 sanz pardun demander : (140 s. pucelage perdre) : 190 s. fin prendre : 211 s. ren cder : 700 
s. rein amesurer : 1280 s. nul espamier : 1306 s. verity celer : 1327 s. merci aver: 1355 s. nul passer : 
1358 s. sei amesurer : 1676 s. fin aver. 

55 sanz cumen9ail e fin : 532 s. mesure e man^e : 613 s. fuie e cuverture : 1526 s. piet6 e merd. 
140 s. pucelage perdre u damager : 141 s. cunoissance d*umme u repruver : 142 s. nier u duter : 
206. s. fentosme u duter: 294 s. fentosme u folage: 1024 s. ran9un u rescusse: 1228 s. fin a 
resortir : 1231 s. fauser u trahir : n77 s. faHle u dutance. 
361 sanz nule fauset6 : 507 s. nule aemur^ : 1371 s. nule demurance. 
1 1 sanz gueres paringaL 
s. m. coffin. 

ace. sg. 1399 sepulture aturnent e ^ chescun sarcu. 
prp. „ 90 posez en sarcu : 959. 982 (pos6) en sarcu marbrin : 
tt »i 1 752 puis mist le cors en terre en sarcu avenant : 18151! fiirent mis en sarcu marbrin. 
„ pL 1506 n'estes en sarcuz posez ne enseveli : 1552 k honur les unt ja en sarcuz acoUli. 
s. m. preacher. 

prp. sg. 1334 90 est par sortz au sarmuner (v. note), 
s. m. Sairacen ; in pi. used as a general name for pagans, 
nom. sg. 1074 un sarrazins des autres plus sages e nardi (parole) : 1646 dist un Sarrazin : 

181 1 jo, ki il ceu tens estoie mescreant sarrazin. 

64 pur toi e pur meint autre mescreant sarrazin. 

408 es-vus un Sarrazin ki avis6 les a« 

• • 




sauf I 

■ ) 

SS: ' . 

nom. pi. 13 Sarrazins la tindrent : 565 (ki furent) Sarrazins nobiles : 1 269 Sarrazins respunent : 

(1325. 1332) 90 ouent Sarrazins, (li glut adverser): 1404 en sunt curucez li Sarrazin cmfl 

1467 Ouec se reposent les Sarrazins crueus (v. note) : 1697 90 oient Sarrazin : 

1 728 de la voiz se efir^ent 11 Sarrazin glutun : 1750 ke Sarrazin ne erent apercevant. 

381 Sarracins cunvertir, dunt tant 1 a plenty. 

805 dist en haute voiz, les Sarrazins ouant. 

394 pur les grantz fertez des Sarracins : 720 Cgrant partle) des Sarrazins (s'asentent i li) 

<439 ^ lute des Sarrazins de crier le chastie : 1461 n'a nul des Sarrazins (Id ne die). 

adj. of the Saracens, worshipped by the pagans. 

mas. ace. pL 449 ^il a guerpi les deus) sarrazinois (v. note) : 1078 avum les deus s. sivi. 

n. pr. Satan. 

nom. 928 de ceus ki toi honurent n'eit ja part Sathanas. 

prp. 116 (lur cuvint aler) k Sathan : — 14 k'en Apolin creient, Sathan e Belial :>-» 
,f 67 (cunpainz e vesin) lez Sathan le maufg. 

under sacher. 

adj. safe. 

mas. nom. sg. 1090 si deciples Id saufs est e gari. 
pi. 1765 (jo vus quoer) ke sauf solum ! 










sanf n. 






sa^er i. 

saver ii. 











sd I. 



sd II. (1358) 

(2^) under sauver. 
adj. satisfied, satiated. 

mas. nom. sg. 1391 li la du bois, ne saiU ne pea. 
„ ,, {H. 1650 n'estes las ne saiU de Jesu langetter. 
under sauver. 

y. tr. to go wandering about. 

ind..pres. ^ sg. 1247 an dergastre avolez ki par terres sautde. 
s. f. salvation. 

pip. sg. 304. mist nus tuz morteus (^ sauvadun) : 1194 k'est apendant i sauvadun de nus. 
adj. savage. 

mas. prp. sg. 281 Deus Tat fait aignel d'un i6un sauvage. 
V. tr. to save, deliver, 
ind. pret. a sg. 242 autres de toi sauvas. 

subj. pres. 3 „ 128 Marie, Den te saut ! 933 (k'il nus ne perde pas) mais nus saut. 
imper. a „ 244 sauf tun cors demeine ! 

infin. 36 ki nus deingna sauver : 130 Id vent le mund sauver : 244 cum saaver seiiz autri : 
„ 1631 Deus plust sauver : 1614 pur (sauver) tes serfs : 1686 Id prest est tuz sauver. 
ppp. mas. sg. 406 par unt doit horn estre sauvez. 
s. m. Saviour. 

gen. sg. 583 fiz Deu le sauveur. 
s. m. uiowledge. 

ace. sg. 1313 (vus ne savez) ses vertuz e saver : 1658 ferez grant saver, 
v. tr. to uiow. 

ind. pres. i sg. 177 ne sal vostre lei ne cuntenement : 829 io sai I'achesun : 
„ M 1823 ne sai autre language fors le mien barbarin. 

2 „ 218 si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner. 

3 „ 425. 1249. 1568 plus set, plus set, tant saet (d'enchantement) : 
M $9 690 chalur ki pas ne se seet atemprer : 

„ „ 1 202 bien set, unt cunt€ (v. note) t 1 250 (plus ke fevre ki martde) ne set de tanailles. 
a pi. 1 312 vus ne savez mie sa vertu ne poer. 
3 „ 1028 ne sevent mie cum Deus Tad devis^ : 
„ „ 1296. 1649 ki ne se sevent de tes ^sortz) (lagans) garder. 

impft. „ „ 162 ben savoient ki urent (mesfait; : 248 (sufn) quancke il savoient fere e dire. 

pret. 2 sg. 244 cum sauver seiiz autri. 

fiit. 3 „ 442 ki en seit chastiez ki la saverra. 

imper. 2 pi. 390. 610. 1304. 1520 sacez (parenthetically), 
infin. 1562 par tant le pdum bien saver apertement. 
ppp. (infin. pass.) 82 (ne purreit estre) par fines raisuns enquis ne seii. 
under soi. 
v. intr. to sit. 

ind. pret. 3 sg. 645 ki presentz juge i sist. 
ptcp. pres. ace. sg. 18 (trove) le seignur scant al uis de sun ostal. 
gmd. 793 (li mort) se drescent en scant (= sit upright), 
s. f. drought. 

prp. sg. 1092 en la grant seccheresce (li airs obel). 
aqj. dry. 

fem. prp. pi. 792 H seeches plantes passent. 
V. tr. and mtr. to dry up. 
ind. pret. 2 sg. 926 lur secchis (l*ewe). 

infin. 636 purra mer secchir : 696 (veisez) les paluz secchir : 999 les ewes funt secchir. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 832 le flot ad tut secclu. 
ppp. mas. obi. sg. 11 58 (es*le*vus) le flot tut secchi. 
s. m. age, life-time. 

prp. sg. 105 1 au partir de cest secle : — 1760 s'il ne estoient d siecle puis verai repentant, 
under saver, 
s. m. secret. 

ace. sg. 204. 1222 sun segrei demustrer, (descuverir) : 275 plus me descuvri segrd cdestien. 
„ pT. 395 iluec imt lur segreiz e cunseilz cdez. 
s. f. thirst. 

ace. sg. 683 feim ad e sei e frdt au soir e au disner : 857 grant chalur e grant sd i unt cii. 
prp. „ 871 eu desert tis poples de sd fu cunfundu : 1165 grant gent de sd laburant. 
under soi. 
under estre. 












seint z 













seignur, seignurs under sire. 

seignurie \ s. f. lordship, authority. 

seingnurie j ace. sg. 138 ki du mund ad seingnnrie e po€r. 

prp. „ 1462 mut est li deus as crestiens de grant sdgnnrie. 
seingnur, seinnnr under sire. 

\ adj. sane, healthy, whole. 

) mas. nom. se. 1005 ore est seins e ligger : 1459 seins est e tut delivres. 

tt ft pl* 795 (vifs levent) legers, enters, e seins, cum geii ussent dormant. 
„ ace. „ 1543 (les restora) enters, seins, e gari, (cum si il geiisent tnz vifs). 
adj. holy. 

mas. nom. sg. 340 Seint Esperitz (ad eslum6} : 136 seintz £. vendra : 168 (fa) li seinz £. tramis. 
ace. „ 186 (craire) seint Esperit : 893 (reclaime) le seint Esperit : 97^ an seint cors tocher : 
„ „ 989 or I'unt veil tut seint du cors renuvefe : 16 16 batre sun semt cors reaL 
prp. ,, 143a k A. aproce, le seint martir nuvel : — 896 (est fluriz) du seint sane : — 
„ 899 crut eu seint. nun. 
pi. 1018 entre les* seintz martirs. 
fern. nom. sg. 602 sa vie (est) seinte e nette e pure. 
V, tr. to sanctify. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 1452 batesme ki la gent seintifie. 
s. m. evening, even-tide, 
(temp.) ace. sg. 58 lui pri e aiir lu soir e In matin. 

prp. „ 683 feim ad e sei e freit au soir e au disner : 703 n*a pluie ne rus^ an seir n*al enjomer. 
V. tr. to seize, lay hold of; — to enfeoff, (de) ; (used absolutely 133 1). 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 089 A. saisist e prent cum lu fait la berbiz. 
,, pret. „ „ 231 prist e seisi : 1176 tantdi seisi sa croiz. 

infin. 1221 (gueredun) dunt Deu te pint seisir. 
app. (ind. pit. 3 sg.) 1554 Deus en ad des noz II sun uoes tant seisi. 

ft ( » 9t ft P^O 629 Tund ja seisi : 1358 Apl. unt seisi : IA08. 1598 Tunt seisi e piis. 
ppp. mas. sg. 908 de gueredun saisiz : 1017 du gueredun seisiz k'il tant ad desir€ : 
ft ft M 1098 de sun gueredun est hautement seisi : 1726 seisi serras dn dun. 
„ „ pi. 1045 seisiz estes ja du guerdun desirable : 1331 saisiz ja en serrez cum loial chevaler. 
under estre. 
s. f. saddle. 

ace. sg. 1266 (estriu bailler) pur munter sele : 141 1 de cheval n'osterunt ne sele ne panel, 
adj. Iwe. 

mas. ace. sg. 656 i lui meimes semblable le fist, 
s. f. appearance, imitation, 
nom. sg. 598 semblance est e fausset^ 
ace. „ 1375 li sancs de leit ad ja semblance, 
s. m. countenance, likeness. 

prp. sg. 817 it ki Deus dune raisun ^ sun semblant : 821 regarde A. k piteus semblant : 
„ „ 1 156 hom deignas furmer k tun semblant : 1474 k sun semblant fist nus tuz. 
s. f. week. 

(temp.) ace. sg. 386 nne semeine vans of moi demurez. 
^ v. tr. to sow. 

) imper. 2 pi. 635 gravele semmez. 
app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 995 trop i a sun barat par cest pals semm6. 
s. m. sense. 

ace. sg. 192 90 ne re^oit ne sen ne entendement : 109 1 le senau maistre prove li deciples. 
prp. „ 61 1 si feiissez gent de sen, de raisun e mesure. 
adj. sensible. 

mas. nom. pi. 962 ne deiissez esjoir si feusez sen£. 
adj. bloody ; abominablei 

mas. nom. sg. 841 tut le vis (est) senglant : 935 senglant e debris^ : 1163 defnl6 e senglant. 
„ ace. „ 320 ferm lie Sathan le viel sanglant dragtm. 
„ nom. pi. 1357 senglantz cum liun : 1744 ke tuit fussent paijur6 li traitre senglant. 
senglement adv. singly, only. 

194 ke un fust trois e trois un senglement. 
s. m. boar. 

nom. sg. 1356 plus criieus e irez ke n'est nrs a sengler. 
V. tr. to feel. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 522 quant ele se sent blescte : 595 ki ne ot ne sent ne veit par nature : 
974 se sent de ses dolurs tut* santf. 

seit, seium 













tt »t M 











s. f. judgment, decision, decree. 

nom. sg. 1304 dun^e est la sentence sanz returner : 1320 90 est nostre sentence. 

ace. „ 746 cele sentence unt joure e viel conferm^. 

s. m. by-path. 

prp. sg. 1347 ki remist malade en un senter. 

s. m. sepulchre. 

nom. sg. 262 li sepulcres estoit ben clos e ben garni. 

ace. „ 1068 (voient) le sepulcre A. 

s. f. btuial. 

ace. sg. 977 lors ad la sepulture au martir atum6 : 1399 sepulture atument e k chescun sarcu. 

s. m. servant, slave. 

nom. sg. 332 ti serfs deveng desore en ta subjccciun. 

ace. „ I §44 ^ Jesu me abaundun serf loial enterrin. 

nom. pi. 164 (tuz jurs declinerent) serfs pleintifs : 309 ki jadis furent serfs au tirant P. 

ace. „ 1614 ki pur ses serfs sauver devint hom mortal. 

}s. m. attendant, servant, 
nom. sg. 810 deveng sis hom e sis sergant. 
„ pi. 844 des pez le defulent chev^er e sergant : 1 1 54 (sunt peritz) chevalers e sergantz. 


prp. „ 76 de veisins u serganz 01 ne aperceu. 
sen adj. cakn, serene. 

mas. nom. sg. 222 li tens (estoit] beus e sen: 1059 purs estoit li airs e sanz niie sen. 
sermun s. m. sermon, discourse. 

ace. sg. 103 cumence sun sermun desploier : 1237 un sermun lur ad fait. 

prp* }> >594 ki k sermun entent entur lui crestiens nuveus : — 
» »* 295 n'est par autre sermun : 371 en Tamur Deu Ta par sermun conferm^. 
„ pi. 1487 tant ad gent trahi par ses sermuns. 
seroie, seira, serras, serrez, serroi, serroit, serrum, serrunt, serunt under estre. 
serT€ adj. in close array. 

mas. nom. pi. 1290 ne finent k jum^es tut serr^ chevaucher. 

adj. evening, (used adverbially). 

8 ceste croiz aure serrein e matinal. 

under servir. 

s. m. slavery. 

prp. sg. 287 rescust de diable e d'enfemal servage : 310 Deus les engetta de servage c prisun. 

s. m. servant 

nom. sg. 1 1 79 A. (est) of lui cum si leal servant. 
,, pi. 1763 (stmt) servant e ami. 

V. tr. to obey. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 350 ki sert Deu e fait la sue volunt^ : 608 ki lui sert e honure. 
„ 2 pi. 1674 diable, ki servez e vus plaist aiirer. 

innn. 1232 (plest vus) cum Deu recunustre e leaument servir. 

pres. ptcp. prp. sg. 677 it servant butuiller (but v. note). 

app. (ind. pft. i sg.) 809 ke ceu deu n'ai servi : iioo (defi) les deus ke servi ai. 

f„ „ I, 2 pi.) 151 1 (Deus) ki tant avum servi : 1534 mi chevaler ki bien m'avez servi. 
„ ,, 3 „ ) 1096 (li element) Tunt beu servi : 1795 qui tant les unt servi. 
ppp. mas. ace. sg. 303 (celui ke veistes) servi e honur6 de anglin legiun. 
s. m. service, 
ace. sg. 625 servise e wu anuel custumel soudrunt. 
pip* " 35' murt en sun servise. 
set, seu, seuz, sevent, sez under saver. 



servant I. 














under sun ii. 

)adj. sure, safe, secure (= in safety). 
mas. nom. sg. 378 de vus croi estre seiir (e acert6) ; 573 (n'est nul) tant fort ne tant seiir : 
M ti if 906 A. est ja seur joins e esbaudiz. 
mas. fem. sg. 601 sa doctrine veraie est e seiire. 
V. intr. to be wont. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 668 plus sent demurance le cors d'um pener. 
▼. tr. to separate, dissever. 

infin. 220 jamais ne nus purra vie ne mort sevrer : 

1316 de sun enseignement ke nus puissez sevrer. 


app. (ind. pft. 3 sg.) 1013 li ad du brant le chief du bu sevr6. 

„ ( „ ant. I pi.) 1523 (puis ke les eiimes) severez e parti. 

ppp. mas. pi. 954 tes neHis Id sunt rumpuz e de tes os sevr6. 

cxxviii GLOSSARY. 

si I. conj. if; — ^A, with indie. — I, pres., and apodosis in*(a) ind. pres., (p) fat. or imper., (y) condk., 

(^) omitted, — 2, impft., 3, fut. ; B, with subj. i, pres., and apodosis in (a) ind. pres., (ft) fut.» 
(y) condit., — 2 impft., and apodosis in (a) ind. fat., (/3) conoit., (7} impft. subj. (s condit.), 
(0) omitted. 
A I (a) 509 porte brisent si il la trovent saerr^e : 966 garir me puet si loi bei^ vent II volent6 : 1239 crere 
cuvent si il ne Teat perir : 1302 si 90 nun (» if that fails,) par la mort vos cavent passer: 1321 si 
estre volez parcener, gaerpir vus cuvent M. : 1 763 D. peut mun cors garir, si li plest. 

(/3) 179 si curage me prent . . . di moi ke ferai : 184 si Deu tun quor eslt^mine Ke tn . . , de toi li 
fras sacrifice : 218 si tu me sez enseinner, tu serras mi maistres : 388 s*il vas plaist, le m'otiiez [ 
438 si cunrei n'en est pris, grant duel ensurdera : 432 si nun, li maus s*espandera : 448 si voirs est, 
. . . le chief li fra voler : 461 si pris sumes, hunte vus fra : 1082 si garde ne empemum, serrum nus 
ausi: 1275 serra la perte grant si nus ne les poum reamener : 1276 nus i irrum s'il vus pUdst cu* 
' mander : 1279 si 90 ne puet aver mester, tuz tuerum : 1289 pur duner si par el ne poent espleiter : 
1297 si veuz estre quites, desdi ke tu dit as : 1455 si tu requers pur moi, ta priere^rt ole : 1665 
pardunpurrez aver si tu les voilz proier : 1685 Ik te cuvendra aler, si tu ne gueq)is tes dens. 
1 83 1 ne dormirai , . , st Id V en nef me mette [= before that^ {until) I embark]. 

(v) 385 si tu ne guerpis, fri'ez crueutez : 588 li doilz serroU grantz si tu Ten murs. 

(0) 441 s' en pemez vengance (v. note) : 1 130 (le baptizas] si tu Pes recordant [=> as you remember]. 

2 1 760 li paen el fu d'enfer s'il ne estoient el siecle puis yerai repen^t. 

3 433 ore frez k'i dirai, s*i pleisir vus vendra : — 

1414 iur€ unt [ke] ne mangerunt . . . s'averunt k V. men£ lur enemi [= until they have brought]. 
B I (a) 1080 Id tuit vunt une part si Deus n'en eit merci. 
(fj) 1530 uncore fra il plus si il vive lungement. 
(y) 4^3 seroie man si mal eiez (but v. note). 
2 {a) 1204 si quis deust estre, prendre le fraL 
(fi) 465 de vus serroit grant duel si fuissez peri, 
(y) 611 si feiissez gent de raisun, k vus 9a fust venuz : 962 ne deilssez esjoir, si feiisez sen€ : 

1560 si il fust boiseiir, ne feist teu mescinement. 
(d) 12 (une cit6 sanz guere paringal) si ne fust entusch^e de la lei criminal. 
with cunif = as if: — 

1543 les restora cum si il geiisent tuz vifs : 1621 lor^ se rejoist cum se il ne ust une mal. 
C in elliptic sentences with nun^ si . . . nun, = except^ unless : — 

314 ne li firent une pur ses bens, si mal nun : 807 n*est autre si il nun : (for 432. 1303 v. A, l, (a)), 
si II. adv. verily, surely ^cf. Lat. sic), 

479 etant si sunt d'lluec meilz e parti (but v. note) : 

t75 si li dist : 518 si unt grant noise eumenc6e : 592 si te doinst Deus : 719 si en droitz (v. note) : 
04 si engette sun brant : 934. 1765 si en dient : 938 si en ad Deu merd^ : 105 1 si est trespassable : 
1079 si firent noz parentz : 1082 si serrum ausi : 1155. 1294. 1567 s'a dit : 1291 si unt truv^ : 1416 
si en frunt feste : 1553 si en devum estre repleni : 1658 se ferez grant saver : 1 743 si le purvit Deu^ 
(v. note) : 1751 si fu la presse grant, 
si HI. adv. so (Lat. tarn), to such an extent ; (a) with adjj., (b) with verbs. 

(a) 124. ^45. 1210. 1406 si grant : 684 si dure cum acier : 1582 si haut vengement cum apent. 

(b) 646 si despiist :-— ^94 venta vent si (ke) : 789 va si apetizant (ke) : — 
15 18 n'est pas si cum vus le quidez. 

siecle imder seele, 

signifie v. tr. to signify, mean. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 2 18 si tu ke signifie me sez enseinner : 278 k*est [ce ke] signifie, me recant c di 
„ „ „ „ 324 ben veit ke signifie la entaille e la fa9un : 732 90 mustre e signifie. 
simple adj. simple. 

fem. ace. sg. 1295. 1651 (enganer) simple gent. 
„ prp. „ 526 ^ parole simple e atempr^ : 1251 de M. va prechant, uiie simple ancde. 
simplement adv. simply. 

1 76 a respundu simplement : 633 simplement respunt. 
sire ) s. m. lord, master, liege-lord, sire, 

sires ] nom. sg. 165 J. releva cume sires poestifs : 

459 de cest pais Id est tut sires ke baOli : 1802 cist est sires de terre. 
812. 1240. sire ! 329 beus sire deus ! 777 beu sire deus ! 868 beus duz sire Jesu ! 
18 (trove) le seingnur scant al uis de sun ostal : 949 va quere tun seinnor. 
955 ^ seingnur I'as clam6 : 686 (leal chevaler) mut deit pur sun seignur sufnr, 
horn. pi. 565 (ki furent) jde grantz terres seingnur. 
voc. „ 1245 seignurs ! dist-il. 
sis I. num. adj. six. 

1^ par numbre deus faiz s}s : 1138 emppsunq: sis mois. 












• » 

GLOSSARY. cxxix 

sis IT. under sun ii. 

sist under seant. 

sivant "1 v. tr. to foUow. 

sive I ind. pres. 3 sg. 75 1 tant lui suit grant pueple. 

avent > „ pret. „ „ 264 grant turbe le sivi. 

sivi [ subj. pres. „ ,, 736 sive (celui) ki doctrine tant prise. 

sivre J „ „ „ pi. 1587 (ke tuz) le sivent li Cl il aler tent 

infin. 1435 ki ses cumpainnuns sivre ne pout mie. 
gmd. 825 liuns ki vunt^ proie sivant. 

app. (ind. pft. i pi.) 1078 grant tens avum (sivi) les deus sarrazinois. 
soi pron. refl. self; — serving for all genders and numbers ; with refl. verbs, sometimes redundant (444), — 

sometimes omitted (v. note on 1064). 
ace. J* before pron. en : — 

15. 424 vent s*en : 197. 493. 984. 1014. 1025. 1053. 1458 s'tnpartir: 198. 201. 213. 503. 527. 553. 

1174. 1285. 1352. I59as'ena^r; — 

434 ^arde s*en dura : 444 s'en murra : 571 s*en puet gabber de vus : 1066 s*en esmervellent : 1731 

s'en 1st : 1780 s'en est arag6. 

generally : — 

202 s'endort : 412 s*agenoilla : 432 s'espandera : 506 s*atume : 549 s*esmervellent : 653. 878. 1786 

s*espant : 720. 726 s'asent : 768 s'est eforc6 : 775 s*est mis : 826. 884 s*escrie : 984 s'aperceivent : 

1038 s*est acumpainn€ : 1161 s*est dun6 : 1456 s'enhumilie : 1585 s'estent : 1734 s'entrecunbatent. 
se be/ore consonants : — 

123 se vout fier : 224 se desclot : 325 I. genoilluns se met : 435 se feindia : 479 jx sunt me&z (▼. 

note) : 522 se sent blesc^ : 536 se curuce : 562 se soille : 690 se seet atemprer : 698 se despoille : 

707 se pout garder : 717 se fie : 734 se chastie : 773 se mistrent ; 793 se drescent en seant : 974 se 

sent san6 : 1033 se sunt abaundun6 : 1056. 1467 se reposent : 1204 se puet retenir : 1272 se sunt 

ali6 : i3i4sefert: 1362 se desjunerunt : 1481. 1596 se sunt dun^ : 1483 se sunt muntez : 1527 se 

purofri : 1590. 171 7 se penent : 1615 lier se lessa : 1632 se rendirent : 1049 se sevent garder : 1783 

se pout vanter : 1790 se rendent : 1804 baptize r se funt. 
„ before vowels : — 

411 se humilia : 624 se assemblerunt : iog6 se est enchants : 106a se arestut : 1158 sanz sti 

amesurcr (v. note) : 1466 se aresteent : 153 1 se espaundi : 172 1 se espanist : 1738 se e£!(ent. 
pq>. soi 1084 chescun endroit de soi. 
soie I. s. f. silk. 

prp. sg. 682 de soie coiltes pointes. 
soie II. (485), soicnt, soiez, soit, soium under estre. 
soille v. refl. to soil, besmirch itself. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 562 fauset^ se soille, au chrf de tur. 
soing s. m. care, desire. 

ace. sg. 961 de eschars ne gas oir n*ai soing ne volunt^. 
soir under seir. 

solaO ) s. m. sun. 

Mlailz ] nom. sg. 160 mua lune culur, devint li solailz bis : 252 solail enobscuri : 

255 ne rai ne lumere solail ne espandi : 830 li solailz Id chautz est e raant, (vdt) : 

860 li solailz les grcve, ki plus est chautz ke feu : 902 raant cum solaila ki flamboie k midiz : 

1054 ^ solailz ja decline : 1060 (plus) clers ke solailz de midi 

ace. M 1287 ii unt fait aparer le solail e la lune : 1 757 ki fist solail raant. 

prep. ,t ^95 du solail panit la clart^ : 691 du solail la flamboie : 
,t „ 622. 882 deu du solail : 1 169 la vertu du solail raant : 1 153 vers solail levant, 
•daz t. m. solace, comfort. 

ace. sg. 1 1 70 ke teu solaz nus feseit. 

»» >> 

t» ft 

)s. m. upper*room. 
prp. sg. 202 en sui 

pL 17 (un palois) k solers e estages e celers grantz avaL 

iolcrs f prp. sg. 202 en sun lit s*endort ki ert en un soler: 679 prison ad obscure pur tale e pur toler. 

•ortz s. m. magic arts. 

prp. pL 1296 ki ne se sevent de tes sortz garder : — 1006 (est enchantQ par caractes e par soitz : 

tt >t 1334 90 ^t par sortz au sarmuner. 
V. tr. to pay, repay, 
ind. pres. 3 sg. 784 hautement soudte Id de lui est priv6. 

imin. 1330 venez, li mien ami, ki ai & soude^. 
V. tr. to perform, 
ind. foL 3 pL 635 servise e wu anuel soudrunt. 








V. tr. to assuage, soothe. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 284 (sa croiz) ki le cunforte e suage. 
s. f. subjection. 

prp. sg. 332 ti serfs deveng des ore en ta subjecctMiL 
adj. infernal. 

mas. ace. sg. 336 (descunus) le subterin Plutun. 
,, prp. ,, 1818 sunt dampn^ diable en enfer sosterin. 
s. m. succour. 

nom. sg. 560 estre ^ sun deciple e guarant e sucur. 
adj. aidiful. 

mas. nom. sg. 1043 soiez sucurable k ceus ki sunt i vus enclins. 
V. tr. to succour, 
subj. pres. 3 sg. 609 Jesus me baid e sucure ! 
siie, suen, suens under sun. 




















sum me 




adv. gently. 
919 dient entre eus suef. 
under sufrir. 
s. m. grave-cloth. 

prp. pi. 1400 en sueires les unt mis e encusu. 
V. mtr. to sweat. 

infin. 698 (veisez gent ki se despoille) nercir e suer. 
V. tr. to suffer ; permit, allow. 

ind. pres. 3 sg. 654 ki tut suefre : 685 tut 90 suefre A. : 143 1 quancke il pur Deu suefre. 
„ pT. 1675 sufrent (mort) el puis de enfer. 





pret. 3 sg. 248 (sufri) quancke U savoient fere : 290 bis. tant sufri de peine e tant sufri de huntage : 
„ ,f ,f f, 931. 1072. 1256. 1496 sufri (mort) : 1620 turment (tal) cum Deus pur moi sufri. 
imper. 2 ,, 873 ne suefre ke pur moi seit tis poples perdu ! 
„ pi. 382 pur Deu sufrez. 

infm. 686 mut deit pur sun seignur sufrir leal chevaler : — 
„ 1225 ceste vie finir par peine e par (sufrir) mort pur lui. 
V. intr. to sojourn ; rest on the way. 
infin. 1 13 (lur cuvint) aler puis sujumer : 1683 of lur deus lor apent en enfer sujumer : — 

»» 33 <^c orient veng sanz sujumer. 
pp. (ind. pft. I sg.) 380 asez ai sujumd. 

gmd. 1 189 un suls i faut malade sugumant. 
under estre. 
„ sivre. 
s. m. sojourn, abode. 

prp. sg. 1 1 17 en sujur atendi : — 553 ki s'en va vaivez par terres sanz sujur. 
\ adj. alone ; lonely. 
] mas. nom. sg. 199 Apl. sul i demuere. 

853 sill A. i est le cors e les pez nu : 11 89 mes ke un suls i faut : 
1347 ne failli ke un sul : 1422 sul i est k p6 li precheiir Apl. : 
1469 repos n'i avoit entre eus suls Amphibeus : 1547 mais ke un sul i failli : 
„ „ 1652 tu sul es acheisun : 167a sul Deu puet (reapeler). 
ace. „ 385 si tu sul me guerpis, trop fri'ez criieutez : 1 108 vus sul demandant, 
nom. pL 1504 frarins sumes e suls e tuz enorfani. 
adv. only. 

1 2 14 nun pas sulement (oir, mes obeir). 
f. n. pr. Syria. 

prp. 716 cmcifi6 eu pais de Sulie : — ^437 en S. en croiz penerent : 502. 1447 en S. murut. 
prep, according to. 

80 sulum ta favele : 362 sulum les faitz du cors : 741 sulum la lei de Rumme. 
s. m. sleep, nap. 

ace. sg. 216 (mis quors ne mis penser) ne prist sum : 578 n*est ki ne prent sum (is caught napping), 
s. m. beast of burden. 

prp. sg. 1288 or portent e argent en cofres h sumer. 
under estre. 
s. f. sum ; sum-total. 

nom. sg. 1403 nuef centz e nunantc nuef la summe ad cuntenu. 
ace. „ 372 (demustre) de la fei Deu la summe. 
V. tr. to summon. 

ind. pres. i sg. 344 ore vus pri e sumoin. 
n, li ' ' 








3 pi. 1426 aler le sumunent de lance e de cutel. 


GLOSSARY. cxxxi 

(^umuiis) ppp. mas. pi. 715 mandez e sumuns de pais lointein : 14 18 pueple cum sumuns k cenbel : 

„ n tf 1494 furent tuit sumuns e bani. 
^urounse s. f. summons. 

pq>. sg. 1588 ^ ceste sumunse nuls ne remaint ne atent. 
^^^ I. s. m. top, summit. 

prp. sg. 323 e le crucifi en sun. 
^^n II. poss. adj. pron. his, its ; — pi. lur (uninflected), their. 

mas. nom. sg. sis loi sis amis : 717 sis disciples : 718 sis hom : 810 bis. sis hom e sis sergant : 975 

sis cors : 1041 sis nuns : 1470 sis bons quors : 147 1 sis hem leus. 
si 24 si saluz : 399 si frere esnez : 1090 si deciples : 1 176 si sancs : 1179 cum si 

leal servant : 1254 si fiz : 1470 si cors. 
sun 271 benoit seit le pere, e sun fiz : 674. 1292 90 fu sun mester: 789 sun chancl 
va si apetizant : 1585 ii sun poer s*estent. 
with definite article : — 
suens 915 le jur A. cumcnce e li suens est finiz. 
suen 1563 vcrai est li sucn prechement. 
,. ace. ,, sun 71. 498. i8i4Sunoste: 103 sun sermun : 115 sun mcssager : 204. 1222 sun 

segrei : 280 sun quor : 280. 590 sun curage : 313. 659 sun fiz : 437 sun maistre : 
447 sun ami: 667 sun voler : 670. 956. 1218. 1616 sun cors: 804. 1160 sun 
brant: 950 sun chief: 995 sun barat : 1132 sun bien : 1199 sun sane : 1405 
sun Iduncel: 1567 sun emir : 1645 sun regne : 1707 sun cumpainnun. 
with def. art, : — 
suen 725 ki le suen deu renie. 
gen. „ sun 167. 1705 (li) (al) destre sun pere. 

prp. M sun 213 it sun oste : 455 ^ sun maistre : 560 h sun deciple: 817. 1474 4 sun sem- 
blant : 849 4 sun martire : 942 4 sun destrer : 1336 & sun talent : 1554 k sun 
uoes : 1722 k sun loial champiun : — 18 de sun ostal : 542 de sun maistre: 
912 dc sun fait: 1098 de sun gueredun: 1186 de sun cors: 1316 de sun 
enseignement : — 72 en sun ostel : 123 en suncher fiz : 202 en sunlit : 351 en sun 
servise : 676 en sun ccler : 1 210. 1813 en sun palois : — 1385 par sun cumant : — 
658 pur lui e sun lignage : 686 pur sun seignur: 1770 pur A. sun martir. 
s* 1 108 de s' amur (v. note), 
nom. pi. si 23 si ancesur: 146. 983. 1015 si parent : 318 si cumpainun: 978. 1382 si ami. 

ses 1479 les i>ecchurs repentantz sunt scs especieus (v. note), 
ace. ,, ses 166 ses prisuns cheitifs: 631 ses dras : 675 ses maus : 1244 ^i^* ^^ hummcN 
e ses privez : 1435 ses cumpainnuns : 1440 ses criz : 1478 ses aigneus : 16 14 
ses serfs : 1627 ses turmentz : 1753 ses cumpainnuns mtrtirs: 1785 ses martirs 
with def, art, : — [gentilz. 

suens 1368 ne met pas les suens en ubbliance. 
,, gen. ,, ses 867 maus ses enemis. 

„ prp. ,, ses 478 4 ses diz :~326 deseserrurs: 974 de scs dolurs: 1 171 de scs enemis:— 

178 en ses establiz : — 909. 1019 of ses (desmetne) eslitz : — 401 par Noc e ses fiz : 
1487 par scs scrmuns: 1 510 par ses enchauntcments :-»i384 purses martirs* 
with def, art, : — 
ses 1037 mustrcr as ses martirs. 
fcm. nom. sg. sa 321 sa mansiun : 348 tute sa beut6 : 515 sa face : 517 sa vcrtu: 556. 601 s.i 

doctrine : 602 sa vie : 932 sa faiture. 
sue $93 sue creature, 
ace. M JA 230 sa doctrine : 284. 513. 535. 1 176 sa croiz : 322 sa les^un : 496 sa mesnte : 
675 sa penance : 1089 sa bunt6 : 1 134 sa robe : 1282 sa gent : 1312 sa vertu : 
1800 sa haute deit6. 
before vowels^ (nei'er elided) :^ 

114 sa axibiun : 327 sa uraissun : 490 sa eglise: 1704 sa oraisun : 1724 sa 
sue 105 out fait Adam e Ewe, sue per : — 

with def. art. : — 
•> 350 fait la sue volunt6. 
prp. „ sa 1095 4 sa tumbe : — 293 de sa char : f 21a de sa robe: 1252 de sa marocle : — 

1 73 1 de sa chamel maisun : — 200 devant sa croiz : — 1 721 en sa laisun :— 968 
of sa mesn6e : — 119. 1224 par sa grace: 343 par sa rerelaciun : 1711 par vi 
redempciun : 1 799 par sa mort : 1810 par sa vertu : — 983 par sa mort. 
before vowels : — 
1 147 dc sa emprise : — 619 en sa adanture : — 305 \m sa encainacHin. 

r 2